Urinary system


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A look at the Urinary System

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Urinary system

  1. 1. Urinary System Chapter 9
  2. 2. Genitourinary (GU) System <ul><li>Serves as the urinary organ system </li></ul><ul><li>Metabolic processes result in waste production - the GU serves as one of the hardest working systems </li></ul><ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Removal of waste products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adjust water and electrolyte levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintains pH </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Genitourinary (GU) System: Organs <ul><li>Kidney </li></ul><ul><li>Ureters </li></ul><ul><li>Urethra </li></ul><ul><li>Urinary bladder </li></ul>
  4. 4. Catheterization (cath) <ul><li>Urinary catheter is inserted into patient’s bladder via urethra </li></ul><ul><li>Maintains urine output for patients </li></ul><ul><li>Used for treatment or diagnosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Urinary incontinence (leakage of urine or the inability to control when you urinate) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urinary retention (being unable to empty the bladder when you need to) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surgery that made a catheter necessary, such as prostate or gynecological surgery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other medical conditions such as multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, or dementia </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Catheterization: Types <ul><li>Indwelling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Catheter with a small inflated balloon on the end to keep from sliding out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Left in the bladder for short or long periods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inserted through urethra or into your bladder via belly button </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Condom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in male dementia patients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not inserted but placed over penis. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intermittent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used for short term periods </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Catheterization: Risks <ul><li>Bladder stones </li></ul><ul><li>Blood infections </li></ul><ul><li>Blood in urine </li></ul><ul><li>Kidney damage </li></ul><ul><li>Urethral injury </li></ul><ul><li>Urinary tract (UTI) or kidney infections </li></ul>
  7. 7. Cystoscopy (cysto) <ul><li>Diagnostic procedure that uses a cystoscope to view the inside of the urinary tract </li></ul><ul><li>Areas viewed include urethra, bladder and the two ureters </li></ul><ul><li>Detects abnormalities or as surgical procedure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation of blood in the urine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation and treatment of kidney stones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation and treatment of bladder or ureteral tumors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prostate surgery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Narrowing of urethral </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Cystoscopy: Risks <ul><li>Serious risks are rare </li></ul><ul><li>Perforation or tear along urinary tract </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Urethra, bladder or ureter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scar tissue development causing narrowing of the urethra </li></ul><ul><li>Epididymitis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only occurs in men </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inflammation or pain in the testicles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inability to urinate </li></ul>
  9. 9. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) <ul><li>Therapeutic procedure for kidney stones </li></ul><ul><li>High- energy shock waves are used to break kidney stones into smaller pieces for easier travel </li></ul><ul><li>On stones larger than 2.5cm a stent may be used </li></ul><ul><li>Kidney stone fragments will pass through the urinary tract over the course of a few days </li></ul><ul><li>Not appropriate procedure if pregnant, have bleeding disorder, kidney infection, urinary tract infection, or kidney cancer </li></ul>
  10. 10. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL): Risks <ul><li>Pain caused by the passage of stone fragments </li></ul><ul><li>Blocked urine flow as a result of stone fragments becoming stuck in the urinary tract </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fragments may need to be removed with a ureteroscope </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Urinary tract infection </li></ul><ul><li>Bleeding around the outside of the kidney </li></ul>
  11. 11. Retrograde pyelogram (RP) <ul><li>Diagnostic X-ray procedure used with a cystoscopy to determine presence of kidney stones, tumors, or obstructions </li></ul><ul><li>Endoscope is inserted through the urethra into the bladder </li></ul><ul><li>Catheter is inserted into the ureters where a contrast dye is injected </li></ul><ul><li>Retention of the dye is evaluated </li></ul>
  12. 12. References <ul><li>http://www.nlm.nih.gov </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.emedicinehealth.com </li></ul><ul><li>Medical Terminology: A living language, Bonnie F. Fregman and Suzanne S. Frucht </li></ul>