Ch 12 nervous system


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The Nervous System

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Ch 12 nervous system

  1. 1. Nervous System Suffixes Chapter 12
  2. 2. Suffix: -phasia <ul><li>Means speech </li></ul><ul><li>Two terms that use this suffix are aphasia and dysphasia </li></ul><ul><li>Aphasia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Means lack of speech </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dysphasia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Means difficult speech </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Aphasia <ul><li>A disorder that results from damage to portions of the brain that are responsible for language </li></ul><ul><li>For most people - these are areas on the left side (hemisphere) of the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Aphasia usually occurs suddenly, often as the result of a stroke or head injury, but it may also develop slowly, as in the case of a brain tumor, an infection, or dementia </li></ul><ul><li>The disorder impairs the expression and understanding of language as well as reading and writing </li></ul>
  4. 4. Aphasia: Causes <ul><li>Damage to one or more of the language areas of the brain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many times the cause is a stroke </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A stroke occurs when blood is unable to reach a part of the brain, brain cells die when they do not receive their normal supply of blood, which carries oxygen and important nutrients </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other causes of brain injury are: severe blows to the head, brain tumors, brain infections, and other conditions that affect the brain </li></ul>
  5. 5. Dysphasia <ul><li>Speech disorder in which there is impairment of the power of expression by speech, writing, or signs, or impairment of the power of comprehension of spoken or written language </li></ul><ul><li>More severe forms of dysphasia are called aphasia </li></ul>
  6. 6. Suffix: -esthesia <ul><li>Means feeling sensation </li></ul><ul><li>Two words that use this suffix are anesthesia and hyperesthesia </li></ul><ul><li>Anesthesia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>means lack of sensations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hyperesthesia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>means excessive sensations </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Anesthesia <ul><li>Drug called anesthetic is used for surgery </li></ul><ul><li>Anesthetics reduce or prevent pain </li></ul><ul><li>There are four main types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Local: numbs one small area of the body; patient stays awake and alert </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conscious or intravenous (IV) sedation: uses a mild sedative to relax the patient and pain medicine to relieve pain; patient stays awake but may not remember the procedure afterwards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional anesthesia: blocks pain in an area of the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Epidural anesthesia is one type and sometimes used during childbirth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General anesthesia: affects the whole body; patient goes to sleep and feels nothing; patient has no memory of the procedure afterwards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Type of anesthesia depends on type of procedure and current health </li></ul>
  8. 8. Hyperesthesia <ul><li>An increased sensitivity to touch or painful stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensation of touch in the absence of stimuli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perception of pain to a light touch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased sensitivity to a painful stimulus </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. References <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht </li></ul>