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Endocrine System Chapter 11
Endocrine <ul><li>Endo- means within, inner; -crine means to secrete </li></ul><ul><li>Glandular system that secretes dire...
Organs  <ul><li>Adrenal glands </li></ul><ul><li>Ovaries </li></ul><ul><li>Pancreas </li></ul><ul><li>Parathyroid glands <...
Adrenal Glands <ul><li>A pair of glands that secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream  </li></ul><ul><li>Each gland ...
Ovaries <ul><li>A pair of oval or almond-shaped glands which lie on either side of the uterus and just below the opening t...
Pancreas <ul><li>A long, tapered gland which lies across and behind the stomach </li></ul><ul><li>The right-hand end which...
Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands <ul><li>The thyroid gland controls the rate at which the body produces energy from nutrient...
Pineal gland <ul><li>A gland that produces a hormone called melatonin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>24 hour clock that regulates p...
Pituitary Gland <ul><li>Link between the nervous system and the endocrine system and releases many hormones which affect g...
Testes <ul><li>Held in a sac called the scrotum  </li></ul><ul><li>Produces as many as 12 trillion sperm in a male's lifet...
Thymus gland <ul><li>Located in the upper part of the chest, behind the breastbone </li></ul><ul><li>Made up of two lobes ...
Hypercalcemia  <ul><li>A condition of excessive calcium in the blood </li></ul><ul><li>The main cause is over activity in ...
Hypercalcemia: Symptoms <ul><li>Signs and symptoms of hypercalcemia may range from nonexistent to severe: </li></ul><ul><u...
References <ul><li>http://www.innerbody.com </li></ul><ul><li>Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Bonnie F. Fremgen an...
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Ch 11 endocrine sys

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Endocrine System

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Ch 11 endocrine sys

  1. 1. Endocrine System Chapter 11
  2. 2. Endocrine <ul><li>Endo- means within, inner; -crine means to secrete </li></ul><ul><li>Glandular system that secretes directly into the bloodstream </li></ul><ul><li>Regulates many body activities such as metabolic rate, water and mineral balance, immune system reactions and sexual functioning </li></ul>
  3. 3. Organs <ul><li>Adrenal glands </li></ul><ul><li>Ovaries </li></ul><ul><li>Pancreas </li></ul><ul><li>Parathyroid glands </li></ul><ul><li>Pineal gland </li></ul><ul><li>Pituitary gland </li></ul><ul><li>Testes </li></ul><ul><li>Thymus gland </li></ul><ul><li>Thyroid gland </li></ul>
  4. 4. Adrenal Glands <ul><li>A pair of glands that secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream </li></ul><ul><li>Each gland can be divided into two distinct organs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The outer region secretes hormones which have important effects on the way in which energy is stored and food is used and on characteristics such as hairiness and body shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The smaller, inner region is part of the sympathetic nervous system and is the body's first line of defense and response to physical and emotional stresses </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Ovaries <ul><li>A pair of oval or almond-shaped glands which lie on either side of the uterus and just below the opening to the fallopian tubes </li></ul><ul><li>Produce eggs or &quot;ova&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Produce female sex hormones called estrogen and progesterone </li></ul>
  6. 6. Pancreas <ul><li>A long, tapered gland which lies across and behind the stomach </li></ul><ul><li>The right-hand end which is the broadest part of it, lies within the curve of the duodenum </li></ul><ul><li>This gland secretes digestive juices which break down fats, carbohydrates, proteins and acids; it also secretes bicarbonate, which neutralizes stomach acid as it enters the duodenum </li></ul><ul><li>Some cells in the pancreas secrete hormones which regulate the level of glucose in the blood </li></ul>
  7. 7. Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands <ul><li>The thyroid gland controls the rate at which the body produces energy from nutrients. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The thyroid gland secretes hormones which regulate energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional balance may rely upon its normal functioning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The parathyroid glands are four small oval bodies located on either side of the thyroid gland. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control the level of calcium in the blood </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Pineal gland <ul><li>A gland that produces a hormone called melatonin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>24 hour clock that regulates periods of wakefulness and sleepiness </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Pituitary Gland <ul><li>Link between the nervous system and the endocrine system and releases many hormones which affect growth, sexual development, metabolism and the system of reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>The pituitary gland has two distinct parts which releases different hormones which affect bone growth and regulate activity in other glands </li></ul><ul><li>The &quot;hypothalamus&quot; is a tiny cluster of brain cells just above the pituitary gland, which transmits messages from the body to the brain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A needed link between the pituitary gland and the brain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A way station between the body and the brain and sorts out messages going to and from the brain </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Testes <ul><li>Held in a sac called the scrotum </li></ul><ul><li>Produces as many as 12 trillion sperm in a male's lifetime, about 400 million of which are ejaculated in one average intercourse </li></ul><ul><li>The scrotum has a built-in thermostat, which keeps the sperm at the correct temperature; three to five degrees below body temperature </li></ul><ul><li>If it becomes too cool on the outside, the scrotum will contract to bring the testes closer the body for warmth </li></ul>
  11. 11. Thymus gland <ul><li>Located in the upper part of the chest, behind the breastbone </li></ul><ul><li>Made up of two lobes that join in front of the trachea. Each lobe is made of lymphoid tissue, consisting of tightly packed white blood cells and fat. </li></ul><ul><li>Its function is to transform lymphocytes into T-cells (cells developed in the thymus) </li></ul><ul><li>Cells are transported to various lymph glands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Swelling of lymph glands and fever are a signal that immune cells are multiplying to fight off invaders of the body: bacteria, fungi, viruses or parasites </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Hypercalcemia <ul><li>A condition of excessive calcium in the blood </li></ul><ul><li>The main cause is over activity in one or more of the parathyroid glands, which regulate calcium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Post-menopausal women are most likely to develop hypercalcemia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other causes of hypercalcemia include cancer, certain other medical disorders, some medications, and excessive use of calcium and vitamin D supplements </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Hypercalcemia: Symptoms <ul><li>Signs and symptoms of hypercalcemia may range from nonexistent to severe: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nausea and vomiting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of appetite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excessive thirst </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequent urination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constipation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abdominal pain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle weakness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle and joint aches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lethargy and fatigue </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. References <ul><li>http://www.innerbody.com </li></ul><ul><li>Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht </li></ul>

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