Deltares capabilities & international projects


Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Deltares capabilities & international projects

  1. 1. Deltares Capabilities and international projects PO Box 177 2600 MH Delft The Netherlands
  2. 2. Deltares Capabilities and international projects Table of Contents 1. Deltares, a Dutch independent institute for water, soil and subsurface issues 2. Deltares employees 2 3. Research facilities 3 4. Pumping stations bigger and bigger 5. Enhancing coastal safety by use of natural ecosystem engineers 6. Diverse levees 7. Flood risk management and adaptation to climate change 8. Hurricane Katrina and Deltares’ role 9. FEWS for the National Weather Service 10. Levee patroller: a levee inspection simulator 11. River and urban water management at Deltares 12. Operational Water Quality Management for Marina Reservoir 13. Supporting Hong Kong with the expansion of its urban area 14. Yemen LNG project 15. Software projects in the USA
  3. 3. Deltares, a Dutch independent institute for water, soil and subsurface issues Delft Hydraulics, GeoDelft, the Subsurface and legal processes. We apply knowledge about those Groundwater unit of TNO and parts of Rijkswater- processes in an integrated way to develop and staat joined forces in an independent institute, improve the habitability of deltas, coastal areas Deltares. and river basins. The integrated approach allows The institute combines knowledge and experience us to come up with innovative solutions. We call in the fields of water, soil and the subsurface. this approach ‘delta technology’. Deltares is at the forefront of development, distri- bution and application of knowledge for meeting the challenges in the physical planning, design ‘Enabling Delta Life’ and management of vulnerable deltas, coastal Nowadays, more than 50% of the world’s popula- areas and river basins. tion live, work, and spend their leisure time in Deltares works for and cooperates with the Dutch deltas, coastal areas and river basins. Delta areas national government, provincial authorities and have major economic potential because of their water boards, international governments, strategic location close to the sea and waterways. research institutes and the private sector. The The ground is fertile and rich in minerals and raw institute employs more than 800 people and is materials. However, delta areas are also vulnera- located in two cities: Delft and Utrecht. ble: soft soil subsides, the sea level is rising, rivers 4 show extreme levels and pressure on space and 5 the environment is on the increase. Widely applicable consultancy and Background of the participating Delta Technology The Netherlands is renowned for its struggle research institutes Interventions in water and earth interact. There- against the water. We know how to make the most Deltares stands for the right balance between WL | Delft Hydraulics was actively involved with fore water and the subsurface in deltas cannot be of the available space in densely populated deltas consultancy and research at both the national and water-related issues worldwide, whilst GeoDelft viewed separately. with soft soils and, at the same time, provide international levels. Water, soil and the subsurface focused on issues in the field of geo-engineering. There is growing pressure on delta systems: protection against the dangers of the water. As a are factors of importance throughout the world, The Subsurface and Groundwater unit of TNO is economic development and demographic changes result of that experience, Dutch experts are very although the circumstances are usually different active in groundwater management, subsurface/ make the management of deltas increasingly much in demand, both at home and far beyond from the Netherlands. Climate, social structure, soil remediation and the management and use complex. Shortage of space means that we are their own borders. ecosystems, land use and the subsurface can vary of the subsurface domain. The Department of moving into areas that are less suitable for living. There is increasing global demand for knowl- widely. International activities give Deltares the Transport, Public Works and Water Management Extreme fluctuations in water levels require us to edge and technology in the area of water and the opportunity to extend and deepen its expertise. So (Rijkswaterstaat) is engaged in providing flood focus more on management and safety. Subsiding subsurface in relation to delta issues. Deltares the application of our expertise is state-of-the-art. protection and safeguarding adequate supplies land and rising sea levels accentuate that process. provides innovative solutions to make living and of clean water for all users. Rijkswaterstaat has It is not enough to concentrate solely on coast- working in deltas, coastal areas and river basins transferred knowledge development for delta is- lines or rivers. We need to look at catchment areas safe, clean and sustainable. sues to Deltares. in their entirety. This intrinsic commitment is expressed in We tackle safety issues by assessing risks in ad- Deltares’ strategic principle - ‘Enabling Delta Life.’ For more information: vance using models and other research methods. Questions about water and the subsurface involve not only technological issues, but also natural processes, spatial planning and administrative/
  4. 4. Deltares employees “Modelling tools can help “Proud to assist Aceh, Indonesia, in 6 in achieving a better 7 “I am currently involved in an "I am currently working on projects the building of a DSS for tsunami “Challenging water managers understanding of aquatic risk maps and an evacuation tool “How flexible is our water management intense consultancy project for the that involve mathematical and to discover the limits, deal with ecosystem changes used in the Indonesian Tsunami with respect to climate change, and how hydrodynamic modelling of a new physical modelling of river structures dilemmas and enjoy the through time and space” Early Warning System (InaTEWS).” can we adapt it to climate change?” intake/outfall system in Abu Dhabi” and river training works." opportunities of participation.” “Ecological questions in "We combine hydrodynamics and ecology, "The greatest challenge deltas are becoming "Having a better understanding of "Whether we like it or not: water “We assist policy makers and land in our study of freshwater and marine for hydrodynamic more urgent every day.” the interaction between soil and level predictions are uncertain. The managers by making decisions to achieve systems to advise stakeholders worldwide“ models is real-time construction makes the use of question is HOW uncertain they the right balance between exploitation and forecasting." underground space in urban areas, are, and how to act upon that protection of soil functions.” especially in deltas, more viable." information."
  5. 5. Research facilities Deltares has a host of experimental facilities Oscillating water tunnel available for fundamental and applied research, as This facility has been constructed to study sedi- well as for consultancy projects. ment transport phenomena and related problems under controlled simulated wave conditions and currents at full scale. Problems like boundary layer Geo/hydro facilities flows, bed-loaded transport, suspended sediment transport, bed shear-stress, incipient motion Rotating annular flume and ripple formation can be studied. Tests can be The carousel consists of a rotating annular chan- performed both under random and periodic wave nel with a closed rotating lid at the water surface conditions. in opposite direction. The operational speed of the lid and the channel are experimentally determined using small spheres and an electromagnetic cur- Hydro/structure facilities rent meter. Data is collected using a PC mounted on the carousel lid, wirelessly connected to the Large scale wave flume ground station. The annular flume is located The Delta flume can be used for physical model inside a climate-controlled room. studies in which scale effects are to be expected, like testing breakwaters and revetments, wave 8 Wave/current flume forces on structures or dune erosion testing. 9 In this multi-purpose facility experiments can be This facility enables testing on a scale close to carried out ranging from oil spill break-up to ero- prototype. The wave board is equipped with Active sion and sedimentation of a deposited mud bed Reflection Compensation (ARC) which minimises under wave and flow attack. The flume is equipped re-reflections off the wave board towards the with a wave generator and a water circulation model. The wave generator is able to generate system. If required wave damping structures are second order waves according to all standard or available. prescribed wave density spectra. Large-scale geo/hydro flume Wave/current flume The Dredging Flume is a research facility for The Scheldt flume is a glass-walled facility and complex soil/water interactions. It comprises a is used to study a wide range of coastal related Wave/current basin Multi-directional wave basin large concrete research-flume and a self propelled issues, viz. stability of all kinds of breakwaters, The Scheldt basin has been designed to study The Vinjé basin is equipped with a programmable dredging module consisting of a multi purpose scour and scour protection, stability of beaches the influence of combined wave-current loads on wave generator with 80 independently controlled dredging installation complete with data-acquisi- and studying wave run-up or wave overtopping. typical scales 1:10 to 1:50. Typical projects for paddles. The length of the wave front is 26.4 m. tion and data processing systems. The dredging The model scale applied in this facility is usually the Scheldt basin are related to scour and scour The paddles enable simulation of real sea condi- module is mounted on top of the flume walls. A between 1:10 and 1:50. The wave board is equipped protection around offshore structures or stability tions for both long-crested and short-crested glass wall can be installed to form a flume that with Active reflection Compensation (ARC). The testing for instance of breakwater heads. The wave waves, including directional spreading. This basin enables visualization of the processes. wave generator is able to generate second order generator of the Scheldt basin is able to generate is perfectly suitable to perform 3D experiments waves according to standard or prescribed wave long-crested second order waves according to all to study breakwater roundheads, moored ship at density spectra. standard or prescribed wave density spectra. (open) berths, wave forces on jetties, and harbour
  6. 6. wave agitation. The model scale applied in this Calibration rig for certified calibrations facility is usually between 1:30 and 1:75. The wave of flow meters board is equipped with Active Reflection Compen- The calibration is based upon the “weighing sation (ARC). The wave generator is able to gener- method” according to standard ISO 4185. The ate second order waves according to all standard flow is supplied by a constant head reservoir (at a or prescribed wave density spectra. height of 24 m). Rig specifications: maximum flow is 1.9 m3/s, maximum flow meter diameter is 2 m, Intake/outfall facility accuracy is 0.05 %. During a specified period wa- Civil works such as pump sumps can be investi- ter is collected in one of the weighing tanks, which gated in this specific facility to verify and improve mass is measured with calibrated load cells. From proper pump working under all operation and de- the mass increase, filling time and water density, sign/emergency conditions. Pump sumps with up the volumetric flow rate is determined. to 20 individual pump compartments (with typical 1:10 scale) can be jointly investigated. Long pipeline test loop for dynamic experiments Two-phase and dynamic flow test The test loop has a length of 650 m and an inter- facility nal diameter of 235 mm. Dynamic experiments In this facility pipeline components are tested can be carried out in single phase (water), or multi- under two-phase (water-air) or dynamic flow con- phase (water-air-solid). Transport phenomena of ditions. It is used for the dynamic testing of check water-air or water-air and sand at stationary and valves, air valves, pressure relief valves, as well dynamic test conditions can be studied, as well as as the steady, two-phase flow testing of control leak detection, pipe friction, flushing, etc. valves, separators and mixers. Kolkman flume Valve test facility (water) The Kolkman flume is used for investigations Testing of Cv, Kv or noise characteristic of any related to design details of hydraulic structures, 10 valve type up to 800 mm diameter takes place forces on and vibrations of hydraulic structures. Geo-engineering facilities 11 according to international standards (ISA, IEC, The flume has sidewalls made of glass. The wave VDMA). The flow is supplied by eight speed- generator is capable of generating both regular Geocentrifuge block. Sand gets fluidized. Mounted steel grids controlled pumps with a maximum flow capacity (periodic) and irregular (random) waves. It is The centrifuge belongs to the beam type with a load- can be used to densify the sand model. By this of 1.9 m3/s. The pressure in the closed loop rig is equipped with online Active Reflection Compensa- ing capacity of 16.5 MN. It has one arm of 6 m technique saturated sand models can be prepared controlled and maintained constant with an air tion and activated either by a sinus generator or in radius, which is extended by a container of 2 with a wanted relative density of loose to dense. vessel. PC-steering signal. cubic meters. The tilt angle of the container can be Capillary sand can also be prepared. Testing do- halted in flight. In the centrifuge it is possible to mains are: (cone) penetration tests, testing of field Air flow test facility Flume 4 create a light vacuum environment. The geocen- push-away techniques, compaction tests, and Testing of valves and air valves takes place This is a wide flume for investigations related to trifuge is generally used to investigate geotechni- trench tests. according to international standards (ISA, ISO, flow forces, discharge coefficients, specific design cal problems related to the interactions between IEC, EN, VDMA). The flow is supplied by a large air details, bed protection and morphological impact foundations and soils. Medium testing container vessel with a capacity of 70 m3, pressurized by a of hydraulic structures. The flume has a zig-zag The medium testing container surnamed ‘Brutus- compressor. An active gas control valve allows for formed overflow gate at the upstream side and bak’ (dim. 2 m x 1 m x1 m) is provided with two a constant pressure and flow in the test section. a vertical lifting gate at the downstream side so 1-g Model Facilities parallel glass windows making possible visual ob- For a high accuracy over a wide flow range the that water levels can be controlled easily and ac- servations along the sand model profile. It has the main line or a bypass is available. The actual flow curately. A sediment sieve is constructed at the Large testing container same fluidization system as the large testing con- conditions are converted to standard conditions, downstream side for the collection of lightweight This testing container surnamed ‘Bak-van-Smits’ tainer. Sand models are compacted using shock according to the standards. material in morphological tests. The flume has a (dim. 4 m x 2.5 m x 1.5 m) has been constructed waves. Obtained sand densities vary from loose maximum discharge of 1000 l/s. The electrically with a nozzle network on the bottom. Through to dense.Testing domains are: soil deformations driven measurement bridge can also be used for these nozzles water can be injected with high around a vibrating sheet-pile, arching effects, and drag tests. pressures breaking the compacity of the sand scaled geo-containers.
  7. 7. Pumping stations bigger and bigger Demand for cooling and drinking water is increas- ingly steadily throughout the world. Cooling water is needed for power and industrial plants, drink- ing water for people and agriculture. More and more water is taken from the sea. Salt water can, for instance, be used for cooling, but it has to be Table centrifuge processed using different techniques (evaporation Originally dedicated to clinical applications, a and filtration) before it can be used as fresh water. standard table centrifuge has been adapted to Particularly in the dry areas of the world, many fit the needs of geotechnical investigations. In new pumping stations are being built to meet this addition to its four modified cups diametrically rise in demand for water. located, sliprings have been mounted in the rotor to make possible the use of sensors in the cup and The size of the pumping stations and the individ- the transfer of data to the fixed world. Sensors like ual pumps is also steadily increasing. Flow rates pressure gauges, electrodes, and a displacement can rise as high as 60,000 m3/h per pump, with sensor can be used successfully in these condi- ten pumps or more in a pumping station. Exam- tions. It can rotate in a range of 500 to 1800 rpm ples are the Shuaiba power and desalination plant model studies of this kind are a uniform approach All measured data are collected with dedicated corresponding to acceleration varying from 50 - in Saudi Arabia, with a designed flow capacity of flow to the bell mouth of the pump, without air software tools. These modelling activities provide 12 600 times the Earth’s gravity. 486,000 m3/h (nine pumps in operation), and the entrainment, and within optimised dimensions to the consultant, the contractor and the owner with 13 Marina barrage in Singapore, which includes seven minimise construction volume and costs. Phe- an optimised pump sump design and trouble-free Large triaxial cell axial pumps with a total flow rate of 864,000 m3/h. nomena such as swirl, pre-rotation, vortex- and pump operation. In addition to the pump sump, The large triaxial cell (dim. 0.4 m in diameter The biggest pump station so far in the world is tornado building, air entrainment, velocity profiles Deltares also advises about other parts of large and 0.8 m high) is convenient to characterize the Ras Laffan in Qatar, consisting of different sub- and flow instabilities at the pumps are deter- water-circulation systems of this kind, such as the mechanical properties of coarse materials or large stations with flow rates varying from 340,000 to mined, and compared with the pump specifica- design and stability of possible breakwaters for soil samples like asfalt, cement, and heteroge- 960,000 m3/h. tions. Numerical models cannot yet calculate all the intake and outfall, the near-field and far-field neous samples. Measurements are treated and these phenomena accurately enough. circulation flow patterns to minimise local tem- presented in the same way than standard triaxial In both large and small pumping stations, the perature effects, and the downstream pipe sys- tests. stakes are high when it comes to proper pump Optimised design tems with respect to flow distribution, operational operation. Higher electricity bills can result from A project starts with a desk study of the hydraulic control and waterhammer. poor approach flows (a loss of, for example, 1% design to establish the main dimensions of the For more information can push up the bill by € 100,000 a year per pumping station. These main dimensions will not or pump). Mechanical fatigue can cause frequent usually change during the model study. This al- shut-downs for maintenance and, in the worst lows our client to start the civil construction work. scenario, compromise the designed flow and head Changes in the physical model are then limited to of the pumping station. Proper pump operation is local modifications such as splitters to interrupt achieved by detailed experimental testing of the pre-rotation, corner fillings, baffles or surface pumps in models, with the scale varying typically beams. The intake/outfall facility of Deltares has between 1:8 and 1:11. The pumping station is ac- a basin with an area of 11 by 22 m, with measure- curately scaled from the intake location up to the ment and control provisions for circulation flow, suction pipe of the pump. The main objectives of level, suction flow per pump and pre-rotation.
  8. 8. Enhancing coastal safety by use of natural ecosystem engineers Climate change involves rising sea levels and increased frequency and intensity of storms. Therefore, sustainable and cost-effective coastal protection is vital to low-lying coastal areas. Leeves and other civil-engineering structures are built for safety to flooding, but maintenance costs are high and there is an increasing need for multi- functional alternatives. Sand nourishments are a ‘soft’ form of engineering, which is commonly ap- 14 plied. In the Biobuilder project of Deltares, coastal present in different zones, facilitating each other. In our research and pilots we explore the potential 15 protection solutions are proposed involving eco- Species in the higher zones of the salt marsh are of these concepts, in cooperation with our partner system engineers in combination with traditional facilitated by species in lower zones, that absorb institutes. At present living ‘building blocks’ are engineering solutions. the energy of incoming waves. The tidal flat in tested in the field and full scale pilots are initiated. front of the salt marsh, in turn, influences the With implementation of integrated ecosystem en- Salt-marsh vegetation is a good example of an intensity of incoming waves and supply of sedi- gineering solutions, we aim to increase long term ecosystem engineer: by reducing hydrodynamic ments. safety, while reducing maintenance costs and forces, the vegetation traps and stabilizes sedi- facilitating increased nature value and flexibility ments, leading to accretion, and reducing wave Intertidal flats can be inhabited by oysterreefs. for future uses. impact and flooding levels. Nowadays it is com- The reef-building oyster beds could function as monly known that levees which are bordered by stabilising or protecting agents, because they salt marshes require less height and enforcement. reduce wave intensity and current velocity, and provide an extra sediment flux to higher tidal In the Netherlands, salt-marsh restoration is now elevations. After initiation or transplantation combined with dike design in order to provide so- of reefs, natural processes may stimulate their lutions, that offer nature value, sustainable safety maintenance and expansion. The newly formed and a flexible basis for future dike adaptations, ecotope will generate a diverse habitat, support- with sufficient space for additional uses such as ing a biodiverse community. recreation. Basic to this integrated concept is the understanding of functioning of salt marsh systems on a larger scale and in the context of the whole ecosystem. Ecosystem engineers may be
  9. 9. Diverse Levees The Netherlands has hundreds of kilometers of Why are Diverse Levees important? hard coastal defense and harbor structures, such Hard substrates are home to the most diverse as levees, dams, piers, docks and jetties. These communities of all coastal systems in the Neth- structures serve as possible living area for marine erlands. Sea dikes and levees are a habitat for organisms that are dependent on hard substrates many, sometimes rare, species, and can contrib- for attachment, shelter and food. The Diverse ute greatly to their dispersal. By facilitating the Levee project aims to enrich hard substrates by establishment possibilities for marine organ- implementing improved levee designs. At the base isms, such as mussels, oysters, barnacles, algae of these designs lies the preservation, and, if pos- and anemones, the ecological function of hard sible, even improvement, of the original hydraulic substrates can be significantly improved. Species function. The result is a larger biomass, a higher from neighboring ecosystems such as fishes can diversity per surface unit, a more appealing benefit from the enlarged food supply and avail- coastal landscape and a better water quality. ability of refuge locations. These improvements can serve as a measure to compensate lost nature Diverse Levee is a cooperation between Deltares or to increase ecosystem quality. and the Dutch Ministry of Public Works and Water- managements’ WaterINNovation (WINN) Pro- What is a Diverse Levee? gramme. At present, several commercial business In the last decade, management and development 16 partners have joined the project. of natural functions of levees were incorporated in 17 Dutch policies. Several concepts for ‘green’ levees material are the roughness (better attachment), and submerged reefs were applied in the field. exposition (exposed, sheltered), water retention To further improve the ecological value of hard capacity (water availability for plants and algae), substrates, the WaterInnovation project ‘Diverse hardness (boring animals), color (heat retention), Levee’ was initiated in 2007. The project aims size and chemical composition. for the design of ecologically optimized coastal defense structures that are developed in an inten- Several pilot studies of Diverse Levees have been sive cooperation process of ecologists and civil en- initiated, and along the entire Dutch coast tests gineers, resulting in designs that are economically are being executed. Based on the outcomes the feasible and can easily be incorporated in existing various designs of Diverse Levees are being im- or new designs for coastal infrastructure. proved constantly. Currently, several possibilities for implementation of the Diverse Levee concept in How does a Diverse Levee work? large-scale projects are explored. Various Diverse Growth on hard substrates is determined by dif- Levee projects will be started in the Netherlands in ferent vertical environmental gradients, such as the following years, and also outside of the Neth- exposition to waves and submergence time. By erlands, projects for ecologically enriched seawalls selecting material characteristics that aim at the are being developed. The new Diverse Levees will improvement of establishment and survival of provide a pleasant environment for a large variety organisms living on and just under the water level, of species, including humans. the bio-productivity and possibly the biodiversity can be increased. Important characteristics of the
  10. 10. Flood risk management & adaption to climate change Many people all over the world are threatened by Key activities: Key activities: floods from rivers, estuaries and the sea. Through • assessment of potential damages and flood risks. • climate change and land use studies flood risk management we try to reduce the loss • conceptual design of flood management • vulnerability studies to climate change of life, distress and economic damage caused by schemes, both flood defense systems and plans • hydrological and water resources modeling at floods. Through flood risk management we try to to make room for rivers. various scales adapt to the impacts of climate change and eco- • inundation modeling for risk mitigation and • development of decision-support systems. nomic development. evacuation planning. Deltares specializes in research and consultancy services for integrated flood risk management. Adaptation to impacts of climate change Optimal design of flood management schemes is Adaptation to the impacts of climate change is an supported by flood risk analyses using advanced important driver in flood risk management: how tools such as our state-of-the-art inundation mod- to deal with increasing sea levels and flood waves eling system SOBEK. Deltares has also world-wide in rivers. The answer to this question includes the experience in the implementation of advanced flood assessment of the vulnerability of areas to climate early warning systems for major river systems. change, the design and evaluation of adapta- tion strategies and the advise to policy makers Integrated flood risk analysis and management on how to cope with the uncertainties associated Flood risk management is comprised of pre-flood with climate change. Climate change and land use prevention, risk mitigation and flood prepared- changes may have major impacts on the hydrologi- 18 ness. Pre-flood prevention includes the design of cal behavior of water systems. With a variety of 19 flood management schemes. Such design should modeling techniques Deltares is able to quantify be based on a risk approach taking into account the effect of these changes. Flood forecasting and early warning both the probability and consequences of flooding. Sustainable water management, including the de- Adaptation to climate change and to economic de- sign of robust flood management schemes, should Flood Early Warning Systems (FEWS) are an es- Timely dissemination of information to authorities velopment are important drivers in designing flood be based on a sound understanding of the impacts sential element in regional and national flood and inhabitants of flood-prone areas is therefore an management schemes. of climate change and should take into account alert strategies. Our generic Delft-FEWS software essential component in our approach to FEWS. Flood risk management is strongly related to the demographic and socio-political context. The consists of a collection of sophisticated modules spatial planning: the location of new developments, design of climate proof adaptation strategies may designed for building a FEWS tailored to the spe- Key activities: flood proof structures and making room for rivers. include new concepts for both flood defense (super cific requirements of individual agencies. An open • setting-up of on-line monitoring systems. Risk communication is considered a valuable way levees, smart levees, terps) and infrastructure (dry- modeling approach allows users to add their own • development of flood-forecasting systems, to promote flood awareness and to improve flood and wetproof buildings). modules in an efficient way. Delft-FEWS is a living including flood modeling. preparedness of citizens. Such communication Decision support systems or planning kits may be product which benefits continuously from user ex- • institutional development and training. should take into account the subjective perception developed and used to assist in the integral evalua- periences and our own R&D efforts. Effective flood of flood risks. In any case flood risk management tion of large sets of possible measures. These tools warning requires a robust organizational setting. should be supported by a proper (and quantitative) are also valuable in communicating complex results understanding of the characteristics and conse- and solutions to a wide audience of stakeholders. In quences of a flood event. cooperation with landscape architects clear maps may be produced to visualize the major issues and to develop a decision framework for climate proof spatial planning.
  11. 11. EU Directive on flood risk In response to devastating floods in Europe the ‘EU Directive on assessment and management of flood risks’ was developed. The aim of the Directive is to reduce and manage the risks that floods pose to human health, the environment, infrastructure and property. The Directive takes a three step approach: (1) preliminary flood risk assessment, (2) flood risk maps and (3) flood risk management plans. Deltares has the ability to support Member States in the implementation of this Directive. To support the implementation of the Directive research is being carried out a.o within the Flood- site research project: the largest ever EC research project on floods. Deltares is one of the leading institutes involved in Floodsite. Our input focuses on the development of methodologies for flood risk assessment and management as well as the dissemination of the results to the professional community. 20 21 Software systems Deltares develops and maintains a wide range of dedicated software packages related to flood risk management: • Delft-FEWS - open and flexible system for set- ting up flood-forecasting systems, allowing the use of existing models and databases. • SOBEK - comprehensive simulation of one- and two-dimensional hydrodynamic flow, for ap- plication in rivers, canals, estuaries and urban water systems including natural flooding and inundation from levee and dam breaches. • Delft3D – simulation of storm surges, tsunamis in oceans and coastal seas For more information:
  12. 12. Hurricane Katrina and Deltares’ role Since floods caused by hurricane Katrina dev- open system, a semi-open system and a closed astated New Orleans in 2005, Dutch specialists, system, with gates that can be closed during hur- including several from Deltares, have collaborated ricanes. Based on the characteristics and impacts with the US Army Corps of Engineers to provide of these strategies the external project team for- expert research and advice on how the damaged mulated a Preferred Strategy (total costs estimat- area can be restored and strengthened. ed at $20 billion) which is realistic, feasible and achievable provided that stakeholder participation Plan for the Louisiana Coastal is combined with a genuine political commitment Protection and Restoration Project to protect New Orleans and enhance the Missis- (LACPR) sippi Delta ecosystem. Deltares specialists joined forces with other Dutch institutions, as represented by the Netherlands Dutch flood management specialist in Water Partnership, in order to develop a plan for evaluation committee long-term flood risk reduction for coastal Louisi- The US Government requested the National Re- ana and for stabilizing the rapidly disappearing search Council (NRC) and the National Academy coastal wetlands of the Mississippi Delta. After of Engineering (NAE) to evaluate the failure of the a cost-benefit analysis the specialists deemed it New Orleans’ hurricane protection system dur- Awards for outstanding research Test levee 22 economically justifiable to provide flood protec- ing hurricane Katrina. In response, the NRC/NAE In January 2008 Michael Sharpe, technical director The US Army Corps delegation also visited the 23 tion to the city of New Orleans against water formed an independent committee, which was at the US Engineering Research and Development Smart Levee site in Bellingwolde, The Netherlands, levels with a return frequency of at least 1/1.000 composed of 16 members, 15 of which are from Center (ERDC), awarded three Dutch specialists where American sensor technology is tested. The per year, which is considerably higher than the the US. The international member of this commit- with a distinction for their research on the Smart Levee is a test site where a full-scale levee existing protection level. tee is Jos Dijkman, flood management specialist damage inflicted by hurricane Katrina. These can be breached in a controlled environment using with Deltares in the Netherlands. specialists were Frans Barends (who advised the various types of instruments. By closely oberserv- Building with nature The evaluation was primarily based on the results Americans to identify the causes of the failure of ing and monitoring levee behavior under various On the principle that building with nature makes of the Interagency Performance Evaluation Task the levees), Adam Bezuijen and Paul Schaminée. circumstances, fundamental insight is gained into more sense than fighting nature, a series of Force (IPET). The IPET activities focused on the de- methods for improving water management and options was identified to not only stabilize the sign capacity of the hurricane protection system, Levee behavior flood risk control. The Smart Levee project brings remaining wetlands in the Mississippi Delta but forces exerted against the system and system Dutch hydraulic engineering experts are highly together about 50 Dutch companies and research also to create new wetlands. Since “building with response, and factors that resulted in overtop- regarded for their knowledge of the mechanical institutes. Deltares coordinates the geotechnical nature” has been a guiding principle for the man- ping, breaching, or failure of levees and floodwalls. properties of weak soils such as organic clay and input of the Smart Levee project. agement of Dutch wetlands since the second half This task force included federal, state and local peat. Like in the Netherlands, a majority of the of the 20th century, Dutch specialists have gained agencies, universities, professional societies and levees in New Orleans is built on this type of soil. experience and expertise which can be applied to consultants. Adam Bezuijen and Paul Schaminée helped build New Orleans. The role of wetlands in hurricane the physical models of levees that were subjected surge-level reduction and wave to centrifuge tests in the United States. Deltares attenuation provides a link between the issues of and ERDC own and operate the world’s largest cen- flood risk reduction and the degradation of the trifuges and these tests are an important resource delta ecosystem. Three alternative strategies were when it comes to investigating levee behavior. designed to illustrate the available options: an
  13. 13. FEWS for the National Weather Service – the Community Hydrologic Prediction System (CHPS) Worldwide, flooding creates major human and responsible for California and Nevada. CHPS is economic losses to societies every year. Flood scheduled to be in operational use at all 13 River protection can reduce but not eliminate the risk Forecast Centers (RFCs) of the NWS by mid-2011. of flooding. Flood management organizations bear the responsibility of warning communities of Deltares provides much more than a software potential floods and in order to provide this life- architecture within this challenging project. saving service, they make use of real-time flood Deltares is developing new functionality in FEWS forecasting systems. to meet, for example, the wide ranging interactive forecasting requirements of the river forecasters Over the past two decades Deltares has developed in the RFCs. Much attention will be given to the the open-shell forecasting system Delft Flood development of the ensemble forecasting capabil- Early Warning System – known in short as Delft- ity, and verification and calibration systems. The FEWS. In recent years, Delft-FEWS has rapidly forecasters in the RFCs will receive support and be evolved to match the growing requirements of trained to conduct the country-wide migration to flood forecasting services. It is currently used Delft-FEWS and to extend the forecasting capabil- operationally throughout the world in major ap- ity independently in the future. plications like the National Flood Forecasting Sys- 24 tem for England and Wales, the Flood and Drought Delft-FEWS 25 Forecasting System for the Po River in Italy and Delft-FEWS is an innovative software product services. Uncertainty reduction using data as- National Flood Forecasting System for Taiwan. developed by Deltares. It provides users the latest similation techniques and verification are other techniques and science in the field of real-time important fields of interest. Delft-FEWS func- National Weather Service forecasting and is a truly open system that is tionality is being developed to benefit low-flow In 2006, the National Weather Service (NWS) in fully user configurable. It offers a comprehensive forecasting and reservoir management. Innovative the United States also started to show an interest service-oriented architecture for water related applications for real-time water quality forecast- in this state-of-the-art flood forecasting system. forecasting systems dealing, for example, with ing – like prediction of harmful algae blooms, The NWS is, among other things, responsible for floods, droughts, water quality and groundwater. suspended matter and oil spills - are a priority on provision of river and flash-flood forecasts and The architecture is very flexible and can easily the Fews research and development calendar. With warnings throughout the United States. Deltares be adapted to the requirements of organizations new developments it is Deltares’ ambition that the started working with the NWS to investigate ranging from small water boards to national au- cycle from science to operational use is short. how the current suite of software used for river thorities. It also provides all necessary options to en- forecasting operations in the United States could sure high performance, robustness and availability. Deltares USA be modernized using Delft-FEWS. After a series of In September 2008, Deltares USA Inc was technical assessments and pilot implementations, Research & development established. The office is located in Silver Spring in the NWS decided in early 2008 that Delft-FEWS In close cooperation with the Delft-FEWS user Maryland. It will provide a base for supporting should provide the flexible service-oriented community and universities, Deltares invests a lot Deltares’ activities for the National Weather software architecture for their future Community of effort in new science that benefits the users of Service. The office will also be instrumental in the Hydrologic Prediction System (CHPS). Implemen- the system. A hot topic is quantifying probabili- communication with other Deltares’ clients in the tation started in mid 2008 at four of the NWS ties associated with forecasts which is expected to United States. River Forecast Centers (RFCs) including the one significantly enhance flood warning and response
  14. 14. Levee patroller: a levee inspection simulator ‘Safety in the polder’ is increasingly important in In 2004, Deltares started its special training The Netherlands due to sea level rise and extensive courses for levee patrollers in order to guarantee a rainfall. Alongside an effective levee maintenance sufficient level of knowledge to do the job. During and reinforcement programme, it is also equally the course, levee patrollers can apply their knowl- important to have an operational emergency edge in a virtual environment of polders, dikes and response organisation in place when extreme high levees. This virtual environment was developed in water levels occur. cooperation with Delft University of Technology and Trained levee patrollers play an essential role in Deltares with the input of five Dutch Water Boards. the Dutch emergency response organisation. Out in the field, they are the eyes and ears of the Water In 2006, the 3D game “Levee Patroller” was incor- Management Organisation. A patroller should be porated into the courses to help combine theory able to recognize potentially dangerous situations. and practice and has been used to educate levee Where levees are prone to failure they are able to patrollers in The Netherlands ever since. Levee communicate this fact swiftly and efficiently to the patrollers learn to recognize failure mechanisms back office. Levee patrollers in the Netherlands may and to communicate about it efficiently in order to be professionals but volunteers are also often re- prevent calamitous failures of levees and subse- cruited for the job. Both professional and volunteer quent flooding of the polder. need specific training for this task. 26 The levee patroller game offers the possibility to participating water authorities to demonstrate the 27 practice your skills when faced with near flood situ- failure mechanisms that could occur in their own ations without the actual risk of the loss of lives. area. Training can thus be tailored for each water authority and each staff member. Students can learn from their mistakes and the fun element of gaming stimulates the user to continue practicing and learning. How does it work? Within the virtual world of Levee Patroller the inspectors learn to recognize the different signs which indicate weakening of the levee and through that are able to prevent a full levee breach. They get trained in communicating with a crisis team to report their findings. The 3D environ- ment provides maximum flexibility, thus enabling inspectors to practice for the widest variety of situations. Various training situations can be selected with different objectives. It is possible to select from a variety of surroundings and weather conditions. You may even train the patroller on what measures could be taken. This enables the
  15. 15. River and urban water management at Deltares How can we develop sustainable and climate-robust Water Resources Plan) project in Egypt, the Water plants. These organisations usually have many cities in deltas and lowlands around the world? The Resources Management Strategy Study in Trinidad plans but not all of them are compatible. Deltares development and sustainable use of both rural and and Tobago and Cisadane-Cimanuk Integrated Wa- believes that systems can be designed and man- urban water resources requires measures and de- ter Resources Development Study in Indonesia. aged more efficiently if these plans and systems cision-making under complex situations involving are made more compatible. This decreases threats many conflicting interests. Careful planning and Examples of projects in which long-term, large- to people and saves public money. In the coming analysis are required to support such decisions, scale interactions between (water resources) devel- decades there will be an increasing focus on saving taking into account technical, economical and envi- opment and the environment were assessed are the water and reusing available resources in River and ronmental aspects in a specific social, cultural and River Rhine 2100 study, in which an environmen- Urban Water Management. That is why we have an institutional context. tally sound and sustainable management strategy integrated research programme and sophisticated was designed to cope with climate change driven simulation models that approach issues in an Our aims changes in the discharges of the river Rhine and a integrated manner. For example, increasing storage • Secure future global water availability study on Sustainable World Food Production and capacity at treatment plants may not be the best • Improve the quality of the urban living environ- Environment for the Netherlands Scientific Council way to deal with excess run off, whereas separating ment for Government Policy (WRR), in which the future waste water from clear storm water runoff may be • Climate-robust water management strategies (2050) global water availability for irrigation and a more cost-effective approach. • Subsidence-free cities food production was assessed. • Sustainable urbanisation of river basins Deltares provides support and assistance to the With our expertise on water systems, water supply deliberations amongst the numerous stakeholders 28 Water Resources Management and water quality we assist urban planners and by inspiring them with alternative solutions and 29 During the preparation of the Netherlands’ national developers in the design of new urban areas and in by continuous evaluation of ideas based on our water Master Plans Deltares developed an inte- rehabilitation of existing areas. We provide support knowledge of the surface and groundwater system, grated approach to support decision making in and assistance to the deliberations among the and its behaviour and risks from the very local such complex situations. This approach consists of numerous stakeholders, by inspiring them with scale to the scale of the river basin, both now and a comprehensive set of analysis steps, supported alternative solutions and by continuous validation in the future. Information management systems, by mathematical tools for the analysis of natural of ideas, based on decision support systems, simulation models such resource systems in a socio-economic context. (a) our knowledge of the surface and groundwater as SOBEK, Delft3D, Delft-CHESS and WANDA, Using this approach we support water, river and system, its behaviour and risks, from the very and 3D visualisation tools are important floodplain managers world-wide in structuring local scale to the scale of the river basin instruments in our approach. decision making processes and we provide tech- (b) our vision on how to make cities more sustain- nical know-how for effective evaluation of plan- able and climate robust ning alternatives. In our approach the resources (c) our sensitivity for stakes, social and economic development planning aims at the generation and forces evaluation of strategies to meet the management (d) our expertise on functional use and business and policy goals in a future situation. Information opportunities related to urban water management systems, decision support systems and simulation models are important tools in our Drinking water supply, sanitation and drainage of approach. surplus water are important issues municipalities Examples of large water resources/river basin plan- have to deal with. As well as municipalities, private ning studies are the Cebu (Philippines) Water Re- companies and water boards are often responsible sources Development project, the NWRP (National for drinking water supply and water treatment
  16. 16. Operational Water Quality Management for Marina Reservoir Formed by the construction of a 350m-long Ma- the optimal tidal flushing and water level control rina Barrage, the Marina Reservoir, currently an scheme for brackish conditions that has been put in estuarine water body will soon become a freshwa- place for the period of 2008 to 2009, i.e. the period ter reservoir in the heart of the new downtown of before the Marina Reservoir will be converted into Singapore. In addition to flood control, the Marina a freshwater reservoir and during which various Reservoir will provide another source of drinking mitigative measures are being implemented. water for Singapore, as well as a stable water level for a variety of recreational water activities and events. PUB, the national water agency of Singapore, has commissioned Deltares to map out the transition from a well-flushed estuarine water system to a freshwater system and to guide the future opera- tional water management of the reservoir. Hereto, a fully integrated and comprehensive 1D-3D water quality modelling framework has been developed and applied to assess the future water quality and the effectiveness of mitigating measures, such as 30 the recirculation system, which draws water from 31 the Marina Reservoir, treats it to remove a large portion of nutrients and bacteria, before circulat- ing it through the major tributaries of the Marina Reservoir, creating flowing water in the upstream reaches of the tributaries. Results of the models demonstrated that with max- imal source control, continuous recirculation, and ample artificial aeration to enhance vertical mixing in place, water quality problems like eutrophica- tion, oxygen depletion, bacterial pollution and high turbidity would be strongly reduced though not completely eliminated. To address future operational water quality man- agement problems, an on-line Operational Manage- ment System (OMS) was developed that supports day-to-day decision making based upon continu- ous rainfall forecasting, online water quantity and quality monitoring and water quality model forecasting. The first version of the OMS addresses Courtesy of the Urban Redevelopment Authority (URA), Singapore
  17. 17. Supporting Hong Kong with the expansion Yemen LNG project – moored ship basin tests of its urban area Deltares is assisting Hong Kong to establish a The Yemen LNG Company is presently building an jetty, for three different ship types in loaded and 32 master plan for the northern districts of the New LNG plant at Balhaf, Yemen, in the Gulf of Aden. ballast condition. The study supports the client in 33 Territories. Hong Kong wants to make this low-lying At this site natural gas that is produced further the operational management of the LNG terminal. zone suitable for the further expansion of the urban inland will be liquefied, stored and loaded on board area. The master plan provides advice about the LNG carriers for export. During past years, several The project started with a review of Metocean data, structuring of the area, protection against flood- numerical studies have been performed on the leading to conclusions about the wave conditions, ing, the construction of polders, and the design of behaviour of the LNG carriers to be moored to this the wave directions and the area to be represented the rural and urban drainage systems, partly as jetty. However, the available numerical models in the laboratory basin. The selected coastal eco-rivers. can only describe an open water situation with a area was built to scale, including the foreshore Deltares wants to use the software product HYMOS constant water depth and are not able to take into bathymetry up to -60 m CD and relevant parts of for data management, SOBEK for the calcula- account the effect of the local bathymetry and the the coastline including Cape Balhaf. A jetty model tions for the drainage system, and Delft3D for the coast line geometry, both on the waves reaching with mooring and fender equipment was brought morphological studies of the Shenzhen River and its the vessel, as well as on the resulting motions and into place. Testing was done under various wave tributaries, which is suffering from silting prob- mooring loads. and wind conditions for a range of directions. lems. In order to investigate these effects for the site Three ship models (165.000 m3 membrane type, The client is Mott Connell Ltd. The assignment is of Balhaf, with its steeply sloping foreshore and 135.000 m3 spherical type, 216.000 m3 membrane budgeted at more than € 700,000. Deltares will complex coastline geometry, Deltares in combina- type) were considered for testing. In the laboratory complete the project in late 2010. As Delft Hydrau- tion with Maritime Research Institute Netherlands basin, a static wind load approach was applied and lics, Deltares has been involved before in a range of (MARIN) was requested to perform both physical corrections for dynamic wind effects were based on maritime projects in Hong Kong. and numerical model tests on the behaviour of numerical moored ship simulations carried out by the moored ship in its actual environment. The MARIN. The combined results were compared to cri- objective of the study was to determine the limiting teria as specified by the client. Based on this com- environmental conditions for safe mooring at the parison, the limiting conditions were determined.
  18. 18. Software projects in the USA Office of Naval Research community model Deltares has entered into an agreement with the Office of Naval Research to share its coastal mor- phodynamics software packages “Delft3D” as a development platform with researchers at US academic institutions and the Naval Research Laboratory. The research community has access to the open-source code, can adapt the code and implement new functionalities, which can be shared with other researchers. San Diego project Beach Wizard In collaboration with Scripps Institution of Deltares, the USGS and Oregon State University, Pre-hurricane Ivan dune profile (left) at Santa Rosa Oceanography (SIO), Pacific Northwest National have developed a data-model assimilation method Island, FL and computed post-storm profile (right) Laboratory (PNNL), and Cal Poly San Luis Obisbo called “Beach Wizard”, funded by the Office of (SLO), Deltares is doing a study for the Office of Naval Research, with which the nearshore subtidal Naval Research to apply the Delft3D model to the bathymetry can be accurately estimated based on 34 problem of tracking of the fate and transport of video-derived observations of wave roller dissipa- 35 small scale riverine plumes in a complex coastal en- tion and variation of the intertidal shoreline, and/or vironment. The southern region of San Diego serves radar-derived observations of wave celerity. Using as an ideal testbed for this study due to the local many consecutive images, these observed proper- geography and the intermittent rain-driven flow ties are compared with numerical model results, events from the Tijuana River. The Delft3D model and through a simple, optimal least-squares esti- is used as a coastal model and is forced by output mator approach the estimated bathymetry is ad- from larger (ocean-scale) models such as ROMS and justed gradually for each image in order to improve with offshore wave heights and wind fields. the fit between model output and observations. The Dune Erosion Modelling in order to simulate the 2D-horizontal nearshore key advantages of the technique are that it is based The devastating effects of hurricanes on low-lying hydrodynamics of waves and wave-induced cur- Hindcasting studies of the propagation and on multiple sources of information (i.e., different sandy coasts in Florida, especially during the 2004 rents in combination with non-cohesive sediment diffusion of the Tijuana River plume will serve as remote sensors and/or data products), depends on and 2005 seasons have pointed to an urgent need transports and morphological change on the time a focal point for evaluating the feasibility and only a few free parameters and shows good skill. to not only be able to assess the vulnerability of scale of storm events. skill of the models to hindcast coastal conditions. Beach Wizard has been applied to two field sites at sandy coastal areas and (re-)design coastal protec- Delft3D nowcasts and forecasts of the region will Duck, NC (USA) and Egmond (The Netherlands). The tion for future events, but also to evaluate the In the past two years, the model has been derived be developed to assist AUV, UAV, and ship-based method can deliver coastal state information (i.e., performance of existing coastal protection projects and tested against data from laboratory and field field sampling efforts, with those data intended to simultaneous updates of bathymetry, waves, and compared to ‘do-nothing’ scenarios. In order to measurements, and further development is provide feedback to improve the model. The work currents) with high temporal and spatial resolution address such questions the Morphos-3D project ongoing, especially in the framework of a European is a collaborative effort between Deltares, Scripps at a competitive coast and can be used in conjunc- was initiated by the Corps of Engineers. One of the Union project on Coastal Risk (“Micore”). The model Insitution of Oceanography (SIO), Pacific Northwest tion with or instead of in-situ measured data. subprojects is the development of Xbeach (for eX- is freely available under the GNU Lesser license. National Laboratory (PNNL), and Cal Poly San Luis treme Beach behaviour) model. This process-based Source code, full documentation, testcases and Obisbo (SLO). (i.e., based on physical principles) model is made discussions can be found at