16. 1. Digital literacies…
• What is digital literacy?
• Who is defining digital literacy?
• What is missing from definitions?
20. “As the chapters that follow
attest, the most immediately
obvious facts about accounts
of digital literacy are that
there are many of them
and that there are
significantly different kinds
of concepts on offer”
(Lankshear & Knobel, 2008, p.2).
21. Identified over 100 models and frameworks which to
greater or lesser extent purport to encapsulate the
various dimensions of digital skills, literacies or
26. “I’ve been asked many times for a diagram of
the eight essential elements, something that
will fit nicely on a PowerPoint slide. While I can
do so I feel that this perpetuates a problem I’ve
seen time and time again... People over-specify
an answer to a question that differs massively
according to the context”
(Doug Belshaw, 2015, p.58).
28. For the purpose of this report we can define digital skills, literacies or
competencies as ....
“the capabilities which fit someone for living, learning
and working in a digital society, with the knowledge
that a digital society is ever evolving” (p.18).
35. Knowledge Economy
Mark Brown, 2016
• Online Learning
• Anytime Anywhere Learning
Digital Learning •
Technology-enhanced Learning •
TWO MAJOR PERSPECTIVES
36. “Frankly, all the computers and software and
Internet connections in the world won’t do
much good if young people don’t understand
that access to new technology means…
access to the new economy”
(President Bill Clinton; cited in Cuban, 2001, p.18).
38. “Higher education has a crucial role to play in
laying the foundations of a society that is
more inclusive, participatory and
equal...” The President said “…the role of
the university in enabling citizens to develop
the tools to address the great challenges of
our time – global poverty, climate
change and sustainability – was vital.
Put simply, the traditional degree is higher education's version of the bundle. As Ryan Craig (2015) points out bundling has been central to the higher education business model for centuries. Institutions combine content and a wide range of products and services into a single package, which generates revenue.
However, this is a simplistic view as unbundling has many different faces. In this brief presentation, I will touch on six of these that have particular relevance to Irish higher education.
State of the Art vs State of the Actual
State of the Art vs State of the Actual
MB: The concept of digital literacy was first introduced back in 1997 and as this seminal book illustrates there are many and varied interpretations of this concept.
MB: In the UK JISC has published a number of models and frameworks for the HE sector which continue to evolve.
MB: The 8 elements of digital literacies arise out of Doug Belshaw’s doctoral research and notably he places a particular emphasis on critical and civic literacies which incorporate a socio-political perspective.
MB: As this quote shows he has also resisted requests to try to present the eight essential elements in a simple diagram as the instructional and institutional context is crucial.
MB: The European Commission is also active in this space with several projects underway in the area of open education and digital competences.
This framework illustrates that there are two overarching perspectives influencing the debate: the tradition of the Learning Society and the influence of the Knowledge Economy. It is fair to say that a strong Knowledge Economy discourse is imbued in the languages of persuasion surrounding the unbundling movement.
Borrowing the words of President Michael Higgins, from this perspective higher education has a role in promoting more inclusive, participatory, equitable and sustainable futures for all.
Extending the metaphor by looking more deeply through the lens of a telescope we can better understand the grand narratives and some of the competing and co-existing discourses of persuasion surrounding the MOOC movement and online learning more generally.
The Reschooling Discourse reflects efforts to reform the traditional higher education system through the language of disruption, modernisation and technology as progress. An inherent contradiction in this discourse is that major changes forces champion greater creativity, innovation and entrepreneurship—yet many unbundling initiatives perpetuate relatively instrumentalist views of education.
In contrast, the Deschooling Discourse reflects a constellation of perspectives sharing the view that traditional institutions are losing their monopoly on higher education. While on the surface the language of ‘unbundling’ promotes democracy, opening access and new learning pathways, the Deschooling discourse also supports the goals of deregulation and the free market.
The Reconceptualising Discourse builds on the original UNESCO pillars of learning—learning to be, learning to do, learning to know and learning to live together. It promotes life-long learning and skills and knowledge beyond mere preparation for work. The focus is on active participation in all aspects of society.
How the world has changed and how you can’t predict the future
The impact your previous experience and perceptions have on the choices you make
The influence of the teacher and how the more things change the more things stay the same