Know AIDS for NO AIDS !
Anika Tabassum Bristy
North South University
AIDS - Acquired Immunodeficiency
Syndrome means – group of diseases
Its marked by opportunistic infections
It limits the body’s ability to fight infection
Final stage of HIV infection
34.2 million people are living with HIV
around the world.
1.8 million new cases of HIV in 2010
2.5 million deaths in person with AIDS
Nearly 30 million people with AIDS
have died worldwide since the
Reference - http://aids.com/hiv-basics/basicstatistics/
No of people living with HIV
[32.2 million – 38.8 million]
[29.1 million – 35.3 million]
[16.4 million – 19.3 million]
[3.0 million – 3.7 million]
• People newly infected with HIV in 2012
[1.9 million – 2.7 million]
[1.7 million – 2.4 million]
[230 000 – 320 000]
AIDS deaths in 2012 - 1.6 million
Reference - UNAIDS
The first case of HIV/AIDS in Bangladesh was detected in 1989.
HIV and AIDS estimates (2012)
Number of people living with HIV
Adults (15 to 49 age ) prevalence rate
Adults aged 15 and up living with HIV
Women aged 15 and up living with HIV
Deaths due to AIDS
8,000 [3,100 - 82,000]
- <0.1% [<0.1% - <0.1%]
- 7,600 [3,000 - 80,000]
- 2,700 [1,000 - 28,000]
- <500 [<200 - 2,300]
Reference – UNAIDS
Most affected –
USA, South Africa
,Eastern Africa, India
Severely affected China , Russia, Brazil,
Less affected –
• Causative agent – HIV
• HIV - “Human Immunodeficiency Virus”
• A lentivirus (slowly replicating retrovirus)
•Two types of HIV have been characterized – HIV-1 & HIV-2.
Professor Luc Montagnier - discovered HIV in 1983.
• How HIV causes AIDS ?
- HIV destroys a certain kind of blood
cell (CD4 + T cells) which is crucial to the
normal function of the human immune
• Loss of these cells in people with HIV
leads to the development of AIDS.
AIDS is the final state of HIV infection .
1. Through Body Fluids –
• Blood product
• Vaginal Fluid
• Breast milk
2. Through IV drug use
3. Through sex
4. From mother to fetus
Coughing , sneezing
Water , food
Sharing cups , plates, glasses
Sharing study materials , office equipments
HIV is not an airborne virus .
Stage 1 : Primary
• Short, flu-like illness - occurs one to six weeks after infection
no symptoms at all
Stage 2 :Asymptomatic
• Lasts for an average of ten years
• This stage is free from symptoms
• There may be swollen glands
• The level of HIV in the blood drops to very low levels
• HIV antibodies are detectable in the blood
Stage 3 - Symptomatic
• The symptoms are mild
• The immune system is damaged
• emergence of opportunistic infections and cancers
Stage – 4 : HIV AIDS
• The immune system weakens
• The illnesses become more severe leading to an AIDS diagnosis
Stage - 2
Stage - 4
HIV multiply inside CD 4 cell and destroy them .
Immune system becomes weakened.
Over time , the ability to fight against infection is lost.
HIV infected people become vulnerable to opportunistic infections .
That is AIDS .
sarcoma, a kind
of skin cancer
take advantage of
carinii, a kind of
Fever (comes and goes )
Frequent vaginal infection
Rapid weight loss
Swollen lymph nodes
White spots on tongue, mouth & throat
A sample of blood, urine or a swab of fluids from mouth are taken for the diagnosis .
The tests include –
HIV antbody test
PCR test (Polymerase Chain Reaction test) - can detect the genetic
material of HIV
CD4 count –
600-1200 cells per cubic mm of blood - A healthy person's CD4 count
350-600 – HIV+ person . But HIV medications are typically not indicated.
200 – 350 - the immune system is weakened & medications indicated.
Less than 200 – The patient is classified as having AIDS.
Viral load – (measures the amount of virus in blood )
WESTERN BLOT test
There is ACTUALLY no cure for AIDS .
1. Antiretroviral therapy
- reduce the presence of the virus in the body, but can not
Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase inhibitors
Non-Nucleoside Transcriptase inhibitors (Nevirapine)
Protease inhibitor (Ritonavir)
Taking two or more antiretroviral drugs at a time is called
combination therapy. If only one drug was taken, HIV would
quickly become resistant to it.
2. Opportunistic Infection Treatment
Used in an event where antiretroviral drugs are not available
• Protected sex
- use a condom.
• Using New and sterile needle
- to significantly reduce the risk of HIV
• Avoidance of same gender sex
• Screen all blood and blood products
• Getting medical care during
- to reduce the risk of virus
transmission to baby
PREVENTION IS BETTER
THAN CURE !