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Model-Driven Software Engineering in Practice - Chapter 1 - Introduction

Marco Brambilla
Marco Brambilla
Marco BrambillaFull Professor of Computer Science and Engineering at Politecnico di Milano

Slides for the mdse-book.com chapter 1: Introduction Complete set of slides now available: Chapter 1 - http://www.slideshare.net/mbrambil/modeldriven-software-engineering-in-practice-chapter-1-introduction Chapter 2 - http://www.slideshare.net/mbrambil/modeldriven-software-engineering-in-practice-chapter-2-mdse-principles Chapter 3 - http://www.slideshare.net/jcabot/model-driven-software-engineering-in-practice-chapter-3-mdse-use-cases Chapter 4 - http://www.slideshare.net/jcabot/modeldriven-software-engineering-in-practice-chapter-4 Chapter 5 - https://www.slideshare.net/mbrambil/modeldriven-software-engineering-in-practice-chapter-5-integration-of-modeldriven-in-development-processes Chapter 6 - http://www.slideshare.net/jcabot/mdse-bookslideschapter6 Chapter 7 - http://www.slideshare.net/mbrambil/model-driven-software-engineering-in-practice-book-chapter-7-developing-your-own-modeling-language Chapter 8 - http://www.slideshare.net/jcabot/modeldriven-software-engineering-in-practice-chapter-8-modeltomodel-transformations Chapter 9 - https://www.slideshare.net/mbrambil/model-driven-software-engineering-in-practice-book-chapter-9-model-to-text-transformations-and-code-generation Chapter 10 - http://www.slideshare.net/jcabot/mdse-bookslideschapter10managingmodels This book discusses how approaches based on modeling can improve the daily practice of software professionals. This is known as Model-Driven Software Engineering (MDSE) or, simply, Model-Driven Engineering (MDE). MDSE practices have proved to increase efficiency and effectiveness in software development. MDSE adoption in the software industry is foreseen to grow exponentially in the near future, e.g., due to the convergence of software development and business analysis. This book is an agile and flexible tool to introduce you to the MDE and MDSE world, thus allowing you to quickly understand its basic principles and techniques and to choose the right set of MDE instruments for your needs so that you can start to benefit from MDE right away. The first part discusses the foundations of MDSE in terms of basic concepts (i.e., models and transformations), driving principles, application scenarios and current standards, like the wellknown MDA initiative proposed by OMG (Object Management Group) as well as the practices on how to integrate MDE in existing development processes. The second part deals with the technical aspects of MDSE, spanning from the basics on when and how to build a domain-specific modeling language, to the description of Model-to-Text and Model-to-Model transformations, and the tools that support the management of MDE projects. The book covers introductory and technical topics, spanning definitions and orientation in the MD* world, metamodeling, domain specific languages, model transformations, reverse engineering, OMG's MDA, UML, OCL, ATL, QVT, MOF, Eclipse, EMF, GMF, TCS, xText. http://www.mdse-book.com

Model-Driven Software Engineering in Practice - Chapter 1 - Introduction

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Marco Brambilla, Jordi Cabot, Manuel Wimmer.
Model-Driven Software Engineering In Practice. Morgan & Claypool 2012.
Teaching material for the book
Model-Driven Software Engineering in Practice
by Marco Brambilla, Jordi Cabot, Manuel Wimmer.
Morgan & Claypool, USA, 2012.
www.mdse-book.com
INTRODUCTION
Chapter #1
Marco Brambilla, Jordi Cabot, Manuel Wimmer.
Model-Driven Software Engineering In Practice. Morgan & Claypool 2012.
Introduction
Contents
§ Human cognitive processes
§ Models
§ Structure of the book
Marco Brambilla, Jordi Cabot, Manuel Wimmer.
Model-Driven Software Engineering In Practice. Morgan & Claypool 2012.
Abstraction and human mind
•  The human mind continuously re-works reality by applying
cognitive processes
•  Abstraction: capability of finding the commonality in
many different observations:
•  generalize specific features of real objects (generalization)
•  classify the objects into coherent clusters (classification)
•  aggregate objects into more complex ones (aggregation)
•  Model: a simplified or partial representation of reality,
defined in order to accomplish a task or to reach an
agreement
Marco Brambilla, Jordi Cabot, Manuel Wimmer.
Model-Driven Software Engineering In Practice. Morgan & Claypool 2012.
Models
What is a model?
Mapping Feature A model is based on an original (=system)
Reduction Feature A model only reflects a (relevant) selection
of the original‘s properties
Pragmatic Feature A model needs to be usable in place of an
original with respect to some purpose
ModelrepresentsSystem
Purposes:
•  descriptive purposes
•  prescriptive purposes
Marco Brambilla, Jordi Cabot, Manuel Wimmer.
Model-Driven Software Engineering In Practice. Morgan & Claypool 2012.
Motivation
What is Model Engineering?
§  Model as the central artifact of software development
§  Related terms
§  Model Driven Engineering (MDE),
§  Model Driven [Software] Development (MDD/MDSD),
§  Model Driven Architecture (MDA)
§  Model Integrated Computing (MIC)
Model
Rapid prototyping
Static analysis
Code generation
Automated testing
Refactoring/
Transformation
Documentation
[Illustration by Bernhard Rumpe]
Marco Brambilla, Jordi Cabot, Manuel Wimmer.
Model-Driven Software Engineering In Practice. Morgan & Claypool 2012.
Motivation
Why Model Engineering?
§  Increasing complexity of software
§  Increasing basic requirements, e.g., adaptable GUIs, security, network
capabilities, …
§  Complex infrastructures, e.g., operating system APIs, language libraries,
application frameworks
§  Software for specific devices
§  Web browser, mobile phone, navigation system, video player, etc.
§  Technological progress …
§  Integration of different technologies and legacy systems, migration to new
technologies
§  … leads to problems with software development
§  Software finished too late
§  Wrong functionality realized
§  Software is poorly documented/commented
§  and can not be further developed, e.g., when the technical environment
changes, business model/ requirements change, etc.

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Model-Driven Software Engineering in Practice - Chapter 1 - Introduction

  • 1. Marco Brambilla, Jordi Cabot, Manuel Wimmer. Model-Driven Software Engineering In Practice. Morgan & Claypool 2012. Teaching material for the book Model-Driven Software Engineering in Practice by Marco Brambilla, Jordi Cabot, Manuel Wimmer. Morgan & Claypool, USA, 2012. www.mdse-book.com INTRODUCTION Chapter #1
  • 2. Marco Brambilla, Jordi Cabot, Manuel Wimmer. Model-Driven Software Engineering In Practice. Morgan & Claypool 2012. Introduction Contents § Human cognitive processes § Models § Structure of the book
  • 3. Marco Brambilla, Jordi Cabot, Manuel Wimmer. Model-Driven Software Engineering In Practice. Morgan & Claypool 2012. Abstraction and human mind •  The human mind continuously re-works reality by applying cognitive processes •  Abstraction: capability of finding the commonality in many different observations: •  generalize specific features of real objects (generalization) •  classify the objects into coherent clusters (classification) •  aggregate objects into more complex ones (aggregation) •  Model: a simplified or partial representation of reality, defined in order to accomplish a task or to reach an agreement
  • 4. Marco Brambilla, Jordi Cabot, Manuel Wimmer. Model-Driven Software Engineering In Practice. Morgan & Claypool 2012. Models What is a model? Mapping Feature A model is based on an original (=system) Reduction Feature A model only reflects a (relevant) selection of the original‘s properties Pragmatic Feature A model needs to be usable in place of an original with respect to some purpose ModelrepresentsSystem Purposes: •  descriptive purposes •  prescriptive purposes
  • 5. Marco Brambilla, Jordi Cabot, Manuel Wimmer. Model-Driven Software Engineering In Practice. Morgan & Claypool 2012. Motivation What is Model Engineering? §  Model as the central artifact of software development §  Related terms §  Model Driven Engineering (MDE), §  Model Driven [Software] Development (MDD/MDSD), §  Model Driven Architecture (MDA) §  Model Integrated Computing (MIC) Model Rapid prototyping Static analysis Code generation Automated testing Refactoring/ Transformation Documentation [Illustration by Bernhard Rumpe]
  • 6. Marco Brambilla, Jordi Cabot, Manuel Wimmer. Model-Driven Software Engineering In Practice. Morgan & Claypool 2012. Motivation Why Model Engineering? §  Increasing complexity of software §  Increasing basic requirements, e.g., adaptable GUIs, security, network capabilities, … §  Complex infrastructures, e.g., operating system APIs, language libraries, application frameworks §  Software for specific devices §  Web browser, mobile phone, navigation system, video player, etc. §  Technological progress … §  Integration of different technologies and legacy systems, migration to new technologies §  … leads to problems with software development §  Software finished too late §  Wrong functionality realized §  Software is poorly documented/commented §  and can not be further developed, e.g., when the technical environment changes, business model/ requirements change, etc.
  • 7. Marco Brambilla, Jordi Cabot, Manuel Wimmer. Model-Driven Software Engineering In Practice. Morgan & Claypool 2012. Motivation Why Model Engineering? § Quality problems in software development [Balzert, H.: Lehrbuch der Softwaretechnik: Software-Entwicklung, Spektrum, Akad. Verlag, 1996] [Slide by Bernhard Rumpe]
  • 8. Marco Brambilla, Jordi Cabot, Manuel Wimmer. Model-Driven Software Engineering In Practice. Morgan & Claypool 2012. Motivation Why Model Engineering? § Traditional usage of models in software development § Communication with customers and users (requirement specification, prototypes) § Support for software design, capturing of the intention § Task specification for programming § Code visualization for understanding § What is the difference to Model Engineering?
  • 9. Marco Brambilla, Jordi Cabot, Manuel Wimmer. Model-Driven Software Engineering In Practice. Morgan & Claypool 2012. Motivation Usage of models § Do not apply models as long as you have not checked the underlying simplifications and evaluated its practicability. § Never mistake the model for the reality. § Attention: abstraction, abbreviation, approximation, visualization, … chlorine atom electron shell electron atom nucleus
  • 10. Marco Brambilla, Jordi Cabot, Manuel Wimmer. Model-Driven Software Engineering In Practice. Morgan & Claypool 2012. Motivation Constructive models (Example: Electrical Engineering) [Slide by Bernhard Rumpe]
  • 11. Marco Brambilla, Jordi Cabot, Manuel Wimmer. Model-Driven Software Engineering In Practice. Morgan & Claypool 2012. Motivation Declarative models (Example: Astronomy) § Heliocentric model by Kopernikus
  • 12. Marco Brambilla, Jordi Cabot, Manuel Wimmer. Model-Driven Software Engineering In Practice. Morgan & Claypool 2012. Motivation Application area of modeling § Models as drafts § Communication of ideas and alternatives § Objective: modeling per se § Models as guidelines § Design decisions are documented § Objective: instructions for implementation § Models as programs § Applications are generated automatically § Objective: models are source code and vice versa t
  • 13. Marco Brambilla, Jordi Cabot, Manuel Wimmer. Model-Driven Software Engineering In Practice. Morgan & Claypool 2012. Motivation Increasing abstraction in software development § The used artifacts of software development slowly converge to the concepts of the application area Assembler (001001) Assembler and mnemonic abbreviations (MV, ADD, GET) Procedural constructs (while, case, if) Libraries (GUI, lists) Components (provided/required interface) Business objects (course, account, customer) [Illustration by Volker Gruhn]
  • 14. Marco Brambilla, Jordi Cabot, Manuel Wimmer. Model-Driven Software Engineering In Practice. Morgan & Claypool 2012. Structure of the book PART 1: MDSE Foundations §  1 Introduction §  1.1 Purpose and Use of Models §  1.2 Modeling for Software Development §  1.3 How to Read this Book §  2 MDSE Principles §  2.1 MDSE Basics §  2.2 Lost in Acronyms: The MD* Jungle §  2.3 Overview of the MDSE Methodology §  2.3.1 Overall Vision §  2.3.2 Target of MDSE: Domains, Platforms,Technical Spaces, and Scenarios §  2.3.3 Modeling Languages §  2.3.4 Metamodeling §  2.3.5 Transformations §  2.3.6 Model Classification §  2.4 MDSE Adoption in Industry §  2.5 Tool Support §  2.5.1 Drawing Tools vs Modeling Tools §  2.5.2 Model-Based vs Programming-Based MDSE Tools §  2.5.3 Eclipse and EMF §  2.6 Criticisms of MDSE
  • 15. Marco Brambilla, Jordi Cabot, Manuel Wimmer. Model-Driven Software Engineering In Practice. Morgan & Claypool 2012. Structure of the book PART 1: MDSE Foundations (continued) §  3 MDSE Use Cases §  3.1 Automating Software Development §  3.1.1 Code Generation §  3.1.2 Model Interpretation §  3.1.3 Combining Code Generation and Model Interpretation §  3.2 System Interoperability §  3.3 Reverse Engineering §  4 Model-Driven Architecture (MDA) §  4.1 MDA Definitions and Assumptions §  4.2 The Modeling Levels: CIM, PIM, PSM §  4.3 Mappings §  4.4 General Purpose and Domain-Specific Languages in MDA §  4.5 Architecture-Driven Modernization §  5 Integration of MDSE in your Development Process §  5.1 Introducing MDSE in your Software Development Process §  5.1.1 Pains and Gains of Software Modeling §  5.1.2 Socio-Technical Congruence of the Development Process §  5.2 Traditional Development Processes and MDSE §  5.3 Agile and MDSE §  5.4 Domain-Driven Design and MDSE §  5.5 Test-Driven Development and MDSE §  5.5.1 Model-Driven Testing §  5.5.2 Test-Driven Modeling
  • 16. Marco Brambilla, Jordi Cabot, Manuel Wimmer. Model-Driven Software Engineering In Practice. Morgan & Claypool 2012. Structure of the book PART 1: MDSE Foundations (continued) §  6 Modeling Languages at a Glance §  6.1 Anatomy of Modeling Languages §  6.2 General Purpose vs Domain-Specific Modeling Languages §  6.3 General-Purpose Modeling: The Case of UML §  6.4 UML Extensibility: The MiddleWay Between GPL and DSL §  6.5 Overview on DSLs (Domain Specific Languages) §  6.5.1 Principles of DSLs §  6.5.2 Some Examples of DSLs §  6.6 Defining Modeling Constraints (OCL) PART 2: MDSE Technologies §  7 Developing yourOwn Modeling Language §  7.1 Metamodel-Centric Language Design §  7.1.1 Abstract Syntax §  7.1.2 Concrete Syntax §  7.1.3 Language Ingredients at a Glance §  7.2 Example DSML: sWML §  7.3 Abstract Syntax Development §  7.3.1 Metamodel Development Process §  7.3.2 Metamodeling in Eclipse §  7.4 Concrete Syntax Development §  7.4.1 Graphical Concrete Syntax (GCS) §  7.4.2 Textual Concrete Syntax (TCS)
  • 17. Marco Brambilla, Jordi Cabot, Manuel Wimmer. Model-Driven Software Engineering In Practice. Morgan & Claypool 2012. Structure of the book PART 2: MDSE Technologies (continued) §  8 Model-to-ModelTransformations §  8.1 Model Transformations and their Classification §  8.2 Exogenous, Out-Place Transformations §  8.3 Endogenous, In-Place Transformations §  8.4 Mastering Model Transformations §  8.4.1 Divide and Conquer: Model Transformation Chains §  8.4.2 HOT: Everything is a Model, Even Transformations! §  8.4.3 Beyond Batch: Incremental and Lazy Transformations §  8.4.4 Bi-Directional Model Transformations §  9 Model-to-TextTransformations §  9.1 Basics of Model-Driven Code Generation §  9.2 Code Generation Through Programming Languages §  9.3 Code Generation Through M2T Transformation Languages §  9.3.1 Benefits of M2T Transformation Languages §  9.3.2 Template-Based Transformation Languages: an Overview §  9.3.3 Acceleo: An Implementation of the M2T Transformation Standard §  9.4 Mastering Code Generation §  9.5 Excursus: Code Generation Through M2M Transformations and TCS
  • 18. Marco Brambilla, Jordi Cabot, Manuel Wimmer. Model-Driven Software Engineering In Practice. Morgan & Claypool 2012. Structure of the book PART 2: MDSE Technologies (continued) §  10 Managing Models §  10.1 Model Interchange §  10.2 Model Persistence §  10.3 Model Comparison §  10.4 Model Versioning §  10.5 Model Co-Evolution §  10.6 Global Model Management §  10.7 Model Quality §  10.7.1 Verifying Models §  10.7.2 Testing and Validating Models §  10.8 Collaborative Modeling §  11 Summary §  Bibliography §  Authors’ Biographies
  • 19. Marco Brambilla, Jordi Cabot, Manuel Wimmer. Model-Driven Software Engineering In Practice. Morgan & Claypool 2012. Teaching material for the book Model-Driven Software Engineering in Practice by Marco Brambilla, Jordi Cabot, Manuel Wimmer. Morgan & Claypool, USA, 2012. www.mdse-book.com MODEL-DRIVEN SOFTWARE ENGINEERING IN PRACTICE Marco Brambilla, Jordi Cabot, Manuel Wimmer. Morgan & Claypool, USA, 2012. www.mdse-book.com www.morganclaypool.com or buy it at: www.amazon.com