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LETTER WRITING IN ENGLISH
FALL2016
Maryam Bolouri
PhD candidate of TEFL in AllameTabatabaei University
Book summary
Letter Writing in English
Dr. Manoochehr Jafari Gohar
Purpose:
 Being familiar with conventions of writing
letters in order to be able to communicate
through written text
 types of letters with their special layout and
format
Letter writing
 Letters may be written to members of society
such as
 friends, relatives
 Colleagues
 Businessmen
they play an essential role in industry and
commerce.
The outlook
1. Social correspondence
3 subcategories
2. Business correspondence
3. Mechanics of writing
social correspondence
 Why?
To keep in touch with those who are
important to them
business correspondence,
It plays an essential role in industry and
commerce.
A letter sent out of a company is considered the
representative of the firm, its function is not
limited to the transmission of information.
The mechanics of writing
 It intends to help the writers to make effective
use of the mechanical devices of the English
writing system to convey the necessary
information as clearly as possible.
Lay out
 The general arrangement of the different
parts of a letter
 Why is it important?
a well-arranged letter is more effective and
appeals more favorably to the eye of the
reader.
Lay out cont
 1. Heading
2. Personalized letterhead
3. Inside address
4. Salutation
5. Body
6. Complementary close
7. Signature
8. Postscript (P.S)
Heading
The writer’s address and the date
It is written at the top right hand corner of the
first page of the letter.
In very informal letters, the heading may include
the date only and not the address.
Would you please write it now? 
Personalized letterhead
 It consists of peoples’ initials or their full names
and addresses printed at the top of letter
papers
Inside address
 The reader’s name, title (if any), company
division or department or civic agency, and
the mailing address of the receiver.
At the top left hand corner of the letter single
spaced, flush with the left margin and two
lines above the salutation.
salutation
 The salutation is a greeting to the person to
whom you are writing.
 Two lines down from the inside address (if
any), or two lines up from the first sentence of
your letter, flush with the left margin
Why is it important?
1. It is good etiquette.
2. It can help to ensure that
the recipient takes the letter
more seriously.
How to choose the proper one
 It depends on two factors:
1.The degree of formality of
your letter
2. whether you know the
recipient’s name or
not
Example:
DearJohn: to a friend
Dear Mr. Smith: to a man
Dear Miss Smith: to an unmarried woman
Dear Mrs. Smith: to a married woman
Dear Ms. Smith: to a woman whose marital
status is not known
Bear it in mind
 You can write : “Dear Reza” but NOT dear
cousin Reza.

You can write : “Dear Mr. smith” but NOT
dear Mr. John Smith
Body
It begins two lines down from the salutation.
Paragraphs are typed single spaced with
double space between them. it is divided into three
segments :
1. opening
2. middle
3. closing
Body: opening
 the purpose of the letter
 the main point or important preliminary
information.
Body: middle
 the purpose of writing as well as supporting,
explaining and elaborating the main point.
 the points that need to be made
 answers you wish to give or questions you
want to ask.
Body: closing
 repeat the main point(s) of the letter to inform
the reader what action or response you
expect.
 Bring the letter to an end with a polite wish
(depending on the degree of formality)
complimentary closes
 In all complimentary closes the first word is
capitalized and they are followed by a
comma.
Formal and informal correspondences
require different complimentary closes
Do not forget that the way you close a letter
depends on how you opened it.
Example:
 Example:
Very formal :
Respectfully yours, respectfully,
Formal :
Yours Faithfully, very truly yours,
Informal :
Best wishes, regards
The signature block
 The signature block contains your name and,
in formal correspondence your title.
Your letter format determines where the
signature block is placed
P.S
 The postscript is typed two lines below the
signature.
Postscript (P.S) is used when the writer
decides to add something to the letter which
has been closed
Address 1 infm letters
 The order for informal letters:
Name ( including any titles )
Street address and suite or apartment number
City and state plus Zip Code
Country (if sent abroad)
2 Addressing the envelope in
Fm letters
The order for Formal Letters:
Name of individual, company or agency
Title of individual
Department or division
Company, agency or institutions name
Street address plus suite, room, floor number
Post office box number
City, State and Zip Code
Types of social letters
 A. Letters of social
obligation: 5 types
B. Letters of friendship
C. Letters of personal
business: 7 types
A Letters of Social Obligation

1) Invitations
2) Replying to
invitations
3) Congratulations
4) Condolences
5)Thank you notes
1. Invitations
 formal or informal
Formal invitations are written in the third person. If a
reply is required, the abbreviations R.S.V.P is written
in the lower left hand corner.
it must includes:
the kind of occasion
the place
the date
the time the guests are expected to arrive
2. Replying to invitations
 Give a prompt and definite answer.
If accepting the invitation, imply a “thank you” and
convey the thought that you were pleased by the
invitation.
Example:
We are delighted to accept…
 If declining, a note of regret should give the
reason for declining.
Example:
I am sincerely sorry that John and I cannot join
your dinner party…
3. Congratulations letter
Write the letter as soon as you hear the good
news.Write sincerely and cheerfully.
Mention the occasion and focus on the
special event.
Congratulations are sent on different occasions
such as marriages, engagements, anniversaries,
birth days, graduations and so on.Therefore, the
words that you choose must be appropriate for each
particular situation
Cont.
 Almost all congratulation letters contain a phrase or
sentence with “congratulations” or
“congratulate”.
 In congratulations on marriages you either write to one
of the married couple or to both of them. In the former
case, send best wishes to one of them and ask her/him to
give your congratulations to the other one.
 In congratulation letters on graduation, comment on
any special effort or achievement the graduate made
during his or her school or college career.

Example
Congratulations on your birthday!
May an old friend congratulate you…
4. Condolences
 Write the letter as soon as you hear the news.The best
condolence letter is sincere and brief. People dealing
with grief or shock are often unable to read long
letters. A condolence letter should be written simply and
clearly.
1. First, express your feeling about the loss.
2. Then, express your feeling about the deceased.
3. At the end, offer your help (if you wish) and close your
letter.
Example:
We have just heard with profound regret the
sad news. Everyone who knew Jim loved him.
5. Thank you letters

They should be sent promptly and they
should focus on the thank you message.

Example:
My thanks for your generous hospitality…
B. Letters of Friendship

While writing letters of friendship, imagine
you are talking to the reader face to face.
Start the letter with an interesting sentence
and close it with a cheerful and positive note.
C. Letters of personal business
1. Letters of complaint
2. Letters of damage apology
3. Letters of recommendation
4. Letters of application
5. Letters of request
6. Letters of resignation
7. Resume
1. Letters of complaint
In letters of complaint you should write about
1. the problem very precisely and clearly.
2. Mention the date, the reference number, or
any other information that can help the
company to detect the problem.
2. A letter of damage apology
 In a letter of damage apology:
1. first you should apologize for the
damage.
2. Then, move on to explain how you are
going to compensate for the damage.
3. At the end, ensure the reader that it
won’t happen again.
3. Letters of recommendation
 Letters of recommendation are written when a
company or a university asks you to provide
references.These letters are considered confidential
and they are not always in favor of the bearer.
4. A letter of application
 An application letter carries the burden of
attracting attention
 creating interest
Function:
doing a substantial part of the job of
convincing your prospective
employer to accept you
5. Letters of request
 In your initial letter of request (i.e., to a
university), you give a few facts about
yourself and the education you have
received.
 The more detailed you are, the better.Try to
tell them what you want
6. Letters of resignation
1. In a letter of resignation you start with writing
about the time you have been with your
employer
2. Then, explain the reason for resignation.
3. At the end, thank them and wish for later
collaboration.
7. Resumes (curriculum vitae)
 The Resume is probably the most important
personal business letter.
 It includes your name,
address, telephone number, e-mail address,
work experience, education and the name
and address of your references.
 What is the difference btw CV and resume?
Business Correspondence
Business Correspondence
The layout :
1. Letterhead
2. Dateline
3. Inside address
4. Reference line
5. Salutations
6. Subject line
7. Body
8. Complimentary close
9. Company signature
10. Signers identification
11. Reference line
12. Enclosure reminder
13. “cc” notation
1. Letterhead
It consists of the
1. name
2. the address
If there is not a printed letterhead, the sender’s
address is written on the top right hand corner of the
page.
3. the telephone or fax number of
the company printed at the top of the page.
2. Dateline
 Dateline appears a few lines below the
letterhead on the right side of the page,
otherwise, it is written below the senders
address.
The month of the date should not be written in
figures because they might confuse the reader.
For example, 12.2.1990 means 12th of February
1990 in the UK, but 2nd of December in the USA.
3. Inside address
 It consists of
 the reader’s name
 Address written below the senders address and on
the opposite side of the page.
The order of the lines is the same as the social
letters.When the name of the receiver is not known,
either his/her title or the name of the particular
department of a company can be written
4. Reference line 1. attention line
Attention line is used to alert the person you are writing
to or to make sure that your letter will be opened even if
the recipient is absent. Attention line is typed two lines
below the inside address and may be centered on the
page or typed flush with the left.The word “Attention”
is used with its first letter capitalized and followed by a colon.
2. personal and confidential
Personal and confidential words are used for strictly personal matters,
and they indicate that only the recipient should open the letter.
They are placed four lines above the inside address and they are
underlined.
3. other reference lines
to mention some document numbers, serial numbers …The place of other
reference lines : typed four lines below the date, flush with the
right margin, and on the same line as the first line of the inside
address.
5. Business letters, salutation
 The same as social letters, but in a more formal
manner.
 Dear sirs: used to address a company in the UK
Gentlemen: used to address a company in the USA
Dear Sir or Madam or ladies and gentlemen:
Used to address a person of whom you neither
know the name or the gender
“to whom it may concern” is used when we do not
know who should read our letter.
 A colon or a comma usually follows a
salutation.
6. subject line
 The function of subject line :
Tells the reader what the letter is about, so that he
can decide whether it needs immediate
attention or not.
The place of subject line :
Below the salutation, underlined or typed in
capitals
7.Body
 The function of the body :
The same as social letters, carries the actual
message.
The place of the body :
Below the salutation or the subject line
 8. complementary close
The kind of complementary close depends on
the general tone
the degree of formality of the letter
9. Company signature
 Company signature is used in cases when the
signer of the letter is writing as the spokesperson for
the company, and not as an individual.
 10.The signer’s identification
 The signer’s identification includes the signer’s name
and any relevant title. It is typed four lines below the
complementary close to provide enough space for
the signature.
11. reference initials
 The function of reference initials:
shows who prepared the letter (the signer’s and the
typist’s initials)
The position of reference initials: usually at the
bottom or sometimes on the top of the letter.
12. enclosure reminder
The function of the enclosure reminder is to
help the reader not to discard the enclosed
items by mistake. It consists of the word enclosure
followed by a list of enclosed items
‘cc’ notation
 ‘cc’ notation stands for carbon copy and tells
the reader who has been sent a copy of the
letter.
Formats of Business letters
1. Full-Blocked
2. Blocked
3. Semi-Blocked
4. Square-Blocked
5. Simplified
1. Full-Blocked
 Features:
All lines flush with the left margin,
No paragraphs are indented.
2. Blocked
Features:
Date line is flush with the right margin.
Heading or inside address, salutation, reference
lines and paragraphs are set flush with the left
margin. Complementary close and signature are
aligned with the date.The date line may set at the right
margin; the attention and subject lines may be centered
or indented 5 or 10 spaces
3. Semi-Blocked
 Features:
Date is flush with the right margin, heading
or inside address with the left margin.
Paragraphs are indented.
Complementary close and signature line are
slightly to the right of the page’s center.
madsg.com
4. Square-Blocked
Features:
The same as full-blocked with two
differences:
1. The date is typed on the same line as the
start of the inside address.
2. Reference initials and enclosure reminder
are typed on the same line as the signature
5. Simplified
Features:
No salutation or complementary close.
All lines begin flush with the left margin.
Date is six lines below the letterhead.
Inside address is four or more lines below the date
line
Subject line is typed in all capital letters three
lines below the inside address and above the body.
Writer’s name and title are typed in capitals
Business letters on different
occasions:
1. Letters of inquiry and their replies
2. Letters of order
3. Letters of complains and their replies
4. Letters of credit and their replies
5. Letters of collection
1. Letters of inquiry
 The content of an inquiry letter depends on three
things:
1. How well you know the supplier.
2.Whether your supplier is in your country or
abroad.
3.The kind of goods you are inquiring about.
Structure:
 At the opening of an inquiry letter, tell the
supplier what kind of firm you are and how
you have come to his company. Make it clear what
exactly you want them to do for you. Bring the letter to
an end with a “thank you”.
Reply to it:
1. Thank the inquirer, mention the date of his
letter and mention his name in your salutation!
2. Tell him if you can help him or not.
3. Encourage your prospective customer to do
business with you.
4. Let the inquirer know whether you are
enclosing what he has asked for or if he will
receive them later.
5. At the end encourage more inquiries!
6. If a letter of inquiry asks for a product or service
which is not presented by your company, let the
inquirer know that and, if possible, refer him to
another supplier.
2. letters of order
 Include complete, accurate information in your
order letter because incomplete orders result in
delayed delivery, and inaccurate facts result in
receiving wrong goods
3. Letters of complaint
 Write the letter as soon as you discover the
mistake. Do not apologize for your
complaint!
Write firmly, but politely.
Avoid unnecessary threats, exaggerated
statements, and loss of temper.
Reply to it
 Replies to letters of complaint
Inform the writer that you have received the
complaint and thank your customer for telling you
about the problem.Tell him what you are going to do
about the complaint
If you accept that a mistake has taken place,
explain how it has happened, but do not blame
the staff of your company Tell the customer that you
will put the matters right as soon as possible
in closing, assure the customer that the mistake
was an exception and apologize for the inconveniences.
If you are rejecting the complaint, be firm, but polite.
4. letter of credit
 Open your letter of credit by stating the point
and the type of credit you want.
Convince the supplier to grant you the credit, mention
your previous dealings (if any), your reputation and
offer references.
 Reply:
If you agree with the credit, you might ask for
more information or set your own conditions
for granting the credit.
If rejecting, mention the reasons, but be careful
not to offend the customer
5. Letters of collection
The main purpose of a collection letter is to ask you
customers to pay the money they owe you. Ask for
payment without offending and, consequently, losing
the customer.
1.The first letter of collection is the mildest and most
understanding. Because your customer might simply
have made a mistake.The successive letters get stronger
in tone.
2.The second request is sent if the customer does
not answer the first request or acknowledge it
but still fails to pay
3. The last collection letter reviews the situation since
the account should have been paid.You can explain
that you have been patient.You may threaten to turn
the matter over to a lawyer or a collection agency.
Part three
The mechanics of writing

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General points in letter writing

  • 1. LETTER WRITING IN ENGLISH FALL2016 Maryam Bolouri PhD candidate of TEFL in AllameTabatabaei University
  • 2. Book summary Letter Writing in English Dr. Manoochehr Jafari Gohar
  • 3. Purpose:  Being familiar with conventions of writing letters in order to be able to communicate through written text  types of letters with their special layout and format
  • 4. Letter writing  Letters may be written to members of society such as  friends, relatives  Colleagues  Businessmen they play an essential role in industry and commerce.
  • 5. The outlook 1. Social correspondence 3 subcategories 2. Business correspondence 3. Mechanics of writing
  • 6. social correspondence  Why? To keep in touch with those who are important to them
  • 7. business correspondence, It plays an essential role in industry and commerce. A letter sent out of a company is considered the representative of the firm, its function is not limited to the transmission of information.
  • 8. The mechanics of writing  It intends to help the writers to make effective use of the mechanical devices of the English writing system to convey the necessary information as clearly as possible.
  • 9. Lay out  The general arrangement of the different parts of a letter  Why is it important? a well-arranged letter is more effective and appeals more favorably to the eye of the reader.
  • 10. Lay out cont  1. Heading 2. Personalized letterhead 3. Inside address 4. Salutation 5. Body 6. Complementary close 7. Signature 8. Postscript (P.S)
  • 11. Heading The writer’s address and the date It is written at the top right hand corner of the first page of the letter. In very informal letters, the heading may include the date only and not the address. Would you please write it now? 
  • 12. Personalized letterhead  It consists of peoples’ initials or their full names and addresses printed at the top of letter papers
  • 13. Inside address  The reader’s name, title (if any), company division or department or civic agency, and the mailing address of the receiver. At the top left hand corner of the letter single spaced, flush with the left margin and two lines above the salutation.
  • 14. salutation  The salutation is a greeting to the person to whom you are writing.  Two lines down from the inside address (if any), or two lines up from the first sentence of your letter, flush with the left margin
  • 15. Why is it important? 1. It is good etiquette. 2. It can help to ensure that the recipient takes the letter more seriously.
  • 16. How to choose the proper one  It depends on two factors: 1.The degree of formality of your letter 2. whether you know the recipient’s name or not
  • 17. Example: DearJohn: to a friend Dear Mr. Smith: to a man Dear Miss Smith: to an unmarried woman Dear Mrs. Smith: to a married woman Dear Ms. Smith: to a woman whose marital status is not known
  • 18. Bear it in mind  You can write : “Dear Reza” but NOT dear cousin Reza.  You can write : “Dear Mr. smith” but NOT dear Mr. John Smith
  • 19. Body It begins two lines down from the salutation. Paragraphs are typed single spaced with double space between them. it is divided into three segments : 1. opening 2. middle 3. closing
  • 20. Body: opening  the purpose of the letter  the main point or important preliminary information.
  • 21. Body: middle  the purpose of writing as well as supporting, explaining and elaborating the main point.  the points that need to be made  answers you wish to give or questions you want to ask.
  • 22. Body: closing  repeat the main point(s) of the letter to inform the reader what action or response you expect.  Bring the letter to an end with a polite wish (depending on the degree of formality)
  • 23. complimentary closes  In all complimentary closes the first word is capitalized and they are followed by a comma. Formal and informal correspondences require different complimentary closes Do not forget that the way you close a letter depends on how you opened it.
  • 24. Example:  Example: Very formal : Respectfully yours, respectfully, Formal : Yours Faithfully, very truly yours, Informal : Best wishes, regards
  • 25. The signature block  The signature block contains your name and, in formal correspondence your title. Your letter format determines where the signature block is placed
  • 26. P.S  The postscript is typed two lines below the signature. Postscript (P.S) is used when the writer decides to add something to the letter which has been closed
  • 27. Address 1 infm letters  The order for informal letters: Name ( including any titles ) Street address and suite or apartment number City and state plus Zip Code Country (if sent abroad)
  • 28. 2 Addressing the envelope in Fm letters The order for Formal Letters: Name of individual, company or agency Title of individual Department or division Company, agency or institutions name Street address plus suite, room, floor number Post office box number City, State and Zip Code
  • 29. Types of social letters  A. Letters of social obligation: 5 types B. Letters of friendship C. Letters of personal business: 7 types
  • 30. A Letters of Social Obligation  1) Invitations 2) Replying to invitations 3) Congratulations 4) Condolences 5)Thank you notes
  • 31. 1. Invitations  formal or informal Formal invitations are written in the third person. If a reply is required, the abbreviations R.S.V.P is written in the lower left hand corner. it must includes: the kind of occasion the place the date the time the guests are expected to arrive
  • 32. 2. Replying to invitations  Give a prompt and definite answer. If accepting the invitation, imply a “thank you” and convey the thought that you were pleased by the invitation. Example: We are delighted to accept…  If declining, a note of regret should give the reason for declining. Example: I am sincerely sorry that John and I cannot join your dinner party…
  • 33. 3. Congratulations letter Write the letter as soon as you hear the good news.Write sincerely and cheerfully. Mention the occasion and focus on the special event. Congratulations are sent on different occasions such as marriages, engagements, anniversaries, birth days, graduations and so on.Therefore, the words that you choose must be appropriate for each particular situation
  • 34. Cont.  Almost all congratulation letters contain a phrase or sentence with “congratulations” or “congratulate”.  In congratulations on marriages you either write to one of the married couple or to both of them. In the former case, send best wishes to one of them and ask her/him to give your congratulations to the other one.  In congratulation letters on graduation, comment on any special effort or achievement the graduate made during his or her school or college career. 
  • 35. Example Congratulations on your birthday! May an old friend congratulate you…
  • 36. 4. Condolences  Write the letter as soon as you hear the news.The best condolence letter is sincere and brief. People dealing with grief or shock are often unable to read long letters. A condolence letter should be written simply and clearly. 1. First, express your feeling about the loss. 2. Then, express your feeling about the deceased. 3. At the end, offer your help (if you wish) and close your letter. Example: We have just heard with profound regret the sad news. Everyone who knew Jim loved him.
  • 37. 5. Thank you letters  They should be sent promptly and they should focus on the thank you message.  Example: My thanks for your generous hospitality…
  • 38. B. Letters of Friendship  While writing letters of friendship, imagine you are talking to the reader face to face. Start the letter with an interesting sentence and close it with a cheerful and positive note.
  • 39. C. Letters of personal business 1. Letters of complaint 2. Letters of damage apology 3. Letters of recommendation 4. Letters of application 5. Letters of request 6. Letters of resignation 7. Resume
  • 40. 1. Letters of complaint In letters of complaint you should write about 1. the problem very precisely and clearly. 2. Mention the date, the reference number, or any other information that can help the company to detect the problem.
  • 41. 2. A letter of damage apology  In a letter of damage apology: 1. first you should apologize for the damage. 2. Then, move on to explain how you are going to compensate for the damage. 3. At the end, ensure the reader that it won’t happen again.
  • 42. 3. Letters of recommendation  Letters of recommendation are written when a company or a university asks you to provide references.These letters are considered confidential and they are not always in favor of the bearer.
  • 43. 4. A letter of application  An application letter carries the burden of attracting attention  creating interest Function: doing a substantial part of the job of convincing your prospective employer to accept you
  • 44. 5. Letters of request  In your initial letter of request (i.e., to a university), you give a few facts about yourself and the education you have received.  The more detailed you are, the better.Try to tell them what you want
  • 45. 6. Letters of resignation 1. In a letter of resignation you start with writing about the time you have been with your employer 2. Then, explain the reason for resignation. 3. At the end, thank them and wish for later collaboration.
  • 46. 7. Resumes (curriculum vitae)  The Resume is probably the most important personal business letter.  It includes your name, address, telephone number, e-mail address, work experience, education and the name and address of your references.  What is the difference btw CV and resume?
  • 48. Business Correspondence The layout : 1. Letterhead 2. Dateline 3. Inside address 4. Reference line 5. Salutations 6. Subject line 7. Body 8. Complimentary close 9. Company signature 10. Signers identification 11. Reference line 12. Enclosure reminder 13. “cc” notation
  • 49. 1. Letterhead It consists of the 1. name 2. the address If there is not a printed letterhead, the sender’s address is written on the top right hand corner of the page. 3. the telephone or fax number of the company printed at the top of the page.
  • 50. 2. Dateline  Dateline appears a few lines below the letterhead on the right side of the page, otherwise, it is written below the senders address. The month of the date should not be written in figures because they might confuse the reader. For example, 12.2.1990 means 12th of February 1990 in the UK, but 2nd of December in the USA.
  • 51. 3. Inside address  It consists of  the reader’s name  Address written below the senders address and on the opposite side of the page. The order of the lines is the same as the social letters.When the name of the receiver is not known, either his/her title or the name of the particular department of a company can be written
  • 52. 4. Reference line 1. attention line Attention line is used to alert the person you are writing to or to make sure that your letter will be opened even if the recipient is absent. Attention line is typed two lines below the inside address and may be centered on the page or typed flush with the left.The word “Attention” is used with its first letter capitalized and followed by a colon. 2. personal and confidential Personal and confidential words are used for strictly personal matters, and they indicate that only the recipient should open the letter. They are placed four lines above the inside address and they are underlined. 3. other reference lines to mention some document numbers, serial numbers …The place of other reference lines : typed four lines below the date, flush with the right margin, and on the same line as the first line of the inside address.
  • 53. 5. Business letters, salutation  The same as social letters, but in a more formal manner.  Dear sirs: used to address a company in the UK Gentlemen: used to address a company in the USA Dear Sir or Madam or ladies and gentlemen: Used to address a person of whom you neither know the name or the gender “to whom it may concern” is used when we do not know who should read our letter.  A colon or a comma usually follows a salutation.
  • 54. 6. subject line  The function of subject line : Tells the reader what the letter is about, so that he can decide whether it needs immediate attention or not. The place of subject line : Below the salutation, underlined or typed in capitals
  • 55. 7.Body  The function of the body : The same as social letters, carries the actual message. The place of the body : Below the salutation or the subject line  8. complementary close The kind of complementary close depends on the general tone the degree of formality of the letter
  • 56. 9. Company signature  Company signature is used in cases when the signer of the letter is writing as the spokesperson for the company, and not as an individual.  10.The signer’s identification  The signer’s identification includes the signer’s name and any relevant title. It is typed four lines below the complementary close to provide enough space for the signature.
  • 57. 11. reference initials  The function of reference initials: shows who prepared the letter (the signer’s and the typist’s initials) The position of reference initials: usually at the bottom or sometimes on the top of the letter. 12. enclosure reminder The function of the enclosure reminder is to help the reader not to discard the enclosed items by mistake. It consists of the word enclosure followed by a list of enclosed items
  • 58. ‘cc’ notation  ‘cc’ notation stands for carbon copy and tells the reader who has been sent a copy of the letter.
  • 59. Formats of Business letters 1. Full-Blocked 2. Blocked 3. Semi-Blocked 4. Square-Blocked 5. Simplified
  • 60. 1. Full-Blocked  Features: All lines flush with the left margin, No paragraphs are indented. 2. Blocked Features: Date line is flush with the right margin. Heading or inside address, salutation, reference lines and paragraphs are set flush with the left margin. Complementary close and signature are aligned with the date.The date line may set at the right margin; the attention and subject lines may be centered or indented 5 or 10 spaces
  • 61. 3. Semi-Blocked  Features: Date is flush with the right margin, heading or inside address with the left margin. Paragraphs are indented. Complementary close and signature line are slightly to the right of the page’s center. madsg.com
  • 62. 4. Square-Blocked Features: The same as full-blocked with two differences: 1. The date is typed on the same line as the start of the inside address. 2. Reference initials and enclosure reminder are typed on the same line as the signature
  • 63. 5. Simplified Features: No salutation or complementary close. All lines begin flush with the left margin. Date is six lines below the letterhead. Inside address is four or more lines below the date line Subject line is typed in all capital letters three lines below the inside address and above the body. Writer’s name and title are typed in capitals
  • 64. Business letters on different occasions: 1. Letters of inquiry and their replies 2. Letters of order 3. Letters of complains and their replies 4. Letters of credit and their replies 5. Letters of collection
  • 65. 1. Letters of inquiry  The content of an inquiry letter depends on three things: 1. How well you know the supplier. 2.Whether your supplier is in your country or abroad. 3.The kind of goods you are inquiring about. Structure:  At the opening of an inquiry letter, tell the supplier what kind of firm you are and how you have come to his company. Make it clear what exactly you want them to do for you. Bring the letter to an end with a “thank you”.
  • 66. Reply to it: 1. Thank the inquirer, mention the date of his letter and mention his name in your salutation! 2. Tell him if you can help him or not. 3. Encourage your prospective customer to do business with you. 4. Let the inquirer know whether you are enclosing what he has asked for or if he will receive them later. 5. At the end encourage more inquiries! 6. If a letter of inquiry asks for a product or service which is not presented by your company, let the inquirer know that and, if possible, refer him to another supplier.
  • 67. 2. letters of order  Include complete, accurate information in your order letter because incomplete orders result in delayed delivery, and inaccurate facts result in receiving wrong goods
  • 68. 3. Letters of complaint  Write the letter as soon as you discover the mistake. Do not apologize for your complaint! Write firmly, but politely. Avoid unnecessary threats, exaggerated statements, and loss of temper.
  • 69. Reply to it  Replies to letters of complaint Inform the writer that you have received the complaint and thank your customer for telling you about the problem.Tell him what you are going to do about the complaint If you accept that a mistake has taken place, explain how it has happened, but do not blame the staff of your company Tell the customer that you will put the matters right as soon as possible in closing, assure the customer that the mistake was an exception and apologize for the inconveniences. If you are rejecting the complaint, be firm, but polite.
  • 70. 4. letter of credit  Open your letter of credit by stating the point and the type of credit you want. Convince the supplier to grant you the credit, mention your previous dealings (if any), your reputation and offer references.  Reply: If you agree with the credit, you might ask for more information or set your own conditions for granting the credit. If rejecting, mention the reasons, but be careful not to offend the customer
  • 71. 5. Letters of collection The main purpose of a collection letter is to ask you customers to pay the money they owe you. Ask for payment without offending and, consequently, losing the customer. 1.The first letter of collection is the mildest and most understanding. Because your customer might simply have made a mistake.The successive letters get stronger in tone. 2.The second request is sent if the customer does not answer the first request or acknowledge it but still fails to pay 3. The last collection letter reviews the situation since the account should have been paid.You can explain that you have been patient.You may threaten to turn the matter over to a lawyer or a collection agency.