The social benefits of online education
Juan Pablo Stegmann Ph.D.
Walden University
The 18th Annual Sloan Consortium
Inter...
The social benefits of online education
1. Case study: UNAD Colombia
2. International experiences
3. Conceptual framework
UNESCO
Unesco (2009): online education is the educational modality that
because of its pedagogical and technological versa...
Online education builds a smart and connected society
Online education fosters research and team
collaboration helping to ...
Social impact
Relying on the information and telecommunications technology
provided by the universities and their lower co...
UNAD: success story of online education
Sharp quality improvement
Processes approved by ISO 9001 (2008)
and NTCGP 1000 (20...
Promotion of research
Articles published at peer reviewed
publications
Research projects approved by
UNAD 2011
Financial r...
Support to the community, especially
under-privileged sectors
Population: 95% 1-2-3 socio economic
strata, 75% under 23 ye...
Internationalization
 250 faculty are receiving education of Master
and Doctorate degrees in the United States.
 24,295 ...
Success of online alumni over traditional
Income growth of graduates
At different socio economic levels
Evolution of gradu...
Benefits of online education at UNAD
 High level of student’s satisfaction, maximizing
personal educational experience, r...
Testimonies of the benefits of online
education
Studied while in prisonBusiness development in
remote locations
Started co...
Conclusions: the benefits of online
education at UNAD
UNAD’s substantive
responsibilities and
its social benefits:
social ...
The social benefits of online education
1. Case study: UNAD Colombia
2. International experiences
3. Conceptual framework
Online education in Africa: multiple benefits in
unprotected sectors, a factor of cultural and social
transformation
 Eco...
Online education in Asia: dramatic impact on personal
and social dynamics, with explosive growth
 In Malaysia (Puvaneswar...
Online education in the Anglophone world: growing
innovation with impact on academic quality
 University of the People: f...
Online education in Indian subcontinent: it grows in
number, and provides a superior educational quality
 Explosive growt...
Online education in Latin America: extraordinary
acceptance at all levels
 Costa Rica online education in rural areas: su...
The social benefits of online education
1. Case study: UNAD Colombia
2. International experiences
3. Conceptual framework
Education and economic development
Study of Stanford University and University of Munich (Hanushek,
2007):
 The quality o...
1. The high cost of traditional education…
Traditional education is too expensive in many regions, only
affordable by high...
…versus the lower cost of online education
 The lower cost of online education is a critical factor to
educate lower inco...
2. The quality of education is a key factor
that impacts on economic growth…
 Strong correlation between economic growth ...
…research is a key factor in ensuring
the quality of education
 Project MIT-LINC (Learning International Network Consorti...
3. Online education promotes quality
learning, knowledge creation and critical
thinking…
Online collaborative framework (a...
…especially rich in international online
collaboration (Lock, 2006)…
 Constructivism: Online learning has moved from a te...
…proving the power of the network,
creating a brain – organic organization
 Networks are a key component of entrepreneurs...
Thank you
References
 Aderinoye, Rashid; Ojokheta, Kester. Open-Distance Education as a Mechanism for
Sustainable Development: Refl...
References
 Carey, Kevin. A College Education for All, Free and Online. The Chronicle of Higher
Education. 2011
 Carr-Ch...
References
 Hanushek, Eric A.; Ludger Woessmann. The Role of School Improvement in
Economic Development. Hoover Instituti...
References
 Misra, Pradeep Kumar; Rohilkhand, M. J. P.. E-strategies to support rural education
in India. Educational Med...
References
 Overland, Martha Ann. India Uses Distance Education to Meet Huge Demand for
Degrees. The Chronicle of Higher ...
References
 Sangrà, Albert, Dimitrios Vlachopoulos, and Nati Cabrera. Universitat Oberta de
Catalunya, Spain Building an ...
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Stegmann. the social benefits. (1)

  1. 1. The social benefits of online education Juan Pablo Stegmann Ph.D. Walden University The 18th Annual Sloan Consortium International Conference on Online Learning At a cross roads: On line education in a complex world October 2012
  2. 2. The social benefits of online education 1. Case study: UNAD Colombia 2. International experiences 3. Conceptual framework
  3. 3. UNESCO Unesco (2009): online education is the educational modality that because of its pedagogical and technological versatility becomes the best choice for developed and developing countries to meet the requirements of quality, inclusion, coverage and educational extension of the XXI century.
  4. 4. Online education builds a smart and connected society Online education fosters research and team collaboration helping to create individual and organizational knowledge… …connects students with external communities sharing resources, networking, internationality… …promoting collaboration, critical thinking, creativity, entrepreneurship, motivation. Traditional education focuses on faculty generated knowledge, or student existing knowledge
  5. 5. Social impact Relying on the information and telecommunications technology provided by the universities and their lower costs, online education is leading a profound transformation in two dimensions:  Is connecting sectors of the society with abundant knowledge resources, with global sectors in need of such knowledge: populations in remote locations, working adults, and lower income individuals.  The students become active knowledge generators, and members of new knowledge communities. This is raising the quality of the education, especially in remote locations. In other words, is creating a global community which has profound effects in several dimensions.
  6. 6. UNAD: success story of online education Sharp quality improvement Processes approved by ISO 9001 (2008) and NTCGP 1000 (2009) and Colombian authorities (2010), 5 programs accredited Dramatic growth in students especially in remote locations Large growth in new programs Created in 1980. Since it became online (2004) it has grown steadily
  7. 7. Promotion of research Articles published at peer reviewed publications Research projects approved by UNAD 2011 Financial resources allocated to research Research groups recognized by Colombian authorities
  8. 8. Support to the community, especially under-privileged sectors Population: 95% 1-2-3 socio economic strata, 75% under 23 years old, 55% women, 11% vulnerable adolescents, 15.7% adult workers, 6.7% working mothers heads of the family, 6.4% disabled or marginalized. Support to minority students Support of students with special needs Support of faculty
  9. 9. Internationalization  250 faculty are receiving education of Master and Doctorate degrees in the United States.  24,295 secondary students are receiving English language education, with participation of 118 educational institutions and 283 English teachers.  Alliances with universities in the Americas, Europe, Africa and Middle East.  International congresses inviting global academic personalities in online education
  10. 10. Success of online alumni over traditional Income growth of graduates At different socio economic levels Evolution of graduated income compared to other universities
  11. 11. Benefits of online education at UNAD  High level of student’s satisfaction, maximizing personal educational experience, reducing desertion rate  Cooperation, solidarity, mutual stimulation, multicultural interaction  Autonomous, self regulated learning  Incorporation of ITC in the population  Research: 63 groups approved by ColCiencia  Entrepreneurship, networking and alliances  Critical thinking, creativity
  12. 12. Testimonies of the benefits of online education Studied while in prisonBusiness development in remote locations Started college at 86 Alumni develops farm for underprivileged elderly Students abandon the guerrilla to study Alumni do social work to help vulnerable communities
  13. 13. Conclusions: the benefits of online education at UNAD UNAD’s substantive responsibilities and its social benefits: social and economic development – inclusion - cooperation, research, internationalization, innovation, holistic education
  14. 14. The social benefits of online education 1. Case study: UNAD Colombia 2. International experiences 3. Conceptual framework
  15. 15. Online education in Africa: multiple benefits in unprotected sectors, a factor of cultural and social transformation  Economic, social and economic inclusion of marginalized sectors (Aderinoye et al, 2004; Olakulehin et al, 2006; Sekiwu, 2010)  Source of high quality education (Olaoluwakotansibe, 2010)  Health and education (Ngwenya, 2010)  Brains’ export and reimport (Ambe-Uva, 2009)
  16. 16. Online education in Asia: dramatic impact on personal and social dynamics, with explosive growth  In Malaysia (Puvaneswary et al, 2010)  Personal development  Platform for socialization  Knowledge creation  In China explosive growth with above million new students per year to support development (Larson, 2008; Carr-Chellman, 2000)  In the Philippines online education strategic for the future of the country, incorporating adult learners (dela Pena-Bandalaria, 2007)
  17. 17. Online education in the Anglophone world: growing innovation with impact on academic quality  University of the People: free education, accessing 115 countries, with social orientation (Kevin Carey, 2011)  Australia: online education compensates for the lower quality of traditional education in remote areas (Creswell, 2004)  Canada: advantages of distance education in remote areas (Dodd, 2009):
  18. 18. Online education in Indian subcontinent: it grows in number, and provides a superior educational quality  Explosive growth of online education, especially in rural areas, promoted by ICT (Misra, 2006)  The quality of traditional education is inversely proportional to the distance, but not online education (Mitra, 2008)  India promotes online education by use of schools, post offices, online education centers and health centers (Overland, 2006)  Bangladesh Open University (higher education institution in Bangladesh), has enrolled 800,000 students in the last 15 years, several of its traditional programs are decreasing and tend to disappear (Sharker et al, 2006; Rezanur, 2008)  Foreign universities aimed at high-income sectors (Overland, 2000)
  19. 19. Online education in Latin America: extraordinary acceptance at all levels  Costa Rica online education in rural areas: success with marginal and rich students (Ramaswami, 2009; Amighetti, 2003)  100 new indigenous universities are being created in Latin America, based on distance education (Campbell, 2006)  Community Learning Centers in Mexico (Instituto Tecnologico de Monterrey, Mexico): success in remote and marginal areas, offering courses, promoting social integration and leadership in community members (Larson, 2008)
  20. 20. The social benefits of online education 1. Case study: UNAD Colombia 2. International experiences 3. Conceptual framework
  21. 21. Education and economic development Study of Stanford University and University of Munich (Hanushek, 2007):  The quality of education has powerful effects on individual income, income distribution and economic growth.  The current situation in developing countries is much worse than is generally shown on the basis of school enrollment and achievement in terms of graduation.  Limited to providing additional resources to schools is unlikely to be successful, improving the quality of schools will require structural changes in institutions Education is a barrier against terrorism (Krueger, 2003)
  22. 22. 1. The high cost of traditional education… Traditional education is too expensive in many regions, only affordable by high income households. Higher education: an impossible dream in many countries, it costs a large percent of household income for tertiary education per student per year, compared with higher income countries (Murakami, World Bank 2008)
  23. 23. …versus the lower cost of online education  The lower cost of online education is a critical factor to educate lower income regions  There is a clear correlation between the wealth of a population and their level of education (PISA Programme for International Student Assessment World Bank)  Online education is an excellent carrier to solve that difficulty.
  24. 24. 2. The quality of education is a key factor that impacts on economic growth…  Strong correlation between economic growth with quality of education, 100 countries (Barro, 2000), 1965-1995  Stanford University and University of Munich: economic growth correlates with the quality of education but not with the quantity of education (Hanushek, 2007)
  25. 25. …research is a key factor in ensuring the quality of education  Project MIT-LINC (Learning International Network Consortium, community of Individuals and Organizations focusing on tertiary education in Developing Countries) (Park, 2008; Larson, 2009)  Online education promotes individual and organizational knowledge creation - research
  26. 26. 3. Online education promotes quality learning, knowledge creation and critical thinking… Online collaborative framework (adaptation from Redmond et al, 2006); Source: Lock 2006
  27. 27. …especially rich in international online collaboration (Lock, 2006)…  Constructivism: Online learning has moved from a teacher-directed and static content environment to a constructivist environment that is learner- centred and collaborative: learners “construct their own understandings of the world in which they live” (Sergiovanni, 1996, p. 38).  Online collaboration: “knowledge creation, group learning, development and maintenance processes, computer-mediated communication, and the presentation of these issues in online learning environments.” (Haythornthwaite, 2006)  Critical Thinking: “Working with a group of equal-status peers to solve a problem is particularly conducive to the development of critical thinking skills because it exposes individuals to different perspectives and interpretations of a problem or idea (Abrams, 2005)
  28. 28. …proving the power of the network, creating a brain – organic organization  Networks are a key component of entrepreneurship (Nicolaou, 2004)  Knowledge becomes transactional, created by the community, improved by the exercise of critical thinking (Garrison, 2004).  Innovation relies on formal and informal networks, generated by relationships. Networks are channels and conduits. (Owen-Smith, 2004)  Learning communities engage in continuous improvement, develop collective responsibility, create alignment and accountability (Hord, 2012)  An ecology is an environment that fosters and supports the creation of communities: learning is an ecology, community, network. Technology as an enabler of learning...and of creating connections. The more complex the learning needs, and the more quickly the field of knowledge evolves, the more valuable a learning community and network becomes. (Siemens, 2003)
  29. 29. Thank you
  30. 30. References  Aderinoye, Rashid; Ojokheta, Kester. Open-Distance Education as a Mechanism for Sustainable Development: Reflections on the Nigerian Experience. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning. University of Ibadan, Nigeria. 2004  Agbatogun, Alaba Olaoluwakotansibe. An Examination of Schools’ Remoteness and Students’ Learning Performance in Nigeria: The Need for Technology Intervention. University of Edinburgh, UK. The International Journal of Learning. 2010  Ambe-Uva, Terhemba; Eunice Adegbola. Open flexible learning as a strategy for enhancing human security in Nigeria. National Open University of Nigeria. International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology. 2009  Amighetti, Andrea; Reader, Nicholas. Internet project for poor attracts rich. Christian Science Monitor. 2003  Barro, Robert. Human capital: growth, history and policy. American Economic review. 2000  Campbell, Monica. In Latin America, New Universities for Indigenous Students Flourish. The Chronicle of Higher Education. 2006
  31. 31. References  Carey, Kevin. A College Education for All, Free and Online. The Chronicle of Higher Education. 2011  Carr-Chellman, Alison A.; Zhang Ke. China’s future with distance Education, Rhetoric and realities. Pennsylvania State University, USA. Information, Communication & Society. 2000  Creswell, John ; Underwood, Catherine. Location, Location, Location: Implications of Geographic Situation on Australian Student Performance in PISA 2000. 2004  dela Pena-Bandalaria, Melinda. Impact of ICTs on Open and Distance Learning in a Developing Country Setting: The Philippine experience. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning. 2007  Dodd, Charlene; Dale Kirby; Tim Seifert. The Impact of High School Distance e- Learning Experience on Rural Students’ University Achievement and Persistence. Memorial University of Newfoundland. Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration. 2009  Garrison, D. R.; Anderson, T. e-Learning in the 21st century. A framework for research and practice. Open Universities, Nederland. 2004
  32. 32. References  Hanushek, Eric A.; Ludger Woessmann. The Role of School Improvement in Economic Development. Hoover Institution and Stanford University and University of Munich and CESifo. 2007  Hord, Shirley. Learning communities: Professional learning that increases educator effectiveness and results for all students occurs within learning communities committed to continuous improvement, collective responsibility, and goal alignment. Learning Forward. 2012  Krueger, Alan B., Maleckova, Jitka. Education, Poverty and Terrorism: Is There a Causal Connection? Journal of Economic Perspectives. 2003  Larson, Richard C., M. Elizabeth Murray. Open educational resources for blended learning in high schools: overcoming impediments in developing countries. LINC, Learning International Networks Consortium. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks. 2009  Larson, Richard; Murray, Elizabeth. Distance Learning as a Tool for Poverty Reduction and Economic Development: A Focus on China and Mexico. Journal of Science Education and Technology. 2008  Lock, Jennifer V.; Redmond, Petrea. International Online Collaboration: Modeling Online Learning and Teaching. Journal of Online Learning and teaching. 2006.
  33. 33. References  Misra, Pradeep Kumar; Rohilkhand, M. J. P.. E-strategies to support rural education in India. Educational Media International. University, Bareilly, India. 2006  Mitra,Sugata; Ritu Dangwal;Leher Thadani. Effects of remoteness on the quality of education: A case study from North Indian schools. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology. 2008  Morgan, Gareth. Images of organizations. Sage Publications. 2006  Murakami, Yuki; Andreas Blom. Accessibility and Affordability of Tertiary Education in Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and Peru within a Global Context. World Bank. 2008  Ngwenya, Bongani. Socio-Cultural Implications for the User-perceptions of eLearning in Universities in a Developing Country: A Grounded Theory Approach .Solusi University, Zimbabwe. 2010  Nicolaou, Nicos, Sue Birley. Academic networks in a trichotomous categorization of university spinouts. Journal of Business Venturing. 2003  Olakulehin, Felix Kayode; Ojo, Olugbenga David. Distance Education as a Women Empowerment Strategy in Africa. Indian Journal of Open Learning. 2006.  Olaoluwakotansibe Agbatogun, Alaba. An Examination of Schools’ Remoteness and Students’ Learning Performance in Nigeria: The Need for Technology Intervention. University of Edinburgh, UK. The International Journal of Learning., 2010
  34. 34. References  Overland, Martha Ann. India Uses Distance Education to Meet Huge Demand for Degrees. The Chronicle of Higher Education. 2011  Owen-Smith, Jason; Powell, Walter. Knowledge networks as channels and conduits. The effects of spillovers in Boston Biotechnology community. Organization science. 2004  Park, Young; Zellweger Moser, Franziska. Identifying the Role of the International Consortium ‘‘MIT/LINC’’ in Supporting the Integration of ICT in Higher Education in Emerging Countries. Journal of Science Education and Technology, April 2008  Puvaneswary Murugaiah; Siew Ming Thang. Development of Interactive and Reflective Learning among Malaysian Online Distant Learners: An ESL Instructor’s Experience. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning. 2010  Ramaswami, Rama. A World of Hurt. T H E Journal, 0192592X, 2009.  Rezanur, Rahman. Sadat Anwar; Dr. Sharker Md. Numan. Enhancing distant learning through email Communication: A Case of BOU. School of Science and Technology. Bangladesh Open University, Gazipur, Bangladesh. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education-TOJDE. 2008
  35. 35. References  Sangrà, Albert, Dimitrios Vlachopoulos, and Nati Cabrera. Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, Spain Building an Inclusive Definition of E-Learning: An Approach to the Conceptual Framework. International Review of Research in Open & Distance Learning. 2012  Sekiwu Denis. E-learning for University Effectiveness in the Developing World. June 2010  Sharker, Numan; Anwarul, Islam; Anwar, Sadat. Analytical views of student enrolment trend of different programs of Bangladesh open university and its projection. Bangladesh Open University. 2006  Siemens, George. Learning Ecology, Communities, and Networks. Extending the classroom. 2003  Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education-TOJDE April 2008  UNAD Colombia. Article Diario El Tiempo. by Dr. Jaime Leal Afanador, President 2012.  UNAD Colombia. Presentations by Dr. Jaime Leal Afanador, President. Balance Social: audiencia publica de rendicion de cuentas vigencia, 2011. International conference on online education, Cartagena, 2011.  UNAD Colombia. En-redados: en educación abierta y a distancia para el cambio y la inclusión social. CEAD Simón Bolívar de la UNAD. 2012.  UNAD Colombia. Interviews by Nanny Katina, Diana Mahecha, 2010.

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