Ancient Egyptian sculpture mostly concerned the temple and the funeral tomb. The art of sculpture flourished and produced a number of statues of different types. Egyptians used the size of their sculptures to show the social order. The pharaoh was larger than life-size, sometimes weighting hundreds of tons. For example the Nifattty statues. (Woldering 38)
Statues are generally focused on a single person, or perhaps a couple.For example the most famous statue in Egypt is the sphinx, located near the pyramids of Giza. Sphinx is an immense and impressive statue of a pharaoh's head perched on the top of a lion’s body. The lion's body represents the pharaoh’s kingship, while the sheer size of the statue is a statement of the king’s power. ( Woldering 151)
Soft stone varieties are limestone, sandstone , gypsum , and steatite. Soft stone also used to shaped using copper chisels, saws, blades and points Hard stone used for sculpture, but it was more difficult to work with. (Brier)
Wood was generally just used for statuary pieces. Adze is carpenter’s tool that has an arching blade and is used for chipping away at the wood.
Bronze begins in the Prtodtnastic period, C. 3150 B.C Bronze is an alloy of copper and tin and that is melted together at a lower temper than pouring into a form. After it is cooled they take the form off and than you have your statue. (Woldering 143)
Egyptians simply buried their dead in pits in the sand. They learned that sand did not protect the body or the goods buried with it. Preservation of the body was essential for an afterlife. They also were trying to protect the body from animals. The first step was to encase the grave inside a solid structure, first containers called mastabas, the Arabic world for the benches. From there they stared to build more mastaba on top of a first one, then another until eight were stacked. (Brier)
The ancient Egyptians regarded their temples as the homes of their respective god or deity. The ancient Egyptians believed that temples were the home of gods. Every temple was dedicated to a god and goddess and he or she was worshipped there by the temple priests and the pharaoh. A good example the Luxor temple which was build during the New kingdom period. (Harris 70)
Typical Egyptian temple consisted of four main parts The pylon: was the large gate at the front of the temple. The walls of the pylon were decorated with carved and painted scenes of the pharaoh.Courtyard: the courtyard was a large open room with out a roof . Hypostyle hall: was a large room with columns and most of the room was dark.4. sanctuary: It is in side the hypostyle hall and it was a very dark place only the high priests and the pharaoh could enter the sanctuary. .(Hobbs1 )
The pyramids are one of the seven wonders of the world. The pyramids were built of 6.25 million blocks of stone each stone weighting between 2 to 15 ton and came in about 2550 B.C. and the construction of the Great pyramid is the largest surviving pyramid. (Casson15)
A major problem facing the builders of the Ancient Egyptian Pyramids, was that of getting the Large stone blocks in order to build the pyramids.
External ramp was used to haul blocks up the pyramid. the ramps were built on inclined planes of mud brick and rubble. They then dragged the blocks on sledges to the needed height. As the pyramid grew taller, the ramp had to be extend in length, and its base was widened, else it would collapse. The ramp would have to be three times the size of the pyramid not practical. (McGill)
Levers, the problem here that when the ancient Egyptian used the levers they realized that the top of the pyramids would be a problem.
As the pyramids grow they would build ramp on the out side in spiral that could push up the blocks. The problem with this theory is the corners in the higher levels and weight of the block would be too heavy for the corner to support. (Brier and Hobbs, Pyramid)
It was proposed by Jean-Pierre Houdin, a French architect, his idea involves a ramp, but one on the interior, not the exterior of the pyramid. He used this theory for how to turn block on narrow edge. This ramp was put into use after the lower third of the pyramid was completed and the external ramp had served its purpose. (Harris)
The first problem of construction was aligning the building of the pyramids precisely with the four points of the compass. The ancient Egyptian foretold, that the building should be directly north. Egyptian determined the exact orientation by one fairly simple method. The method is to plant a stick so that it cast no shadow at the noon. If the stick’s shadow were than marked sometime before noon and marked again the same amount of time after noon, true north would lie exactly half way a long a line connecting the two shadow marks. (Krebs)
After that corner blocks of next layer levered into place. Others packed material underneath both the blacks and the levers until they were level with the top of the first layer than they were pushed into place. Then course blocks placed and then edge block for each layer. Than they Smooth the facing blocks that were added from the top downward until the builders had achieved a perfect pyramid shape
Hundreds of men worked on building the pyramid. As they continued to build each level, they also built up the ramps around the pyramid.
When the pyramid was almost finished, a special block covered in the shining metal and it was placed on the top of the pyramid. The blocks were trimmed to make the outside of the pyramid smooth and covered with limestone to give it a nice finish. (Brier and Hobbs, Pyramid)
Hieroglyphics are a form of picture writing. Hieroglyphs were called, by the Egyptians, "the words of God" and were used mainly by the priests. (Arlene)
Hieroglyphs are written in rows or columns and can be read from left to right or from right to left. You can tellthe direction in which the text is to be read because the human or animal figures always face towards the beginning of the line. Also the upper symbols are read before the lower symbols. (Arlene)
Papyrus is a common marsh plant having a triangular reed that used to grow along the banks of the river Nile. How it made? The inner pith of the stem is cut into strips and soaked in water. The strips are then placed side by side with a second layer placed at right angles to the first. The two layers are then beaten with a mallet to break down the fibers and bond the strips together. The sheets are left to dry under weights for several days. The dried sheets are polished with a flat stone to make them smooth and ready for use.3. Besides paper, they also used papyrus reeds for things like baskets, mats, sandals. (Christensen 106)
Jewelry was used in daily life throughout the Pharaonic era until the Roman times. Egyptian were known for keeping a good number of jewelry pieces in the tomb; these were placed on the body of the deceased. A large number of such jewelry was found in tombs like wreath, crowns, or hair band. The Ancient Egyptian, men and women alike, are great lovers of jewelry and adorned themselves with Jewelry. Ancient Egyptians were skilled in making jewelry from solid semiprecious stones and different metals such as gold and silver. Gold was the most common material used in creating Egyptian jewelry as it was easily available from Nubia but silver had to be imported from further away and was therefore more rare. (Woldering 160) shows the art.
Egyptian jewelry was not just made for decorative purpose. It contained symbols that would provide the wearer, dead or alive, with protection and prosperity. Many items of jewelry took the form of amulets designed to ward off the evil eye and protect the wearer from evil forces and other every day dangers. Amulets were made in many forms like scarabs, and the ankh( symbol of eternal life). (christensen 108 )
Astronomy was very important to the ancient Egyptian. The Egyptian made observations of Sirius which first be seen in the dawn star in the night sky. Egyptian astronomy divided the heavenly bodies into three groups : “unwearied stars” (planets), “imperishable stars” stars always visible above the horizon, and “indestructible stars” which is the fixed stars. They know Jupiter, Saturn, Mars, Venus, and possibly Mercury. (krebs) The Ancient Egyptians’ studies of the stars formed the basis of modern astronomy. They were apply to make production about growing and Nile flooding
Theywould draw a north-south axis line on the ground marking its direction, which was required for the proper orientation of important building projects. Such as temples and pyramids were constructed in relation to the stars, and in different towns throughout country, buildings word have a different orientation based on the specific religion of the place. Like temples were often built as that sunlight entered a room at only one precise time of the year. One of the instruments used was called "Merkhet," which could mean "indicator." It isnarrow wooden bar with a hole near one end which the astronomy used to fix the position of the star. (Rosner 20)
Egyptian are credited for inventing the first calendar. The Egyptian arrived at their estimate of the length of the solar year by observing the star Sirius. One day in the summer this star became visible on the horizon just before sun rise. On succeeding day star Sirius was visible for a longer time before the sun rise. The interval between two such days was a bout 365 ¼ days. The 365 days divided the year into twelve months of thirty days each , and into three equal seasons. In addition to these 360 days the Egyptian also introduced five Epagomenal days, because the Egyptian dud not intercalate the additional day every four years,. The civil calendar lost all relation to the seasons. It takes 1460 years for the calendar to set itself right again. However, in order to make the seasonal calendar line up or agree with the astronomical calendar every 4 years a day must be added. This day is February 29th. And when it is added that year called a leap year ( Kline)We use the Egyptian calendar today.
The ancient Egyptians had the earliest examples of the holistic health practitioner. They treated the whole person, physically, mentally, and spiritually. Many of the medicinal herbs we use today were first used by the ancient Egyptians and our knowledge of anatomy was handed down to us by these ancient healers from their experience with mummification. ( Taton 48)
Egyptian physicians were famous for their knowledge and skill. The Egyptians believed that disease and death were caused by a god, a spirit, or some other supernatural force. They had shaman-physicians, who would discover the causing of the disease and then drive it out with magic rituals, as well as medicines. The duties of Egyptian physicians included creating medications, providing magic spells and prayers to provide healing, embalming, surgery, and autopsy. The Egyptian physicians were also excellent observers and they knew the importance of listening to their patients. (Casson 62)Although modern medicine has advanced well beyond spells, many of the practices of the Ancient Egyptians influenced today’s medicine.
A common diseases among the Egyptians was the parasitic disease. Edwin and Ebers papyrus contain recipes and spells for the treatment of a great variety of diseases or symptoms. They discuss the diagnosis of diseases and provide information of an anatomy.Treatment : they call for the treatment of many disorders and the useof a variety of substances, plant, animal, and mineral.Honey and milk were used for the respiratory system as well as throat irritations. Honey, a natural antibiotic, was also widely used to dress wounds. Aloe Vera was used to treat worms, relieve headaches, soothe chest pains, burns, ulcers and for skin diseases. (Brier and Hobbs, Medicine)
Mummification is the preservation of a body, either animal or human. The Egyptian mummies were made by drying the body. They dried the body by using a salt mixture called natron. Natron is a natural substance that is found in abundance along the Nile river. Natron is made up of four salts: sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, sodium chloride, and sodium sulfate. The ancient Egyptians believed that their bodies had to be preserve so they could use them in their afterlife. You may wonder what mummification has to do with the modern world. Actually, funeral directors still use embalming techniques to prepare bodies for burial, perhaps they are not the same, but they are based upon those ancient Egyptian practices .(time life book 150)
First is purifying the body by taken it to tent known as the place of purification. There the embalmers wash the body with good smelling palm wine and rinse it with water from the Nile.2. One of the embalmer's men makes a cut in the left side of the body and removes many of the internal organs. It is important to remove these because they are the first part of the bodydecompose. The liver, lungs, stomach and intestines are wash and packed in natron which will dry them out. The heart is not taken out of the body because it is the center of intelligence and felling and the man will need it in afterlife. Also they used a long hook to smash the brain and pull it out through the nose.3. In the third stab the body is covered and stuffed with natron which will dry it out. All of the fluids, and rags from the embalming process will be save and buried along with the body.( Papanek 27)
4. After forty days the body is washed again with water from the Nile. Then it is covered with oils to help the skin stay elastic. 5. Theystuffed the body with dry materials such as sawdust, leaves and linen so that it looks lifelike. And than the body is covered again with good-smelling oils. It is now ready to be wrapped in linen. 6. sometimes internal organs removed from a body then placed in hollow canopic jars. To product the internal organs. (Papanek 27)
First the head and neck are wrapped with strips of fine linen. Then the fingers and the toes are individually wrapped. The arms and legs are wrapped separately. Between the layers of wrapping the embalmers place amulets too product the body.The arms and legs are tied together. A papyrus scroll with spells from the Book of the Dead is placed between the wrapped hands. More linen strips are wrapped around the body. At every layer, the bandages are painted with liquid resin that helps to glue the bandages together. (Papanek 30)
The Nile came from the Greek word Neilos , but the Egyptian called it simply Iteru, (the river). The Nile was the life blood of ancient Egypt, it also made life possible by benign the major source of water for people.
The land was irrigated annually in a regular way known as "beds" irrigation, which is a system dividing the agricultural land into beds by mud barriers. The water flows into the beds through canals. Each canal carries water to about eight beds, one after the other. In this way, the lands nearer to the river banks have a bigger share of water than the lands farther away. (Challen)
The Egyptians grew their crops along the banks of the River Nile on the rich black soil which was left behind after the yearly floods.
The Egyptian were interested in practical applications of mathematics, not theories. They were very good at manipulating numbers, and used their skill to solve real world problems. They used mathematics in the administration of affairs of the state and church, to determine wages paid to laborers, to measure time, find the height of the Nile flood each year, calculate areas of land, count money, and determine taxes. Math was necessary for the complex engineering used to build the pyramids. Simple mathematics were used by shop keepers and cooks, while more complex mathematics were practiced by the priests and priestesses, overseers in charge of workers, masons, surveyors, engineers, and tax collectors. (Kline 21)
The ancient Egyptians worked from a base of 10 and used hieroglyphic symbols only for the number 1 and for numbers that are powers of 10, such as 100 and 1,000.There are several points to consider about Egyptian mathematics. First, it was based on a decimal (base 10) system that evolved from hieroglyphs into hieratic script after the invention of papyrus. Secondly, it was not a positional system; thus the symbols could be pleased in any order. Third, zero was not exist. (klin27)
Senior project final
Contributions Of Ancient Egypt <br />MerianaBarsoum<br />Mrs. Oren<br />Pd. 7/8<br />
Overview of Presentation <br /> Thesis<br />Relevance<br /> Art <br /> Science<br />Agriculture<br />Mathematics <br />Application <br />Conclusion <br />Citations<br /> Class Activity<br />
Thesis <br />The Ancient civilization of Egypt was able to accomplish many great feats in the areas of art, science, agriculture and mathematics of which enabled the people of this culture to make enormous achievements.<br />
Relevance To Me.<br />This project is relevant to me because as an Egyptian I should know about all the significant contributions that Ancient Egypt has made to the world.<br />
Relevance to you <br /> Everyone should know some history of human achievements and Ancient Egyptians is one of many civilizations that made a huge difference in the world. <br />
Statuary <br />“Statues were among the most important features of Egyptian arts.” ( McGill)<br />http://www.guardians.net/egypt/sphinx/images/sphinx-southeast-2001.jpg<br />
Materials & Tools<br />“Sculpture embraces such varied techniques as modeling, carving , and construction techniques that materially condition the character of the work.” (Brier &Hobbs sculpture ) <br />
Stone Sculpture<br />Primary material in Egyptian sculpture.<br />http://tombsofegypt.com/giza.html<br />
Wood Sculpture <br />Worked with a chisel and an adze<br />http://www.prometheus-imports.com/<br />
Temples <br />“ During the New Kingdom temple of Luxor became the largest and the wealthiest temple complex in Egypt.”( Harris 65)<br />http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?p=49869333<br />
Pyramids<br />“The greatest architectural achievements of the Ancient Egyptians were the Pyramids.” (Casson11)<br />http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/af/All_Gizah_Pyramids.jpg/800px-All_Gizah_Pyramids.jpg<br />
How Were the Pyramids Built?<br />http://egypttourinfo.com<br />
Egyptians invented paper. <br />Papyrus <br />How it is made? <br />How it is used ?<br />http://artfiles.art.com/5/p/LRG/22/2251/UFIZD00Z/egyptian-papyrus-design-v.jpg<br />
Jewelry<br />“Jewelry has played various roles in ancient Egypt. In addition to man's natural attraction to beautiful items. Jewelry had magical significance in the Egyptian ancient world by protecting the wearer from evil.” (Brier &Hobbs, Jewelry )<br />http://www.eternalegypt.org/images/elements/EM-0-0-1-7151-1558_62x62.jpg<br />
Egyptian Calendars <br />“ In 4241 B.C the Egyptian made civil calendar of 365 days for the year.”(Kline)<br />http://www.historylab.org<br />
Medicine<br />“Medicine in Egypt was one trade among many. Trade secrets were handed down from father to son, and there were no medicine schools other than houses of Life.” (Taton 47)<br />http://www.love-egypt.com/medicine.html<br />
Diseases & Treatment <br />“A great deal of our knowledge of ancient Egyptian medicine comes from the Edwin Smith Papyrus and the Ebers Papyrus from the seventeenth and sixteenth centuries B.C.”( Krebs)<br />
Mummification <br />“For the last two hundred year or so, the modern world has been fascinated by the ancient Egyptian practice of mummification.”( Bob 31)<br />What Is Mummification?<br />Why Did The Ancient Egypt Mummify Their Dead ?<br />
The process of mummification<br />The process of Mummification has two stages: <br />First, the Embalming the body <br />Wrapping and burial of the body <br />
The Nile River <br />“The Nile is the longest river in the world, flowing more than 4,000miles north from central Africa to the Mediterranean.” (Christensen 5)<br />http://www.ancientegypt.co.uk/geography/home.html<br />
Agriculture <br />Egyptian farmers divided their year into three seasons, based on the cycles of the River Nile.<br />http://t3.gstatic.com<br />
AkhetThe Flooding Season <br />June- September. <br />No farming was done at this time, as all the fields were flooded. Many farmers worked for the pharaoh instead , building pyramids or temples.<br />http://www.eternalegypt.org<br />
ShemuThe Harvesting Season <br />March – May.<br />The harvest season was the time when crops were cut and gathered. It was also the time to repair the canals ready for the next flood. <br />https://resourcesforhistoryteachers.wikispaces.com<br />
PeretThe Growing Season <br /> October- February:<br />In October the floodwaters receded, leaving behind a layer of rich, black soil. This soli was than ploughed and seeded.<br />(Challen)<br />http://www.eternalegypt.org<br />
Irrigation <br />The Nile is a source of irrigation for farming.<br />How the Egyptian used Irrigation?<br />
Farmers &Crops <br />Egyptians grew crops such as wheat, barley, vegetables, figs, melons, pomegranates and vines.<br />http://www.eternalegypt.org<br />
Mathematics <br />“Egyptian mathematics concerned itself primarily with the practical elements of basic arithmetic that could be used in daily life.” (Krebs)<br />What are the use of mathematic?<br />
The Arithmetic <br />http://www.eyelid.co.uk/pics/numexam2.gif<br />
After doing the research and learning so much about Ancient Egyptian art, science, agriculture, and mathematics. I have come to appreciate their contributions so much more. <br />Conclusion <br />
Application <br />First part of my is setting up an Egyptian table during the diversity day.<br />Egyptian arts<br />Food<br />music<br />
Application <br />Second part of my application is I had a discussion with the kids at the Coptic Orthodox church about Egypt.<br />Class discussion <br />Class activity <br />
Class Activity <br />Writing your name in the hieroglyphic language.<br />
Work Cited <br />Brier, BOB, and HOTY HOBBS. “Daily Life Of The Ancient Egyptians.” Daily life through history: Medicine: n. page. Daily Life Online. Web. 23 Feb. 2010.<br />BRIER, BOB, and HOYT HOBBS. “Daily life of the Ancient Egyptians: Jewelry.” Daily Life Of The Ancient Egyptians (Feb. 2010): n. page. Daily Life Through History. Web. 20 Apr. 2010. <http://dailylife.greenwood.com/.aspx?K=3&x=GR5306&p=GR5306-633>.<br />Brier, Bob and Hoyt Hobbs. “Daliy Life through History: Sculpture “from Daly life of the ancient Egyptian. Daily life online. Greenwood publishing Group. 23 February 2010.<br />Brier, Bob. “How to Build a Pyramid.” Archaeology May-June 2007: 22-27. History Reference Center. EBSCO. Web. 1 Dec. 2009. <http://search.ebscohost.com/.aspx?direct=true&db=khh&AN=24510597&site=ehost-live>. <br />Casson, Lionel. Daily Life In Ancient Egypt . New York : American Heritage , 1975. Print.<br />
Work cited <br />Challen, Paul. “Scientific Egypt.” Life in Ancient Egypt (2005): n. pag. History Reference Center. Web. 11 Nov. 2009. <http:// search.ebscohost.com/.aspx?direct=true&db=khh&AN=18062843&site=ehost-live>.<br />Christensen, Wendy. Empire Of Ancient Egypt. New York: n.p. 2005. Print.<br />http://www.love-egypt.com/egypt-civilzation.html. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 May 2010.<br />Eternal Egypt. Cultnat IBM, 2005. Web. 1 Dec. 2009. <http://www.eternalegypt.org//?ee_website_action_key=action.display.context&language_id=1&ee_messages<br />Harris, Geraldine. Ancient Egypt. N.p.: n.p., 2005. Print. Cultural Atlas For Young People..<br />
Work cited <br />Inside the Pyramids. Discovery Education, 2005. Discovery Education streaming. Web. 14 May 2010. <http://www.dicoveryeducation.com>.<br />KLINE, MORRIS. Mathematical Thought from Ancient to Modern time. New York: n.p., 1990. Print.<br />Krebs, Carolyn A, and Rebert E Krebs. “Groundbreaking Scientific Experiments, Inventions, and Discoveries: Medicine and Health: Medicine in Egypt.” Daily Life through History (Feb. 2010): n. pag. Daily Life Online. Web. 20 Apr. 2010. <<br />McGill, Sara Ann “Egyptian Art & Architecture. “Egyptian Art & Architecture (2009): 1-2. History Reference Center. EBSCO. Web.9 NOV. 2009<br />Taton, Rene. Ancient And Medieval Science. New York: n.p., 1957. Print.. <br />Time Life Book, ed. Egypt Land of the Pharaohs. Alexandria : n.p., 1992. Print.<br />Woldering, Irmgard. The Art Of Egypt. New York: n.p., 1963. Print <br />