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Senior project final


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Senior project final

  1. 1. Contributions Of Ancient Egypt <br />MerianaBarsoum<br />Mrs. Oren<br />Pd. 7/8<br />
  2. 2. Overview of Presentation <br /> Thesis<br />Relevance<br /> Art <br /> Science<br />Agriculture<br />Mathematics <br />Application <br />Conclusion <br />Citations<br /> Class Activity<br />
  3. 3. Thesis <br />The Ancient civilization of Egypt was able to accomplish many great feats in the areas of art, science, agriculture and mathematics of which enabled the people of this culture to make enormous achievements.<br />
  4. 4. Relevance To Me.<br />This project is relevant to me because as an Egyptian I should know about all the significant contributions that Ancient Egypt has made to the world.<br />
  5. 5. Relevance to you <br /> Everyone should know some history of human achievements and Ancient Egyptians is one of many civilizations that made a huge difference in the world. <br />
  6. 6. Egyptian Art<br />Sculpture<br /><br />
  7. 7. Statuary <br />“Statues were among the most important features of Egyptian arts.” ( McGill)<br /><br />
  8. 8. Materials & Tools<br />“Sculpture embraces such varied techniques as modeling, carving , and construction techniques that materially condition the character of the work.” (Brier &Hobbs sculpture ) <br />
  9. 9. Stone Sculpture<br />Primary material in Egyptian sculpture.<br /><br />
  10. 10. Wood Sculpture <br />Worked with a chisel and an adze<br /><br />
  11. 11. Bronze Sculpture <br /><br />
  12. 12. Clay sculpture<br />Shaped by hand or spun on pottery wheel.<br /><br />
  13. 13. Egyptian Architecture<br />Tombs<br />Temples<br />Pyramids<br /><br />
  14. 14. Tombs<br /><br />
  15. 15. Temples <br />“ During the New Kingdom temple of Luxor became the largest and the wealthiest temple complex in Egypt.”( Harris 65)<br /><br />
  16. 16.<br />
  17. 17. Pyramids<br />“The greatest architectural achievements of the Ancient Egyptians were the Pyramids.” (Casson11)<br /><br />
  18. 18. How Were the Pyramids Built?<br /><br />
  19. 19. External Ramp<br />
  20. 20. Levers theory <br /><br />
  21. 21. External Corkscrew Ramp <br /><br />
  22. 22. Internal Ramp <br />Jean – PirrereHoudin. <br /><br />
  23. 23. First Step in Pyramid Construction<br />Finding the true north. <br /><br />
  24. 24. Second step <br />Level the ground so that each layer is built up until it is one or two yards above the one below.<br />
  25. 25. Third step <br />After the first level of blocks was in place, they built ramps of mud bricks, limestone chips and clay to make it level . <br />
  26. 26. Fourth step<br />Finishing up the pyramids!!!!<br />
  27. 27. Egyptian Writing <br />“Hieroglyphic writing was in use from around 3200 BC until the the late 4th century AD. It was used extensively for some 3000 years.” (Woldering 34)<br />
  28. 28.
  29. 29. Egyptians invented paper. <br />Papyrus <br />How it is made? <br />How it is used ?<br /><br />
  30. 30. Jewelry<br />“Jewelry has played various roles in ancient Egypt. In addition to man's natural attraction to beautiful items. Jewelry had magical significance in the Egyptian ancient world by protecting the wearer from evil.” (Brier &Hobbs, Jewelry )<br /><br />
  31. 31. Amulets<br /><br />
  32. 32. Astronomy <br />“Unwearied stars”:Planets <br />“Imperishable stars”: visible stars<br />“indestructible stars”: fixed stars<br />
  33. 33. Astronomical Instruments<br /><br />
  34. 34. Egyptian Calendars <br />“ In 4241 B.C the Egyptian made civil calendar of 365 days for the year.”(Kline)<br /><br />
  35. 35. Medicine<br />“Medicine in Egypt was one trade among many. Trade secrets were handed down from father to son, and there were no medicine schools other than houses of Life.” (Taton 47)<br /><br />
  36. 36. Egyptian physicians<br /><br /><br />
  37. 37. Diseases & Treatment <br />“A great deal of our knowledge of ancient Egyptian medicine comes from the Edwin Smith Papyrus and the Ebers Papyrus from the seventeenth and sixteenth centuries B.C.”( Krebs)<br />
  38. 38. Mummification <br />“For the last two hundred year or so, the modern world has been fascinated by the ancient Egyptian practice of mummification.”( Bob 31)<br />What Is Mummification?<br />Why Did The Ancient Egypt Mummify Their Dead ?<br />
  39. 39. The process of mummification<br />The process of Mummification has two stages: <br />First, the Embalming the body <br />Wrapping and burial of the body <br />
  40. 40. Embalming <br />
  41. 41. Embalming <br /><br />
  42. 42. Wrapping <br /><br />
  43. 43. The Nile River <br />“The Nile is the longest river in the world, flowing more than 4,000miles north from central Africa to the Mediterranean.” (Christensen 5)<br /><br />
  44. 44. Agriculture <br />Egyptian farmers divided their year into three seasons, based on the cycles of the River Nile.<br /><br />
  45. 45. AkhetThe Flooding Season <br />June- September. <br />No farming was done at this time, as all the fields were flooded. Many farmers worked for the pharaoh instead , building pyramids or temples.<br /><br />
  46. 46. ShemuThe Harvesting Season <br />March – May.<br />The harvest season was the time when crops were cut and gathered. It was also the time to repair the canals ready for the next flood. <br /><br />
  47. 47. PeretThe Growing Season <br /> October- February:<br />In October the floodwaters receded, leaving behind a layer of rich, black soil. This soli was than ploughed and seeded.<br />(Challen)<br /><br />
  48. 48. Irrigation <br />The Nile is a source of irrigation for farming.<br />How the Egyptian used Irrigation?<br />
  49. 49. Farmers &Crops <br />Egyptians grew crops such as wheat, barley, vegetables, figs, melons, pomegranates and vines.<br /><br />
  50. 50.
  51. 51. Mathematics <br />“Egyptian mathematics concerned itself primarily with the practical elements of basic arithmetic that could be used in daily life.” (Krebs)<br />What are the use of mathematic?<br />
  52. 52. The Arithmetic <br /><br />
  53. 53. After doing the research and learning so much about Ancient Egyptian art, science, agriculture, and mathematics. I have come to appreciate their contributions so much more. <br />Conclusion <br />
  54. 54. Application <br />
  55. 55. Application <br />First part of my is setting up an Egyptian table during the diversity day.<br />Egyptian arts<br />Food<br />music<br />
  56. 56. Application <br />Second part of my application is I had a discussion with the kids at the Coptic Orthodox church about Egypt.<br />Class discussion <br />Class activity <br />
  57. 57. Class Activity <br />Writing your name in the hieroglyphic language.<br />
  58. 58. Work Cited <br />Brier, BOB, and HOTY HOBBS. “Daily Life Of The Ancient Egyptians.” Daily life through history: Medicine: n. page. Daily Life Online. Web. 23 Feb. 2010.<br />BRIER, BOB, and HOYT HOBBS. “Daily life of the Ancient Egyptians: Jewelry.” Daily Life Of The Ancient Egyptians (Feb. 2010): n. page. Daily Life Through History. Web. 20 Apr. 2010. <>.<br />Brier, Bob and Hoyt Hobbs. “Daliy Life through History: Sculpture “from Daly life of the ancient Egyptian. Daily life online. Greenwood publishing Group. 23 February 2010.<br />Brier, Bob. “How to Build a Pyramid.” Archaeology May-June 2007: 22-27. History Reference Center. EBSCO. Web. 1 Dec. 2009. <>. <br />Casson, Lionel. Daily Life In Ancient Egypt . New York : American Heritage , 1975. Print.<br />
  59. 59. Work cited <br />Challen, Paul. “Scientific Egypt.” Life in Ancient Egypt (2005): n. pag. History Reference Center. Web. 11 Nov. 2009. <http://>.<br />Christensen, Wendy. Empire Of Ancient Egypt. New York: n.p. 2005. Print.<br />‌egypt-civilzation.html. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 May 2010.<br />Eternal Egypt. Cultnat IBM, 2005. Web. 1 Dec. 2009. <<br />Harris, Geraldine. Ancient Egypt. N.p.: n.p., 2005. Print. Cultural Atlas For Young People..<br />
  60. 60. Work cited <br />Inside the Pyramids. Discovery Education, 2005. Discovery Education streaming. Web. 14 May 2010. <>.<br />KLINE, MORRIS. Mathematical Thought from Ancient to Modern time. New York: n.p.,      1990. Print.<br />Krebs, Carolyn A, and Rebert E Krebs. “Groundbreaking Scientific Experiments, Inventions, and Discoveries: Medicine and Health: Medicine in Egypt.” Daily Life through History (Feb. 2010): n. pag. Daily Life Online. Web. 20 Apr. 2010. <<br />McGill, Sara Ann “Egyptian Art & Architecture. “Egyptian Art & Architecture (2009): 1-2. History Reference Center. EBSCO. Web.9 NOV. 2009<br />Taton, Rene. Ancient And Medieval Science. New York: n.p., 1957. Print.. <br />Time Life Book, ed. Egypt Land of the Pharaohs. Alexandria : n.p., 1992. Print.<br />Woldering, Irmgard. The Art Of Egypt. New York: n.p., 1963. Print <br />