Title ix


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Title ix

  1. 1. Title IX<br />By Mike Barbati<br />
  2. 2. Title IX<br />Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 was first enacted on June 23, 1972<br />The law states The law states that<br />"No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance..."<br />—United States Code Section 20, <br />Title IX is widely known for helping women in sports but in the books it states nothing about it<br />
  3. 3. The History <br />The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was a major step in the history of this act<br />It was originally written in order to end discrimination based on race, color, or national origin <br />But in fact it ended up helping to energize the women’s rights movement which had somewhat slowed after women’s suffrage in 1920<br />
  4. 4. History Cont.<br />In 1969, emerging activist Bernice Sandler used the executive order to help her fight for her job at the University of Maryland.<br />She used university statistics showing how female employment at the university had plummeted as qualified women were replaced by men.<br />Citing inequalities in pay, rank, admissions and much more, others began to file complaints not only against the University of Maryland but numerous other colleges as well<br />In the coming years, this sparked over 250 other lawsuits at other colleges and Universities.<br />
  5. 5. Cont.<br />Title IX was first introduced in 1970<br />Title IX was drafted and introduced by Congresswoman Patsy T. Mink, with the assistance of Congresswoman Green.<br />In the hearing there was very little mention of athletics.<br />The focus was more basedon the hiring and employment practices of federally financed institutions<br />
  6. 6. Title IX Passed<br />Title IX was passed into law on June 23, 1972.<br />Many men worried how this would affect men’s athletics as they tried to at first limit the influence of Title IX<br />One attempt was by Senator John Tower who introduced an amendment to exempt revenue producing sports from Title IX compliance<br />Later that year the Tower amendment was rejected and the Javits amendment was put in its place<br />The Javits amendment, proposed by Senator Jacob Javits, stated that the HEW must include “reasonable provisions considering the nature of particular sports<br />
  7. 7. Cont.<br />In June 1975,the way that title IX would be enforced was published.<br />Universities were given 3 years to comply with these standards.<br />Title IX is administered by the Office for Civil Rights in the U.S. Department of Education.<br />It applies to an entire school or institution if any part of that school receives federal funds; hence, athletic programs are subject to Title IX, even though there is very little direct federal funding of school sports.<br />
  8. 8. Compliance<br />There are three prongs to the compliance of title IX.<br />One of the three must be adhered to in order to be considered compliant of title IX<br />Prong one - Providing athletic participation opportunities that are substantially proportionate to the student enrollment, OR<br />Prong two - Demonstrate a continual expansion of athletic opportunities for the underrepresented sex, OR<br />Prong three - Full and effective accommodation of the interest and ability of underrepresented sex.<br />
  9. 9. Impact<br />Studies show that the increase of women’s participation in athletics is correlated with the title IX act.<br />One study, completed in 2006, pointed to a large increase in the number of women participating in athletics at both the high school and college level. <br />The number of women in high school sports had increased by a factor of nine, while the number of women in college sports had increased by more than 450%<br />