More Content                   in Less Time Applying the secrets of Lean Thinking andAgile Programming to the creation of ...
Productivity is key• Product design• Manufacturing• Software  development• Content  developmentJanuary 29, 2013    © Anale...
Lean manufacturing• Toyota produces a  new vehicle in one  year compared to two  to three years for  North American  compe...
Agile programming                   • State of Florida Statewide                     Automated Child Welfare              ...
Lean thinking  • Toyota Production System    (TPS)  • “Lean Thinking” study of TPS      – James P. Womack      – Daniel T....
Five principles• Specify value: waste is any process that does not add value to the  customer. In order to identify waste,...
Batch and Queue ManufacturingJanuary 29, 2013   © Analecta Communications Inc. 20057
Manufacturing FlowJanuary 29, 2013   © Analecta Communications Inc. 20058
Batch and Queue ContentJanuary 29, 2013   © Analecta Communications Inc. 20059
Documentation beefs• The spec keeps  changing• The developers won’t  review the docs    – Carrot approach    – Stick appro...
Content FlowJanuary 29, 2013   © Analecta Communications Inc. 200511
Promotes learning                                    • Errors are discovered                                      sooner  ...
More efficient                                    • Better utilization of                                      resources  ...
Catches more errors                                    • Reviewers can focus                                      on one i...
Improves completeness                                    • Reviewer reading a                                      book ca...
Builds awareness                                     • When work flows,                                       workers can ...
Waterfall design process                                     Requirements                                      System desi...
Waterfall doesn’t work                                      • Keep trying to “get it                                      ...
Why waterfall fails                                  • Design generates                                    information    ...
Information theory                                    • Events that are less                                      probable...
Embrace change                                       • Information will                                         increase  ...
Agile software development                                           • Iterative                                          ...
Agile content development                                      • Iterative                                        developm...
Iterative development                                 • Develop content in                                   small chunks ...
User stories                                • Support user tasks                                • Use personas            ...
Frequent deliveries to customer                               • Publish continuously                               • Make ...
Keep your options open                                    • Learn first, then                                      write  ...
Do the simplest thing that works                                    • Don’t try to guess                                  ...
Refactor constantly                                       • Maintain                                         simplicity by...
Evenness • You don’t win the   Tour de France by   trying to win all stages • Different techniques   optimize different   ...
Reading List                                • “More Content in Less Time”,                                  Mark Baker, Be...
Contact information                               • Mark Baker                               • Analecta                   ...
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Applying the lessons of Lean Thinking and agile programming to content creation.

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More content in less time

  1. 1. More Content in Less Time Applying the secrets of Lean Thinking andAgile Programming to the creation of content. Mark Baker, Analecta Communications Inc.
  2. 2. Productivity is key• Product design• Manufacturing• Software development• Content developmentJanuary 29, 2013 © Analecta Communications Inc. 20052
  3. 3. Lean manufacturing• Toyota produces a new vehicle in one year compared to two to three years for North American competition.• Toyota produces better cars at competitive prices yet makes more moneyJanuary 29, 2013 © Analecta Communications Inc. 20053
  4. 4. Agile programming • State of Florida Statewide Automated Child Welfare Information System – Started 1990, estimated $32M, delivery 1998 – As of 2002, spent $170M, estimated $230M, delivery 2005 • State of Minnesota Statewide Automated Child Welfare Information System – Started 1999, finished 2000, cost 1.1 million.January 29, 2013 © Analecta Communications Inc. 20054
  5. 5. Lean thinking • Toyota Production System (TPS) • “Lean Thinking” study of TPS – James P. Womack – Daniel T. Jones – Studied Toyota and other companies – Derived set of principles dubbed “Lean Thinking”January 29, 2013 © Analecta Communications Inc. 20055
  6. 6. Five principles• Specify value: waste is any process that does not add value to the customer. In order to identify waste, you must first specify what is of value.• Identify the value stream: trace how value is added to a product at each stage of the productive process. Waste is all the steps in the process that do not add value.• Flow: The productive process should flow without interruption, without waiting, and without unnecessary movement.• Pull: Nothing should be produced until it is needed by the next step in the process.• Perfection: An organization must be committed to building and maintaining a culture in which every employee is dedicated to reducing waste and improving quality. Womack and Jones, pp 16-26.January 29, 2013 © Analecta Communications Inc. 20056
  7. 7. Batch and Queue ManufacturingJanuary 29, 2013 © Analecta Communications Inc. 20057
  8. 8. Manufacturing FlowJanuary 29, 2013 © Analecta Communications Inc. 20058
  9. 9. Batch and Queue ContentJanuary 29, 2013 © Analecta Communications Inc. 20059
  10. 10. Documentation beefs• The spec keeps changing• The developers won’t review the docs – Carrot approach – Stick approachJanuary 29, 2013 © Analecta Communications Inc. 200510
  11. 11. Content FlowJanuary 29, 2013 © Analecta Communications Inc. 200511
  12. 12. Promotes learning • Errors are discovered sooner • Errors in content result from defects in knowledge • Fix the defects in your knowledge so you can produce better content fasterJanuary 29, 2013 © Analecta Communications Inc. 200512
  13. 13. More efficient • Better utilization of resources • No crunch at the end of the project • Errors detected sooner means better understanding, which means fewer errors are madeJanuary 29, 2013 © Analecta Communications Inc. 200513
  14. 14. Catches more errors • Reviewers can focus on one issue at a time • Catch developers while details fresh in their mindsJanuary 29, 2013 © Analecta Communications Inc. 200514
  15. 15. Improves completeness • Reviewer reading a book can’t see the trees for the forest • Focusing on one issue leads developers to ask where related issues are discussedJanuary 29, 2013 © Analecta Communications Inc. 200515
  16. 16. Builds awareness • When work flows, workers can see how their work affects the rest of the process. • With incremental review, developers can see how their work affects documentation • More likely to inform writers of design changesJanuary 29, 2013 © Analecta Communications Inc. 200516
  17. 17. Waterfall design process Requirements System design Analysis Program Design Coding Testing DeliveryJanuary 29, 2013 © Analecta Communications Inc. 200517
  18. 18. Waterfall doesn’t work • Keep trying to “get it right the first time” • But we never do! • Insanity: doing the same thing over and over and expecting different results EinsteinJanuary 29, 2013 © Analecta Communications Inc. 200518
  19. 19. Why waterfall fails • Design generates information – Go from not knowing how to knowing how – At the start you have little information – At the end you have a lot of information • Decisions fixed at the beginning are based on very little informationJanuary 29, 2013 © Analecta Communications Inc. 200519
  20. 20. Information theory • Events that are less probable contain more information. • The closer our first-pass success rate is to 100 percent, the lower the information generation rate. This means that if we succeed at doing things right the first time we will have driven all information generation out of our design process. Reinertsen, Managing the Design Factory, pp 69,79January 29, 2013 © Analecta Communications Inc. 200520
  21. 21. Embrace change • Information will increase • Designs will change • Content requirements will change • Content will changeJanuary 29, 2013 © Analecta Communications Inc. 200521
  22. 22. Agile software development • Iterative development • User stories • Frequent deliveries to customer • Keep your options open • Do the simplest thing that works • Refactor constantlyJanuary 29, 2013 © Analecta Communications Inc. 200522
  23. 23. Agile content development • Iterative development • User stories • Frequent deliveries to customer • Keep your options open • Do the simplest thing that works • Refactor constantlyJanuary 29, 2013 © Analecta Communications Inc. 200523
  24. 24. Iterative development • Develop content in small chunks • Use incremental review • Harmonize content development with product developmentJanuary 29, 2013 © Analecta Communications Inc. 200524
  25. 25. User stories • Support user tasks • Use personas • Minimalism – Deliver only content that is known to be of value to customersJanuary 29, 2013 © Analecta Communications Inc. 200525
  26. 26. Frequent deliveries to customer • Publish continuously • Make sure content is published to all alpha and beta tests, internal and external • Mark pages as un- reviewed with appropriate cautions, but make sure they are read early and often • Provide a feedback mechanismJanuary 29, 2013 © Analecta Communications Inc. 200526
  27. 27. Keep your options open • Learn first, then write • Start as late as possible – More information is available later • Isolate volatility – Media – Subject matterJanuary 29, 2013 © Analecta Communications Inc. 200527
  28. 28. Do the simplest thing that works • Don’t try to guess what future needs will be. – You will guess wrong and waste effort • Do the simplest thing that works today • The simplest solution will be easiest to change when future needs ariseJanuary 29, 2013 © Analecta Communications Inc. 200528
  29. 29. Refactor constantly • Maintain simplicity by refactoring to eliminate complexity and redundancyJanuary 29, 2013 © Analecta Communications Inc. 200529
  30. 30. Evenness • You don’t win the Tour de France by trying to win all stages • Different techniques optimize different parts of the process • Strive for evenness • Optimize the whole rather than the partsJanuary 29, 2013 © Analecta Communications Inc. 200530
  31. 31. Reading List • “More Content in Less Time”, Mark Baker, Best Practices, forthcoming. • Lean Thinking, James P. Womack and Daniel T. Jones, The Free Press, 2003. • The Toyota Way, Jeffrey K. Liker, McGraw Hill, 2004. • Managing the Design Factory, Donald G. Reinertsen, The Free Press, 1997. • Lean Software Development, Mary Poppendieck and Tom Poppendieck, Addison Wesley, 2003.January 29, 2013 © Analecta Communications Inc. 200531
  32. 32. Contact information • Mark Baker • Analecta Communications Inc. • www.analecta.com • mbaker@analecta.com • 613-731-2555January 29, 2013 © Analecta Communications Inc. 200532

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