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PDU 214 Methods of Observation & Interviewing: Interviewing Skills & Techniques

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What is interviewing? What skills and techniques needed to interview?
(Lecture slides mostly in English)

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PDU 214 Methods of Observation & Interviewing: Interviewing Skills & Techniques

  1. 1. INTERVIEWING
 SKILLS & TECHNIQUES PDU 214 METODE OBSERVASI & WAWANCARA SEMESTER GENAP 2014/2015 Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya KULIAH IV - 09 FEBRUARI 2015
  2. 2. THE
 DEFINITION ICON CREDIT: Book by P.J. Onori from the Noun Project
  3. 3. Ardhiati © 2015PDU 214 METODE OBSERVASI & WAWANCARA Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya “ ” Research data AND ITS RELEVANCE TO INTERVIEWING (Research) “Data” refers to a collection of organized information,
 usually the result of experience, observation, experiment. . . .
 This may consist of numbers, words, or images,
 particularly as measurements or observations
 of a set of variables. (Research) “Data” are the smallest or lowest entities
 or recorded elements resulting from some experience,
 observation, experiment, or other similar situation. (Yin, 2011)
  4. 4. Ardhiati © 2015PDU 214 METODE OBSERVASI & WAWANCARA Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya Research data AND ITS RELEVANCE TO INTERVIEWING words images (Yin, 2011) IMAGE CREDIT:
 A Bowl of Random Words on abowlofrandomwords.wordpress.com
  5. 5. Ardhiati © 2015PDU 214 METODE OBSERVASI & WAWANCARA Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya Research data AND ITS RELEVANCE TO INTERVIEWING QUALITATIVE
 RESEARCH words images (Yin, 2011) IMAGE CREDIT:
 A Bowl of Random Words on abowlofrandomwords.wordpress.com
  6. 6. Ardhiati © 2015PDU 214 METODE OBSERVASI & WAWANCARA Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya The definition in·ter·view ˈin(t)ərˌvyo͞o/ noun 1. a meeting of people face to face, especially for consultation. 1.1. a conversation between a journalist or radio or televesion presenter and a person of public interest, used as the basis of a broadcast or publication “a half-hour interview with the prime minister.” 1.2. an oral examination of an applicant for a job college place, etc. “I am pleased to advise you that you have been selected for interview.” 1.3. a session of formal questioning of a person by the police “It regards a course of official questioning by a police officer as an interview.” verb 1. [WITH OBJECT] hold an interview with (someone). “She was interviewed by a reporter from the Daily News.” “Police are keen to interview two men seen nearby.” 1.1. [NO OBJECT] perform (well or badly) at an interview “He had the grades and the references from his school, and according to his teachers he would interview well.” (Oxford Dictionary)
  7. 7. Ardhiati © 2015PDU 214 METODE OBSERVASI & WAWANCARA Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya “ ” An interview is a conversation, usually between two people, where one person the interviewer - is seeking responses for a particular purpose from the other person: the interviewee. (Gillham, 2000) The definition
  8. 8. Ardhiati © 2015PDU 214 METODE OBSERVASI & WAWANCARA Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya The main features The relationship between R and E is responsive or interactive Questions asked,
 or topics raised,
 are ‘open’ with
 the E determining their own answers There is structure and purpose on the part of the R (Gillham, 2000) ICON CREDITS: Question by Stefano Vetere, Friends by Javier Sánchez - javyliu,
 Target by Laurent Patain, from the Noun Project
  9. 9. THE
 ELEMENTS ICON CREDIT: Rice by OCHA Visual Information Unit from the Noun Project
  10. 10. Ardhiati © 2015PDU 214 METODE OBSERVASI & WAWANCARA Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya The elements of interviewing P e r c e p t i o n s E R Roles E R Roles P e r c e p t i o n sP e r c e p t i o n s PARTIES Feedback Communication Initiator 1 2 3 Communication Interactions Situational Variables Outside Forces Family Associates Friends Employers Govt. agencies Prof. associations Etc. (Stewart & Cash, 2014)
  11. 11. Ardhiati © 2015PDU 214 METODE OBSERVASI & WAWANCARA Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya P e r c e p t i o n s P e r c e p t i o n sP e r c e p t i o n s The elements of interviewing E R Roles E R Roles PARTIES Feedback Communication Initiator 1 2 3 Communication Interactions Situational Variables Outside Forces Family Associates Friends Employers Govt. agencies Prof. associations Etc. TWO PARTIES (Stewart & Cash, 2014)
  12. 12. Ardhiati © 2015PDU 214 METODE OBSERVASI & WAWANCARA Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya The elements of interviewing There is a relational nature of the interview process
 in which two parties do something with, not to one another. The parties are connected interpersonally
 because each has a stake in outcome of the interview. PARTIES TWO PARTIES (Stewart & Cash, 2014)
  13. 13. Ardhiati © 2015PDU 214 METODE OBSERVASI & WAWANCARA Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya The elements of interviewing RELATIONAL DIMENSIONS Similarity Inclusion Affection Control Trust TWO PARTIES ICON CREDITS: Agreement by gira Park, Dance by Thomas Le Bas, Heart by Joris Hoogendoorn,
 Play by Björn Andersson, Lock by Thomas Le Bas, from the Noun Project PARTIES (Stewart & Cash, 2014)
  14. 14. Ardhiati © 2015PDU 214 METODE OBSERVASI & WAWANCARA Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya P e r c e p t i o n s P e r c e p t i o n sP e r c e p t i o n s The elements of interviewing E R Roles E R Roles PARTIES Feedback Communication Initiator 1 2 3 Communication Interactions Situational Variables Outside Forces Family Associates Friends Employers Govt. agencies Prof. associations Etc. TWO PARTIES (Stewart & Cash, 2014)
  15. 15. Ardhiati © 2015PDU 214 METODE OBSERVASI & WAWANCARA Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya P e r c e p t i o n s P e r c e p t i o n sP e r c e p t i o n s The elements of interviewing E R Roles E R Roles PARTIES Feedback Communication Initiator 1 2 3 Communication Interactions Situational Variables Outside Forces Family Associates Friends Employers Govt. agencies Prof. associations Etc. INTERCHANGING ROLES (Stewart & Cash, 2014)
  16. 16. Ardhiati © 2015PDU 214 METODE OBSERVASI & WAWANCARA Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya The elements of interviewing Human communicators are always sending and receiving simultaneously.
 As a result, each communicator has the opportunity
 to change how things are going at any time in the process. INTERCHANGING ROLES E R Roles E R Roles PARTIES (Stewart & Cash, 2014)
  17. 17. Ardhiati © 2015PDU 214 METODE OBSERVASI & WAWANCARA Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya The elements of interviewing The degree to which roles are exchanged and control is shared
 is often affected by the status or expertise of the parties,
 who initiate the interview, type of interview,
 situation, and atmosphere of the interaction. INTERCHANGING ROLES Directive Combination Nondirective ICON CREDITS: Go-Top by iconsmind.com, Arrow-Squiggly by iconsmind.com,
 Arrow-Refresh by iconsmind.com from the Noun Project E R Roles E R Roles PARTIES (Stewart & Cash, 2014)
  18. 18. Ardhiati © 2015PDU 214 METODE OBSERVASI & WAWANCARA Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya P e r c e p t i o n s P e r c e p t i o n sP e r c e p t i o n s The elements of interviewing E R Roles E R Roles PARTIES Feedback Communication Initiator 1 2 3 Communication Interactions Situational Variables Outside Forces Family Associates Friends Employers Govt. agencies Prof. associations Etc. INTERCHANGING ROLES (Stewart & Cash, 2014)
  19. 19. Ardhiati © 2015PDU 214 METODE OBSERVASI & WAWANCARA Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya P e r c e p t i o n sP e r c e p t i o n s The elements of interviewing P e r c e p t i o n s E R Roles E R Roles PARTIES Feedback Communication Initiator 1 2 3 Communication Interactions Situational Variables Outside Forces Family Associates Friends Employers Govt. agencies Prof. associations Etc. PERCEPTIONS OF R & E (Stewart & Cash, 2014)
  20. 20. Ardhiati © 2015PDU 214 METODE OBSERVASI & WAWANCARA Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya The elements of interviewing Each party comes to an interview with perceptions of self and of the other party,
 and these perceptions may change positively or negatively
 as the interview progresses. PERCEPTIONS OF R & E P e r c e p t i o n s E R Roles E R Roles PARTIES (Stewart & Cash, 2014)
  21. 21. Ardhiati © 2015PDU 214 METODE OBSERVASI & WAWANCARA Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya P e r c e p t i o n sP e r c e p t i o n s The elements of interviewing P e r c e p t i o n s E R Roles E R Roles PARTIES Feedback Communication Initiator 1 2 3 Communication Interactions Situational Variables Outside Forces Family Associates Friends Employers Govt. agencies Prof. associations Etc. PERCEPTIONS OF R & E (Stewart & Cash, 2014)
  22. 22. Ardhiati © 2015PDU 214 METODE OBSERVASI & WAWANCARA Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya P e r c e p t i o n sP e r c e p t i o n s The elements of interviewing P e r c e p t i o n s E R Roles E R Roles PARTIES Feedback Communication Initiator 1 2 3 Communication Interactions Situational Variables Outside Forces Family Associates Friends Employers Govt. agencies Prof. associations Etc. COMMUNICATION INTERACTIONS (Stewart & Cash, 2014)
  23. 23. Ardhiati © 2015PDU 214 METODE OBSERVASI & WAWANCARA Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya The elements of interviewing RELATIONAL DIMENSIONS The levels differ in relational distance, self-disclosure, risk encountered,
 perceived meanings, and amount and type of contect exchanged. COMMUNICATION INTERACTIONS P e r c e p t i o n s E R Roles E R Roles PARTIES 1 2 3 Communication Interactions (Stewart & Cash, 2014)
  24. 24. Ardhiati © 2015PDU 214 METODE OBSERVASI & WAWANCARA Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya The elements of interviewing RELATIONAL DIMENSIONS The levels differ in relational distance, self-disclosure, risk encountered,
 perceived meanings, and amount and type of contect exchanged. COMMUNICATION INTERACTIONS P e r c e p t i o n s E R Roles E R Roles PARTIES 1 2 3 Communication Interactions 1 relatively safe, nonthreatening exchanged about such topics as hometowns, professions, sporting events, college courses, and families. (Stewart & Cash, 2014)
  25. 25. Ardhiati © 2015PDU 214 METODE OBSERVASI & WAWANCARA Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya The elements of interviewing RELATIONAL DIMENSIONS The levels differ in relational distance, self-disclosure, risk encountered,
 perceived meanings, and amount and type of contect exchanged. COMMUNICATION INTERACTIONS P e r c e p t i o n s E R Roles E R Roles PARTIES 1 2 3 Communication Interactions 1 relatively safe, nonthreatening exchanged about such topics as hometowns, professions, sporting events, college courses, and families. 2 deal with personal or controversial topics and probe into beliefs, attitudes, values, and positions. (Stewart & Cash, 2014)
  26. 26. Ardhiati © 2015PDU 214 METODE OBSERVASI & WAWANCARA Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya The elements of interviewing RELATIONAL DIMENSIONS The levels differ in relational distance, self-disclosure, risk encountered,
 perceived meanings, and amount and type of contect exchanged. COMMUNICATION INTERACTIONS P e r c e p t i o n s E R Roles E R Roles PARTIES 1 2 3 Communication Interactions 1 relatively safe, nonthreatening exchanged about such topics as hometowns, professions, sporting events, college courses, and families. 2 deal with personal or controversial topics and probe into beliefs, attitudes, values, and positions. 3 deal with more personal and controversial areas of inquiries; respondents fully disclose their feelings, beliefs, attitudes, and perceptions. (Stewart & Cash, 2014)
  27. 27. Ardhiati © 2015PDU 214 METODE OBSERVASI & WAWANCARA Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya P e r c e p t i o n sP e r c e p t i o n s The elements of interviewing P e r c e p t i o n s E R Roles E R Roles PARTIES Feedback Communication Initiator 1 2 3 Communication Interactions Situational Variables Outside Forces Family Associates Friends Employers Govt. agencies Prof. associations Etc. COMMUNICATION INTERACTIONS (Stewart & Cash, 2014)
  28. 28. Ardhiati © 2015PDU 214 METODE OBSERVASI & WAWANCARA Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya P e r c e p t i o n sP e r c e p t i o n s The elements of interviewing P e r c e p t i o n s E R Roles E R Roles PARTIES Feedback Communication Initiator 1 2 3 Communication Interactions Situational Variables Outside Forces Family Associates Friends Employers Govt. agencies Prof. associations Etc. FEEDBACK (Stewart & Cash, 2014)
  29. 29. Ardhiati © 2015PDU 214 METODE OBSERVASI & WAWANCARA Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya The elements of interviewing Feedback is immediate and pervasive in interviews,
 and is essential to verify what is being communicated and how. FEEDBACK ICON CREDITS: Go-Top by iconsmind.com, Arrow-Squiggly by iconsmind.com,
 Arrow-Refresh by iconsmind.com from the Noun Project P e r c e p t i o n s E R Roles E R Roles PARTIES Feedback 1 2 3 Communication Interactions (Stewart & Cash, 2014)
  30. 30. Ardhiati © 2015PDU 214 METODE OBSERVASI & WAWANCARA Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya The elements of interviewing LISTENING SKILLS FEEDBACK ICON CREDITS: Go-Top by iconsmind.com, Arrow-Squiggly by iconsmind.com,
 Arrow-Refresh by iconsmind.com from the Noun Project P e r c e p t i o n s E R Roles E R Roles PARTIES Feedback 1 2 3 Communication Interactions Listening for
 Comprehension Listening for
 Empathy Listening for
 Evaluation Listening for
 Resolution ICON CREDITS: Puzzle by Agarunov Oktay-Abraham, Heart by TrentoFuckingCity,
 Check-Mark by NAS, Solidarity by Michele Pinna, from the Noun Project (Stewart & Cash, 2014)
  31. 31. Ardhiati © 2015PDU 214 METODE OBSERVASI & WAWANCARA Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya P e r c e p t i o n sP e r c e p t i o n s The elements of interviewing P e r c e p t i o n s E R Roles E R Roles PARTIES Feedback Communication Initiator 1 2 3 Communication Interactions Situational Variables Outside Forces Family Associates Friends Employers Govt. agencies Prof. associations Etc. FEEDBACK (Stewart & Cash, 2014)
  32. 32. Ardhiati © 2015PDU 214 METODE OBSERVASI & WAWANCARA Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya The elements of interviewing P e r c e p t i o n s E R Roles E R Roles P e r c e p t i o n sP e r c e p t i o n s PARTIES Feedback Communication Initiator 1 2 3 Communication Interactions Situational Variables Outside Forces Family Associates Friends Employers Govt. agencies Prof. associations Etc. THE SITUATION (Stewart & Cash, 2014)
  33. 33. Ardhiati © 2015PDU 214 METODE OBSERVASI & WAWANCARA Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya The elements of interviewing P e r c e p t i o n s E R Roles E R Roles P e r c e p t i o n sP e r c e p t i o n s PARTIES Feedback Communication Initiator 1 2 3 Communication Interactions Situational Variables Outside Forces Family Associates Friends Employers Govt. agencies Prof. associations Etc. OUTSIDE FORCES (Stewart & Cash, 2014)
  34. 34. Ardhiati © 2015PDU 214 METODE OBSERVASI & WAWANCARA Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya The elements of interviewing Outside forces may suggest or dictate who takes part, when, and where;
 attitudes assumed; topics covered; structure followed; questions asked;
 and answers given. P e r c e p t i o n s E R Roles E R Roles P e r c e p t i o n sP e r c e p t i o n s PARTIES Feedback Communication Initiator 1 2 3 Communication Interactions Situational Variables Outside Forces Family Associates Friends Employers Govt. agencies Prof. associations Etc. OUTSIDE FORCES (Stewart & Cash, 2014)
  35. 35. Ardhiati © 2015PDU 214 METODE OBSERVASI & WAWANCARA Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya The elements of interviewing P e r c e p t i o n s E R Roles E R Roles P e r c e p t i o n sP e r c e p t i o n s PARTIES Feedback Communication Initiator 1 2 3 Communication Interactions Situational Variables Outside Forces Family Associates Friends Employers Govt. agencies Prof. associations Etc. (Stewart & Cash, 2014)
  36. 36. STRUCTURING THE INTERVIEW ICON CREDIT: Blueprint by Dimitry Sunseifer from the Noun Project
  37. 37. Ardhiati © 2015PDU 214 METODE OBSERVASI & WAWANCARA Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya PREPARATION INTERVIEW PROCESS Step 1.
 Opening INTERVIEW PROCESS Step 2.
 Body INTERVIEW PROCESS Step 3.
 Closing REPORT Structuring the interview ICON CREDITS: Key by Leia Graf, Pull by Luis Prado,
 Stalker by Luis Prado, Push by Luis Prado,
 Lock by Lea Verou, from the Noun Project (Stewart & Cash, 2014)
  38. 38. Ardhiati © 2015PDU 214 METODE OBSERVASI & WAWANCARA Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya Preparation The first step in preparing for an interview
 is to determine a clear purpose. “What specifically
 do you want and need
 to accomplish
 during this interview?” ICON CREDIT: Key by Leia Graf from the Noun Project (Stewart & Cash, 2014)
  39. 39. Ardhiati © 2015PDU 214 METODE OBSERVASI & WAWANCARA Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya Preparation The form and style of an interview
 is determined by its purpose. (Gillham, 2000) ICON CREDIT: Key by Leia Graf from the Noun Project
  40. 40. Ardhiati © 2015PDU 214 METODE OBSERVASI & WAWANCARA Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya Preparation Interview Guide Interview Schedule Question Sequences ICON CREDITS: Key by Leia Graf, Map by DEADTYPE, Calendar by Icon Jungle,
 Process by Joel McKinney, from the Noun Project
  41. 41. Ardhiati © 2015PDU 214 METODE OBSERVASI & WAWANCARA Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya Preparation Interview Guide ICON CREDITS: Key by Leia Graf, Map by DEADTYPE, from the Noun Project (Stewart & Cash, 2014)
  42. 42. Ardhiati © 2015PDU 214 METODE OBSERVASI & WAWANCARA Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya Preparation Interview Guide ICON CREDITS: Key by Leia Graf, Map by DEADTYPE, from the Noun Project Space
 Sequence Cause-to-effect
 Sequence Problem-solution
 Sequence Time
 Sequence Topical
 Sequence (Stewart & Cash, 2014)
  43. 43. Ardhiati © 2015PDU 214 METODE OBSERVASI & WAWANCARA Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya Preparation Interview Schedule ICON CREDITS: Key by Leia Graf,
 Process by Joel McKinney, from the Noun Project (Stewart & Cash, 2014)
  44. 44. Ardhiati © 2015PDU 214 METODE OBSERVASI & WAWANCARA Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya Preparation Interview Schedule Highly
 Scheduled Highly Scheduled Standardized Moderately Scheduled Nonscheduled ICON CREDITS: Key by Leia Graf,
 Process by Joel McKinney, from the Noun Project (Stewart & Cash, 2014)
  45. 45. Ardhiati © 2015PDU 214 METODE OBSERVASI & WAWANCARA Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya Preparation Question Sequences ICON CREDITS: Key by Leia Graf from the Noun Project (Stewart & Cash, 2014)
  46. 46. Ardhiati © 2015PDU 214 METODE OBSERVASI & WAWANCARA Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya Preparation Question Sequences ICON CREDITS: Key by Leia Graf from the Noun Project Hourglass Diamond Inverted
 Funnel Funnel (Stewart & Cash, 2014)
  47. 47. Ardhiati © 2015PDU 214 METODE OBSERVASI & WAWANCARA Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya Want to know more? Gillham, B. (2000). The research interview.
 London: Continuum International Publishing Group. Stewart, C.J. & Cash, W.B. (2014). Interviewing: Principles and practices (14th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education. Yin, R.K. (2011). Qualitative research from start to finish.
 New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

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