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PDU 211 Research Methods: Analyzing & Interpreting Quantitative Data

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How is the process of analyzing and interpreting data in quantitative research?
(Lecture slides mostly in English)

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PDU 211 Research Methods: Analyzing & Interpreting Quantitative Data

  1. 1. PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN ANALYZING & INTERPRETING QUANTITATIVE DATA SEMESTER GASAL 2015/2016 FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA KULIAH VII - 25 SEPTEMBER 2015
  2. 2. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN© 2015 Ardhiati Mahasiswa memahami secara garis besar tahapan dalam proses analisis dan interpretasi data kuantitatif; Mahasiswa memahami prosedur untuk menganalisis data kuantitatif. 01. 02. ONE DAY OBJECTIVES 2
  3. 3. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2015 Ardhiati PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN CALCULATING STATISTICS IS ONLY ONE STEP IN THE PROCESS OF ANALYZING DATA. THE PROCESS 3
  4. 4. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2015 Ardhiati PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN CALCULATING STATISTICS IS ONLY ONE STEP IN THE PROCESS OF ANALYZING DATA. PREPARING & ORGANIZING
 THE DATA THE PROCESS 4 ANALYZING
 THE DATA REPORTING
 THE RESULT INTERPRETING
 THE RESULT ICON CREDITS: Folder Document by parkjisun, Abacus by Mister Pixel,
 Pie Chart by Aha-Soft, Chart by Gregor Črešnar; from the Noun Project
  5. 5. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2015 Ardhiati PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN CALCULATING STATISTICS IS ONLY ONE STEP IN THE PROCESS OF ANALYZING DATA. PREPARING & ORGANIZING
 THE DATA THE PROCESS 5 ANALYZING
 THE DATA REPORTING
 THE RESULT INTERPRETING
 THE RESULT ICON CREDITS: Folder Document by parkjisun, Abacus by Mister Pixel,
 Pie Chart by Aha-Soft, Chart by Gregor Črešnar; from the Noun Project
  6. 6. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2015 Ardhiati PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN SCORE THE DATA DETERMINE
 THE TYPES OF SCORES SELECT A
 STATISTICAL PROGRAM PREPARING & ORGANIZING THE DATA 6 CLEAN AND ACCOUNT FOR MISSING DATA INPUT THE DATA ICON CREDITS: Folder Document by parkjisun,
 List Numbered by Thomas Helbig, Counting by Magicon,
 Floppy Disk by Mike Wirth, Clean Database by Richard Schumann;
 from the Noun Project
  7. 7. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2015 Ardhiati PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN SCORING
 THE DATA PREPARING & ORGANIZING THE DATA 7 The researcher assigns a numeric score (or value) to each response category for each question on the instruments used to collect data. (Creswell, 2012, p. 175-176) ICON CREDITS: Folder Document by parkjisun,
 List Numbered by Thomas Helbig, Check Mark by James Cottell;
 from the Noun Project
  8. 8. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2015 Ardhiati PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN SCORING
 THE DATA Consistently score each question in this scale using the same numbering system. CONTINUOUS/
 CATEGORICAL DATA PREPARING & ORGANIZING THE DATA 7 The researcher assigns a numeric score (or value) to each response category for each question on the instruments used to collect data. A list of variables or questions that indicates how the researcher will code or score responses from instruments or checklists. CODEBOOK (Creswell, 2012, p. 175-176) ICON CREDITS: Folder Document by parkjisun,
 List Numbered by Thomas Helbig, Check Mark by James Cottell;
 from the Noun Project
  9. 9. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2015 Ardhiati PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN PREPARING & ORGANIZING THE DATA 8 CONTINUOUS/CATEGORICAL DATA ICON CREDIT: Folder Document by parkjisun;
 from the Noun Project
  10. 10. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2015 Ardhiati PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN PREPARING & ORGANIZING THE DATA 9 CONTINUOUS/CATEGORICAL DATA ICON CREDIT: Folder Document by parkjisun;
 from the Noun Project
  11. 11. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2015 Ardhiati PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN PREPARING & ORGANIZING THE DATA 10 CODEBOOK ICON CREDIT: Folder Document by parkjisun;
 from the Noun Project KATEGORI 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 11 ITEM Sangat Buruk Buruk Biasa Saja Baik Sangat Baik MISSING DATA JENIS KELAMIN Laki-laki Perem- puan MISSING DATA USIA ≤ 20 tahun 21-25 tahun 26-30 tahun 31-35 tahun 36-40 tahun 41-45 tahun 46-50 tahun 51-55 tahun > 55 tahun MISSING DATA PENDIDIKAN TERAKHIR Tidak Sekolah SD/SMP/ Sederajat SMA/ Sederajat Akademi (D1, D2, D3, D4) Sarjana (S1) Master (S2) ke atas MISSING DATA ALASAN MEMILIH Kemauan sendiri Saran orang lain Rujukan dokter Rujukan asuransi Lain-lain MISSING DATA
  12. 12. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2015 Ardhiati PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN DETERMINE
 THE TYPES OF SCORES PREPARING & ORGANIZING THE DATA 11 The type of score will affect how you enter data into a computer file for analysis. (Creswell, 2012, p. 177-178) ICON CREDITS: Folder Document by parkjisun,
 List Numbered by Thomas Helbig, Check Mark by James Cottell;
 from the Noun Project
  13. 13. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2015 Ardhiati PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN DETERMINE
 THE TYPES OF SCORES An individual score assigned to each question for each participant in your study. SINGLE-ITEM SCORES PREPARING & ORGANIZING THE DATA 11 The type of score will affect how you enter data into a computer file for analysis. The scores of an individual added over several questions that measure the same variable. SUMMED SCORES (Creswell, 2012, p. 177-178) Scores in a quantitative study that represent a difference or change for each individual. DIFFERENCE SCORES ICON CREDITS: Folder Document by parkjisun,
 List Numbered by Thomas Helbig, Check Mark by James Cottell;
 from the Noun Project
  14. 14. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2015 Ardhiati PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN PREPARING & ORGANIZING THE DATA 12 SINGLE-ITEM SCORES ICON CREDIT: Folder Document by parkjisun;
 from the Noun Project SUBJEK ITEM 1 ITEM 2 ITEM 3 ITEM 4 ITEM 5 S001 Baik Biasa Saja Biasa Saja Baik Baik S002 Sangat Baik Sangat Baik Sangat Baik Sangat Baik S003 Baik Baik Baik Baik Baik S004 Baik Baik Baik Biasa Saja Biasa Saja S005 Baik Baik Baik Baik Baik S006 Sangat Baik Sangat Baik Sangat Baik Sangat Buruk Sangat Baik S007 Baik Baik Baik Baik Sangat Baik S008 Baik Baik Baik Baik Baik S009 Biasa Saja Baik Biasa Saja Buruk Biasa Saja S010 Baik Baik Biasa Saja Biasa Saja Sangat Baik
  15. 15. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2015 Ardhiati PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN PREPARING & ORGANIZING THE DATA 13 SINGLE-ITEM SCORES ICON CREDIT: Folder Document by parkjisun;
 from the Noun Project SUBJEK ITEM 1 ITEM 2 ITEM 3 ITEM 4 ITEM 5 S001 4 3 3 4 4 S002 5 5 11 5 5 S003 4 4 4 4 4 S004 4 4 4 3 3 S005 4 4 4 4 4 S006 5 5 5 1 5 S007 4 4 4 4 5 S008 4 4 4 4 4 S009 3 4 3 2 3 S010 4 4 3 3 5
  16. 16. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2015 Ardhiati PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN PREPARING & ORGANIZING THE DATA 13 SINGLE-ITEM SCORES ICON CREDIT: Folder Document by parkjisun;
 from the Noun Project SUBJEK ITEM 1 ITEM 2 ITEM 3 ITEM 4 ITEM 5 S001 4 3 3 4 4 S002 5 5 11 5 5 S003 4 4 4 4 4 S004 4 4 4 3 3 S005 4 4 4 4 4 S006 5 5 5 1 5 S007 4 4 4 4 5 S008 4 4 4 4 4 S009 3 4 3 2 3 S010 4 4 3 3 5
  17. 17. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2015 Ardhiati PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN PREPARING & ORGANIZING THE DATA 14 SUMMED SCORES ICON CREDIT: Folder Document by parkjisun;
 from the Noun Project SUBJEK ITEM 1 ITEM 2 ITEM 3 ITEM 4 ITEM 5 TOTAL S001 4 3 3 4 4 18 S002 5 5 11 5 5 20 S003 4 4 4 4 4 20 S004 4 4 4 3 3 18 S005 4 4 4 4 4 20 S006 5 5 5 1 5 21 S007 4 4 4 4 5 21 S008 4 4 4 4 4 20 S009 3 4 3 2 3 15 S010 4 4 3 3 5 19
  18. 18. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2015 Ardhiati PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN SELECT A
 STATISTICAL PROGRAM PREPARING & ORGANIZING THE DATA 15 The hardest part is deciding which software package to use. (Creswell, 2012, p. 178-179) ICON CREDITS: Folder Document by parkjisun,
 Floppy Disk by Mike Wirth, Check Mark by James Cottell;
 from the Noun Project
  19. 19. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2015 Ardhiati PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN SELECT A
 STATISTICAL PROGRAM MINITAB PREPARING & ORGANIZING THE DATA 15 The hardest part is deciding which software package to use. SYSTAT (Creswell, 2012, p. 178-179) SPSS JMP SAS ICON CREDITS: Folder Document by parkjisun,
 Floppy Disk by Mike Wirth, Check Mark by James Cottell;
 from the Noun Project
  20. 20. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2015 Ardhiati PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN SELECT A
 STATISTICAL PROGRAM MICROSOFT EXCEL PREPARING & ORGANIZING THE DATA 16 The hardest part is deciding which software package to use. (Creswell, 2012, p. 178-179) ICON CREDITS: Folder Document by parkjisun,
 Floppy Disk by Mike Wirth, Check Mark by James Cottell;
 from the Noun Project
  21. 21. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2015 Ardhiati PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN INPUT
 THE DATA MICROSOFT EXCEL PREPARING & ORGANIZING THE DATA 17 Transfering the data from the responses on instruments to a computer file for analysis. (Creswell, 2012, p. 179–181) ICON CREDITS: Folder Document by parkjisun,
 Floppy Disk by Mike Wirth, Check Mark by James Cottell;
 from the Noun Project
  22. 22. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2015 Ardhiati PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN PREPARING & ORGANIZING THE DATA 18 INPUT THE DATA (USING MICROSOFT EXCEL) ICON CREDIT: Folder Document by parkjisun;
 from the Noun Project
  23. 23. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2015 Ardhiati PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN CLEAN AND ACCOUNT FOR MISSING DATA PREPARING & ORGANIZING THE DATA 19 (Creswell, 2012, p. 181-182) ICON CREDITS: Folder Document by parkjisun,
 Clean Database by Richard Schumann; Check Mark by James Cottell;
 from the Noun Project
  24. 24. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2015 Ardhiati PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN CLEAN AND ACCOUNT FOR MISSING DATA PREPARING & ORGANIZING THE DATA 19 (Creswell, 2012, p. 181-182) The process of inspecting the data for scores (or values) that are outside the accepted range. CLEANING THE DATA Missing data may result when instrument data is lost, individuals skip questions, participants are absent, or individuals refuse to complete a sensitive question. ASSESSING MISSING DATA ICON CREDITS: Folder Document by parkjisun,
 Clean Database by Richard Schumann; Check Mark by James Cottell;
 from the Noun Project
  25. 25. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2015 Ardhiati PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN PREPARING & ORGANIZING THE DATA 20 CLEANING THE DATA ICON CREDIT: Folder Document by parkjisun;
 from the Noun Project
  26. 26. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2015 Ardhiati PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN CALCULATING STATISTICS IS ONLY ONE STEP IN THE PROCESS OF ANALYZING DATA. PREPARING & ORGANIZING
 THE DATA THE PROCESS 22 ANALYZING
 THE DATA REPORTING
 THE RESULT INTERPRETING
 THE RESULT ICON CREDITS: Folder Document by parkjisun, Abacus by Mister Pixel,
 Pie Chart by Aha-Soft, Chart by Gregor Črešnar; from the Noun Project
  27. 27. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2015 Ardhiati PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN ANALYZING THE DATA You analyze the data
 to address each one
 of your research questions
 or hypotheses. 23 (Creswell, 2012, p. 182) ICON CREDIT: Abacus by Mister Pixel;
 from the Noun Project
  28. 28. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2015 Ardhiati PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN A. Relate two or more variables. Test hypotheses about the differences in the groups or the relationships of variables. Compare two or more groups on the independent variable in terms of the dependent variable. Describe trends in the data to a single variable or question on your instrument. B. C. D. ANALYZING THE DATA 24 (Creswell, 2012, p. 182) ICON CREDIT: Abacus by Mister Pixel;
 from the Noun Project
  29. 29. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2015 Ardhiati PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN A. Relate two or more variables. Test hypotheses about the differences in the groups or the relationships of variables. Compare two or more groups on the independent variable in terms of the dependent variable. Describe trends in the data to a single variable or question on your instrument. B. C. D. ANALYZING THE DATA 24 (Creswell, 2012, p. 182) DESCRIPTIVE
 STATISTICS INFERENTIAL
 STATISTICS ICON CREDIT: Abacus by Mister Pixel;
 from the Noun Project
  30. 30. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2015 Ardhiati PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN ANALYZING THE DATA 25 (Creswell, 2012, p. 183-187) DESCRIPTIVE
 STATISTICS VARIABILITYCENTRAL TENDENCY RELATIVE STANDING the spread of the scores in a distribution summary numbers that represent a single value in a distribution of scores describe one score relative to a group of scores ICON CREDIT: Abacus by Mister Pixel;
 from the Noun Project
  31. 31. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2015 Ardhiati PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN ANALYZING THE DATA 26 (Creswell, 2012, p. 187-192) INFERENTIAL
 STATISTICS RELATE VARIABLES GROUP COMPARISON Continuous -
 Categorical Continuous -
 Continuous P NP NP Categorical - Categorical Continuous - Categorical P NP NP Pearson Correlation Regression Categorical - Categorical Spearman Correlation Point-Biserial Correlation Phi Coefficient t-test Analysis of Variance Mann-Whitney U Kruskall- Wallis Friedman Chi-Square ICON CREDIT: Abacus by Mister Pixel;
 from the Noun Project
  32. 32. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2015 Ardhiati PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN CALCULATING STATISTICS IS ONLY ONE STEP IN THE PROCESS OF ANALYZING DATA. PREPARING & ORGANIZING
 THE DATA THE PROCESS 28 ANALYZING
 THE DATA REPORTING
 THE RESULT INTERPRETING
 THE RESULT ICON CREDITS: Folder Document by parkjisun, Abacus by Mister Pixel,
 Pie Chart by Aha-Soft, Chart by Gregor Črešnar; from the Noun Project
  33. 33. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2015 Ardhiati PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN 2.1. 3.Include language typically used in reporting statistical results. Report whether the hypothesis test was significant or not. Provide important information about
 the statistical test, given the statistics. REPORTING THE RESULT 29 (Creswell, 2012, p. 198)ICON CREDIT: Chart by Gregor Črešnar; from the Noun Project
  34. 34. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2015 Ardhiati PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN A summary of quantitative information presented as a chart, graph, or picture that shows relations among scores or variables. A summary of quantitative data organized into rows and columns. TABLES FIGURES REPORTING THE RESULT 30 (Creswell, 2012, p. 196-197) ICON CREDITS: Chart by Gregor Črešnar; Spreadsheet by dw,
 Charts by Aha-Soft; from the Noun Project
  35. 35. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2015 Ardhiati PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN CALCULATING STATISTICS IS ONLY ONE STEP IN THE PROCESS OF ANALYZING DATA. PREPARING & ORGANIZING
 THE DATA THE PROCESS 32 ANALYZING
 THE DATA REPORTING
 THE RESULT INTERPRETING
 THE RESULT ICON CREDITS: Folder Document by parkjisun, Abacus by Mister Pixel,
 Pie Chart by Aha-Soft, Chart by Gregor Črešnar; from the Noun Project
  36. 36. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2015 Ardhiati PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN SUGGEST FUTURE RESEARCH EXPLAIN WHY THE RESULT OCCUREDSUMMARIZE THE MAJOR RESULT ADVANCE LIMITATIONS A statement that reviews the major conclusions to each of the research questions or hypotheses. Often this explanation is based on returning to predictions made from a theory or conceptual framework that guided the development of research questions or hypotheses. Potential weaknesses or problems with the study identified by the researcher. Suggestions made by the researcher about additional studies that need to be conducted based on the results of the present research. INTERPRETING THE RESULT 33 (Creswell, 2012, p. 198-199)
  37. 37. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2015 Ardhiati PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN WANT TO KNOW MORE? CRESWELL, J.W. (2012). EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH: PLANNING, CONDUCTING AND EVALUATING QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE RESEARCH (4TH ED.). BOSTON, MA: PEARSON EDUCATION, INC.

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