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# PDU 207 Basic Statistics: Introduction to Statistics

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What is statistics? How it helps us in research?
(Lecture slides mostly in Bahasa Indonesia)

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• @sarynja I use Statistics for Behavioral Science (9th ed) by Gravetter. you can see the reference on the last slide :)

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• May I ask, which book do you use for this course? Thank you :)

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### PDU 207 Basic Statistics: Introduction to Statistics

1. 1. PDU 207 STATISTIK DASAR SEKSI E SEMESTER GASAL 2016/2017 FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI / PROGRAM STUDI S1 PSIKOLOGI Introduction to  Statistics KULIAH II – 15 AGUSTUS 2016
2. 2. Menguasai teknik-teknik statistika deskriptif dan statistika inferensial, secara khusus terkait dengan: • Berbagai istilah/terminologi statistik, pengukuran, dan penelitian,  serta berbagai notasi dasar analisis statistik yang akan  digunakan seterusnya dalam MK Statistik Dasar maupun MK lain; • Relevansi logika dan perhitungan statistik dalam proses penelitian  secara umum. One-Day Objectives
3. 3. PDU 207 STATISTIK DASAR 2016 © Ardhiati 3 KARAKTERISTIK PACAR IDEAL (LAKI-LAKI) KARAKTERISTIK PACAR IDEAL (PEREMPUAN) JUMLAH  (MANTAN) PACAR USIA SAAT  PACARAN  PERTAMA KALI STATISTICS
4. 4. PDU 207 STATISTIK DASAR 2016 © Ardhiati What is Statistics? 4 used to organize and summarize  the information; Statistics Serve General Purposes help to answer the questions  that initiated the research  by determining exactly what general conclusions are justified based  on the specific results  that were obtained. (Gravetter & Wallnau, 2012: 5) ICON SOURCES: Office Folders by Stanislav Levin,  QA by Annie Lin; from the Noun Project
5. 5. PDU 207 STATISTIK DASAR 2016 © Ardhiati 5 The term statistics refers to  a set of mathematical procedures  for organizing, summarizing,  and interpreting information. (Gravetter & Wallnau, 2012: 5)
6. 6. PDU 207 STATISTIK DASAR 2016 © Ardhiati Population & Samples 6 THE POPULATION THE SAMPLE the set of all the individuals of interest in a particular study a set of individuals selected from a population, usually intended to represent the population in a research study The sample is selected from the population The results from the sample are generalized  to the population (Gravetter & Wallnau, 2012: 5-6) ICON SOURCES: Group by christoph robausch,  Team by christoph robausch; from the Noun Project
7. 7. PDU 207 STATISTIK DASAR 2016 © Ardhiati Population & Samples 7 Usia Pacaran Pertama Kali pada Mahasiswa FP UAJ Rata-rata = 9 th Semua laki-laki POPULATION SAMPLE (1) SAMPLE (2) Rata-rata = 13 th 3 Laki-laki, 2 Perempuan ICON SOURCES: Group by christoph robausch;  from the Noun Project
8. 8. PDU 207 STATISTIK DASAR 2016 © Ardhiati Population & Samples 8 SAMPLING ERROR SAMPLE (1) SAMPLE (2) ICON SOURCES: Group by christoph robausch;  from the Noun Project POPULATION
9. 9. PDU 207 STATISTIK DASAR 2016 © Ardhiati Model of Statistical Inference 9 POPULATION SAMPLE SAMPLING PARAMETER STATISTICS MEASUREMENT MEASUREMENT (Gravetter & Wallnau, 2012: 7-8) ICON SOURCES: Group by christoph robausch;  from the Noun Project
10. 10. PDU 207 STATISTIK DASAR 2016 © Ardhiati Model of Statistical Inference 10 SAMPLE STATISTICSMEASUREMENT (Gravetter & Wallnau, 2012: 7-8) ICON SOURCES: Group by christoph robausch;  from the Noun Project DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS
11. 11. PDU 207 STATISTIK DASAR 2016 © Ardhiati Model of Statistical Inference 11 POPULATION SAMPLE STATISTICSMEASUREMENT (Gravetter & Wallnau, 2012: 7-8) ICON SOURCES: Group by christoph robausch;  from the Noun Project INFERENTIAL STATISTICS
12. 12. PDU 207 STATISTIK DASAR 2016 © Ardhiati Data Structures, Research Methods, 12 & STATISTICS PROPORTION/ PERCENTAGE CORRELATIONAL METHOD EXPERIMENTAL & NON-EXPERIMENTAL METHOD Comparing two (or more) groups of scores Describe individual variables  as they exist naturally Measuring two variables  for each individual EXAMPLE Independent Variable:  Genre Musik Dependent Variable:  Tingkat Pemahaman Statistik Dasar EXAMPLE Variabel:  Usia Pacaran Pertama Kali EXAMPLE Variabel 1:  Jumlah Pacar Variabel 2:  Time-Management Skills INDIVIDUAL VARIABLE RELATIONSHIP  BETWEEN VARIABLES (Gravetter & Wallnau, 2012: 12-20) ICON SOURCES: Pie Chart by Berkay Sargın, Link by Joris Hoogendoorn,  Experiment by Creative Stall; from the Noun Project
13. 13. PDU 207 STATISTIK DASAR 2016 © Ardhiati Data Structures, Research Methods, 13 describe individual variables as they exist naturally & STATISTICS PROPORTION/PERCENTAGE Variabel:  Usia Pacaran Pertama Kali (Gravetter & Wallnau, 2012: 12-20) ICON SOURCES: Pie Chart by Berkay Sargın; from the Noun Project SUBJEK USIA PACARAN PERTAMA KALI A 9 B 18 C 11 D 13 E 10 F 16 G 16 H 17
14. 14. PDU 207 STATISTIK DASAR 2016 © Ardhiati Data Structures, Research Methods, 14 two different variables are observed to determine whether there is  a relationship between them & STATISTICS CORRELATIONAL METHOD Variabel 1:  Jumlah Pacar Variabel 2:  Time-Management Skills (Gravetter & Wallnau, 2012: 12-20) ICON SOURCES: Link by Joris Hoogendoorn; from the Noun Project SUBJEK JUMLAH  PACAR TIME-MANAGEMENT  SKILLS A 1 Sangat Buruk 1 B 1 Sangat Buruk 1 C 2 Sangat Buruk 1 D 1 Buruk 2 E 3 Baik 3 F 3 Baik 3 G 1 Buruk 2 H 4 Sangat Baik 4
15. 15. PDU 207 STATISTIK DASAR 2016 © Ardhiati Data Structures, Research Methods, 15 to demonstrate a cause-and-effect relationship between two variables; attempts to show that changing the value of one variable causes changes  to occur in the second variable & STATISTICS THE EXPERIMENTAL METHOD (Gravetter & Wallnau, 2012: 12-20) ICON SOURCES: Experiment by Creative Stall; from the Noun Project Independent Variable:  Genre Musik Dependent Variable:  Tingkat Pemahaman Statistik Dasar CHARACTERISTICS: • Manipulation • Control POP JAZZ 30 80 35 75 45 90 45 85 40 90
16. 16. PDU 207 STATISTIK DASAR 2016 © Ardhiati Data Structures, Research Methods, 16 to demonstrate a cause-and-effect relationship between two variables; attempts to show that changing the value of one variable causes changes  to occur in the second variable & STATISTICS THE NON-EXPERIMENTAL METHOD (Gravetter & Wallnau, 2012: 12-20) ICON SOURCES: Experiment by Creative Stall; from the Noun Project Quasi-Independent Variable:  Status Pacaran Dependent Variable:  Familiaritas terhadap Adegan Percintaan CHARACTERISTICS: • Manipulation • Control (+) PACAR (-) PACAR 9 4 10 3 12 3 12 4 8 0
17. 17. PDU 207 STATISTIK DASAR 2016 © Ardhiati 17 WANT TO KNOW MORE? Gravetter, F.J. & Wallnau, L.B. (2012).  Statistics for the behavioral sciences (9th ed.).  Australia: WADSWORTH CENGAGE Learning.