PDU 202 Qualitative Research Method: Qualitative Research Paradigm, Process, & Design

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What is qualitative research method? What its paradigm, process, and design, that makes it different from the quantitative?
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PDU 202 Qualitative Research Method: Qualitative Research Paradigm, Process, & Design

  1. 1. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF SEMESTER GENAP 2013/2014 FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA KULIAH III - 24 JANUARI 2014 UNDERSTANDING QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
  2. 2. understanding qualitative research ONE DAY OBJECTIVES: Mahasiswa mampu: • • • • • memahami pendekatan dan paradigma penelitian kualitatif memahami tujuan, sifat, dan karakteristik penelitian kualitatif memahami proses penelitian kualitatif secara utuh memahami berbagai desain penelitian kualitatif membedakan karakteristik masing-masing desain
  3. 3. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  4. 4. LET’S DISCUSS! • Apa yang ingin diketahui? • Data apa saja yang dibutuhkan untuk mengetahui hal tersebut? • Bagaimana cara memperoleh datanya? • Apa saja tahapan untuk memperoleh datanya? PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  5. 5. LET’S DISCUSS! Mengapa film tersebut tepat untuk menggambarkan suatu penelitian kualitatif? PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  6. 6. why do qualitative research?
  7. 7. why do qualitative research? We might want to study a real-world setting and capture the contextual richness of people’s
 everyday lives. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya (Yin, 2011) ardhiati © 2014
  8. 8. FEATURES OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH (Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  9. 9. FEATURES OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH 1. Studying the meaning of people’s lives, under real-world conditions (Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  10. 10. FEATURES OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH 1. Studying the meaning of people’s lives, under real-world conditions REAL-WORLD PEOPLE’S LIVES PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya (Yin, 2011) ardhiati © 2014
  11. 11. FEATURES OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH 2. Representing the views and perspectives of the people in a study (Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  12. 12. FEATURES OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH 2. Representing the views and perspectives of the people in a study PEOPLE’S PERSPECTIVE (Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  13. 13. FEATURES OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH 3. Covering the contextual conditions within which people live (Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  14. 14. FEATURES OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH 3. Covering the contextual conditions within which people live CONTEXT PEOPLE’S LIVES (Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  15. 15. FEATURES OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH 4. Contributing insights into existing or emerging concepts that may help to explain human social behavior (Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  16. 16. FEATURES OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH 4. Contributing insights into existing or emerging concepts that may help to explain human social behavior explain CONCEPTS BEHAVIOR PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya (Yin, 2011) ardhiati © 2014
  17. 17. FEATURES OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH 5. Striving to use multiple sources of evidence rather than relying on a single source alone (Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  18. 18. The mulTIfACeTed World of QuAlITATIve reSeArCh (Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  19. 19. The mulTIfACeTed World of QuAlITATIve reSeArCh the methodological variations available within qualitative research the potential multiplicity of interpretations of the human events being studied the potential uniqueness of these events (Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  20. 20. The mulTIfACeTed World of QuAlITATIve reSeArCh MULTIPLE INTERPRETATIONS OF THE SAME EVENTS the participants’ meanings, if studied and reported by a researcher, also unavoidably subsume a second set of meanings of the same events—those of the researcher. RESEARCHER (Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  21. 21. The mulTIfACeTed World of QuAlITATIve reSeArCh MULTIPLE INTERPRETATIONS OF THE SAME EVENTS the participants’ meanings, if studied and reported by a researcher, also unavoidably subsume a second set of meanings of the same events—those of the researcher. EMIC ETIC capture participants’ indigenous meanings of real-world events represents the same set of real-world events, but from an external perspective—typically that of the researcher RESEARCHER (Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  22. 22. The mulTIfACeTed World of QuAlITATIve reSeArCh THE UNIQUENESS OF HUMAN EVENTS human events may be considered as either being entirely unique or having some properties that are relevant and potentially applicable to other situations (Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  23. 23. The mulTIfACeTed World of QuAlITATIve reSeArCh THE UNIQUENESS OF HUMAN EVENTS human events may be considered as either being entirely unique or having some properties that are relevant and potentially applicable to other situations PERSPECTIVE A PERSPECTIVE C PERSPECTIVE B PERSPECTIVE D (Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  24. 24. The mulTIfACeTed World of QuAlITATIve reSeArCh WHETHER TO EMULATE ONE OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH’S VARIANTS the large number of formally recognized methodologies within qualitative research ILLUSTRATIVE VARIATION ACTION RESEARCH CASE STUDY DESCRIPTION Emphasizes the researcher's adoption of an action role or an active collaboration with study participants Studies a phenomenon (the “case”) in its real- world context ETHNOGRAPHY Involves a field-based study lengthy enough to surface people's everyday norms, rituals, and routines in detail ETHNOMETHODOLOGY Seeks to understand how people learn and know the social rituals, mannerisms, and symbols in their everyday life and culture FEMINIST RESEARCH Embraces the perspective that methodological and other relationships embed oftignored power relations that can affect research findings (Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  25. 25. The mulTIfACeTed World of QuAlITATIve reSeArCh WHETHER TO EMULATE ONE OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH’S VARIANTS the large number of formally recognized methodologies within qualitative research ILLUSTRATIVE VARIATION DESCRIPTION GROUNDED THEORY Assumes that the natural occurrence of social behavior within real-world contexts is best analyzed by deriving “bottom-up” grounded categories and concepts LIFE HISTORY Collects and narrates a person's life story, capturing its turning points and important themes NARRATIVE INQUIRY Constructs a narrative rendition of the findings from a real-world setting and participants, to accentuate a sense of “being there” PARTICIPANT-OBSERVER Conducts field-based research based on the researcher locating in the real-world setting being studied STUDY PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY Studies human events as they are immediately experienced in real-world settings, resisting prior categories and concepts that might distort the experiential basis for understanding the events (Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  26. 26. The mulTIfACeTed World of QuAlITATIve reSeArCh MEDIATING STRATEGIES ways which help the researcher to proceed with a qualitative study, whether he plan to follow one of the variations or to conduct a generalized form of qualitative research: (Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  27. 27. The mulTIfACeTed World of QuAlITATIve reSeArCh MEDIATING STRATEGIES ways which help the researcher to proceed with a qualitative study, whether he plan to follow one of the variations or to conduct a generalized form of qualitative research: • THE EPISTEMOLOGICAL LOCATION of the research - the philosophical assumptions the researcher makes about the ways of knowing what he knows • THE EPISTEMOLOGICAL SIMILARITY of the research - all types of inquiry, insofar as the goal is to reach credible conclusions (Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  28. 28. BuIldIng TruSTWorThIneSS & CredIBIlITy InTo QuAlITATIve reSeArCh (Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  29. 29. BuIldIng TruSTWorThIneSS & CredIBIlITy InTo QuAlITATIve reSeArCh transparency methodic-ness evidence (Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  30. 30. PERSONAL EQUIPMENT to do Qualitative Research
  31. 31. ComPeTenCIeS In doIng QuAlITATIve reSeArCh (Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  32. 32. ComPeTenCIeS In doIng QuAlITATIve reSeArCh GENERAL ABILITIES NEEDED TO BE A (QUALITATIVE) RESEARCHER (Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  33. 33. ComPeTenCIeS In doIng QuAlITATIve reSeArCh GENERAL ABILITIES NEEDED TO BE A (QUALITATIVE) RESEARCHER • “LISTENING” (BETWEEN THE LINES) To be able to take in large amounts of information about your environment, especially about the people in your environment. The in-taking can be explicit or inferential. It goes beyond your sense of hearing and calls upon all of your senses, including your intuitions. (Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  34. 34. ComPeTenCIeS In doIng QuAlITATIve reSeArCh GENERAL ABILITIES NEEDED TO BE A (QUALITATIVE) RESEARCHER • ASKING GOOD QUESTIONS Without good questions, you risk collecting a lot of extraneous information while simultaneously missing some critical information. You need to ask good questions. The talent for asking good questions will be reflected by your tendency to ask yourself questions while reading a report. (Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  35. 35. ComPeTenCIeS In doIng QuAlITATIve reSeArCh GENERAL ABILITIES NEEDED TO BE A (QUALITATIVE) RESEARCHER • KNOWING ABOUT YOUR TOPIC OF STUDY High among the expected competencies is knowledge of your own topic of research, including having a sense of the field setting and participants in the study and the findings from previous research on the topic. (Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  36. 36. ComPeTenCIeS In doIng QuAlITATIve reSeArCh GENERAL ABILITIES NEEDED TO BE A (QUALITATIVE) RESEARCHER • CARING ABOUT YOUR DATA The relevant competence involves having a supersensitivity about recognizing your data and taking care of them. Research data, but especially field data in a qualitative study, demand special attention and security. (Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  37. 37. ComPeTenCIeS In doIng QuAlITATIve reSeArCh GENERAL ABILITIES NEEDED TO BE A (QUALITATIVE) RESEARCHER • DOING PARALLEL TASKS The activities in doing qualitative research do not come in a neatly tied bundle. You will be continually challenged by having to do or attend to multiple tasks, not all within your direct control, at the same time. (Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  38. 38. ComPeTenCIeS In doIng QuAlITATIve reSeArCh GENERAL ABILITIES NEEDED TO BE A (QUALITATIVE) RESEARCHER • PERSEVERING An ability to stick to your quest in the face of the inevitable frustrations, uncertainties, and even unpleasantries that you can confront in doing qualitative research. Because you are studying realworld events, they assume their own natural course and may alternatively present unanticipated resistances and challenges. The competency involves your ability to move forward with your research in spite of all these encounters. (Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  39. 39. SeTTIng And mAInTAInIng eThICAl STAndArdS of ConduCT (Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  40. 40. SeTTIng And mAInTAInIng eThICAl STAndArdS of ConduCT CODES OF ETHICS RESEARCH INTEGRITY DISCLOSURE (Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  41. 41. PROTECTING HUMAN SUBJECTS (Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  42. 42. PROTECTING HUMAN SUBJECTS 1. Obtaining voluntary informed consent from participants, usually by having them sign a written statement (“informed” meaning that the participants understand the purpose and nature of the research); 2. Assessing the harms, risks, and benefits of the research, and minimizing any threat of harm (physical, psychological, social, economic, legal, and dignitary harm) to the participants; 3. Selecting participants equitably, so that no groups of people are unfairly included or excluded from the research; and 4. Assuring confidentiality about participants’ identities, including those appearing in computer records and audio- and videotapes. (Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  43. 43. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROCESS
  44. 44. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROCESS RESEARCH is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue. (Creswell, 2012; Patton, 2002) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  45. 45. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROCESS RESEARCH is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue. POSE A QUESTION COLLECT DATA TO ANSWER THE QUESTION PRESENT AN ANSWER TO THE QUESTION (Creswell, 2012; Patton, 2002) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  46. 46. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROCESS RESEARCH is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue. POSE A QUESTION 1. Identifying a research problem 2. Reviewing the literature 3. Specifying the purpose for research COLLECT DATA TO ANSWER THE QUESTION 4. Collecting data PRESENT AN ANSWER TO THE QUESTION 5. Analyzing and interpreting the data 6. Reporting and evaluating research (Creswell, 2012; Patton, 2002) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  47. 47. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROCESS 6. REPORTING AND EVALUATING RESEARCH • • • Deciding on audiences Structuring the report Writing the report
 sensitively 5. ANALYZING AND
 INTERPRETING
 DATA • • • Breaking down the data Representing the data Explaining the data 1. IDENTIFYING A
 RESEARCH PROBLEM • • • Specifying a problem Justifying it Suggesting the need to study it for audiences 4. COLLECTING DATA • • • Selecting individuals to study Obtaining permissions Gathering information 2. REVIEWING
 THE LITERATURE • • • Locating resources Selecting resources Summarizing resources 3. SPECIFYING A
 PURPOSE FOR
 RESEARCH • • Identifying the purpose statement Narrowing the purpose statement to research questions or hypotheses (Creswell, 2012; Patton, 2002) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  48. 48. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROCESS 6. REPORTING AND EVALUATING RESEARCH • • • Deciding on audiences Structuring the report Writing the report
 sensitively 5. ANALYZING AND
 INTERPRETING
 DATA • • • Breaking down the data Representing the data Explaining the data 1. IDENTIFYING A
 RESEARCH PROBLEM • • • Specifying a problem Justifying it Suggesting the need to study it for audiences 4. COLLECTING DATA • • • Selecting individuals to study Obtaining permissions Gathering information { 2. REVIEWING
 Exploring a problem and THE LITERATURE developing a detailed • Locating resources understanding of a • Selecting resources central phenomenon • Summarizing resources } 3. SPECIFYING A
 PURPOSE FOR
 RESEARCH • • Identifying the purpose statement Narrowing the purpose statement to research questions or hypotheses (Creswell, 2012; Patton, 2002) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  49. 49. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROCESS 6. REPORTING AND EVALUATING RESEARCH • • • Deciding on audiences Structuring the report Writing the report
 sensitively 5. ANALYZING AND
 INTERPRETING
 DATA • • • Breaking down the data Representing the data Explaining the data 1. IDENTIFYING A
 RESEARCH PROBLEM • • • Specifying a problem Justifying it Suggesting the need to study it for audiences 4. COLLECTING DATA • • • 2. REVIEWING
 THE LITERATURE Selecting individuals to study Obtaining permissions Gathering information • • • { Locating resources Selecting resources Summarizing resources 3. SPECIFYING A
 PURPOSE FOR
 RESEARCH Having the literature review play a minor role • Identifying the purpose statement but justify the problem • Narrowing the purpose statement to research questions or hypotheses (Creswell, 2012; Patton, 2002) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya } ardhiati © 2014
  50. 50. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROCESS 6. REPORTING AND EVALUATING RESEARCH • • • Deciding on audiences Structuring the report Writing the report
 sensitively 5. ANALYZING AND
 INTERPRETING
 DATA • • • Breaking down the data Representing the data Explaining the data PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya 1. IDENTIFYING A
 RESEARCH PROBLEM • • • { 2. REVIEWING
 THE LITERATURE Specifying a problem Justifying it Suggesting the need to study it for audiences } Stating the purpose and research questions in a • Selecting individuals general and broadtoway so study • Obtaining permissions as the participants’ • Gathering information experiences 4. COLLECTING DATA • • • Locating resources Selecting resources Summarizing resources 3. SPECIFYING A
 PURPOSE FOR
 RESEARCH • • Identifying the purpose statement Narrowing the purpose statement to research questions or hypotheses (Creswell, 2012; Patton, 2002) ardhiati © 2014
  51. 51. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROCESS 6. REPORTING AND EVALUATING RESEARCH • • • 1. IDENTIFYING A
 RESEARCH PROBLEM Deciding on audiences Structuring the report Writing the report
 sensitively { • • • } 5. ANALYZING AND
 Collecting data based on INTERPRETING
 words from a small DATA number of individuals so • that Breaking down the data the participants’ • Representing the data views are obtained • Explaining the data PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya Specifying a problem Justifying it Suggesting the need to study it for audiences 4. COLLECTING DATA • • • Selecting individuals to study Obtaining permissions Gathering information 2. REVIEWING
 THE LITERATURE • • • Locating resources Selecting resources Summarizing resources 3. SPECIFYING A
 PURPOSE FOR
 RESEARCH • • Identifying the purpose statement Narrowing the purpose statement to research questions or hypotheses (Creswell, 2012; Patton, 2002) ardhiati © 2014
  52. 52. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROCESS { } 6. REPORTING data Analyzing the AND for EVALUATING RESEARCH description and themes • Deciding on audiences using text analysis and • Structuring the larger interpreting thereport • Writing the report
 meaning of the findings sensitively 5. ANALYZING AND
 INTERPRETING
 DATA • • • Breaking down the data Representing the data Explaining the data 1. IDENTIFYING A
 RESEARCH PROBLEM • • • Specifying a problem Justifying it Suggesting the need to study it for audiences 4. COLLECTING DATA • • • Selecting individuals to study Obtaining permissions Gathering information 2. REVIEWING
 THE LITERATURE • • • Locating resources Selecting resources Summarizing resources 3. SPECIFYING A
 PURPOSE FOR
 RESEARCH • • Identifying the purpose statement Narrowing the purpose statement to research questions or hypotheses (Creswell, 2012; Patton, 2002) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  53. 53. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROCESS 6. REPORTING AND EVALUATING RESEARCH • • • Deciding on audiences Structuring the report Writing the report
 sensitively 5. ANALYZING AND
 INTERPRETING
 DATA • • • Breaking down the data Representing the data Explaining the data { 1. Writing the report using IDENTIFYING A
 flexible, emerging RESEARCH PROBLEM } structures a problem and evaluative • Specifying criteria, and including the • Justifying it researchers’ subjective it for • Suggesting the need to study reflexity and bias audiences 4. COLLECTING DATA • • • Selecting individuals to study Obtaining permissions Gathering information 2. REVIEWING
 THE LITERATURE • • • Locating resources Selecting resources Summarizing resources 3. SPECIFYING A
 PURPOSE FOR
 RESEARCH • • Identifying the purpose statement Narrowing the purpose statement to research questions or hypotheses (Creswell, 2012; Patton, 2002) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  54. 54. WANT TO KNOW MORE? Creswell, J. (2012). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (4th ed.). Boston: Pearson Education, Inc. Patton, M.Q. (2002). Qualitative evaluation and research methods (3rd ed.). London: Sage Publications, Inc. Yin, R.K. (2011). Qualitative research from start to finish. Spring Street, New York: The Guilford Press.

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