PDU 202 Qualitative Research Method: Data Collection

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What are the data collection method in qualitative research? What are the differences between each one of them?

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PDU 202 Qualitative Research Method: Data Collection

  1. 1. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF SEMESTER GENAP 2013/2014 FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA KULIAH V - 21 FEBRUARI 2014 QUALITATIVE DATA COLLECTION
  2. 2. QUALITATIVE DATA COLLECTION ONE DAY OBJECTIVES: Mahasiswa mampu: • Mahasiswa memahami metode pengumpulan data kualitatif • Mahasiswa mampu membedakan masing-masing metode pengumpulan data kualitatif dikaitkan dengan tujuan penelitiannya
  3. 3. WHAT ARE DATA?
  4. 4. WHAT ARE DATA? PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  5. 5. WHAT ARE DATA? data data data data PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  6. 6. WHAT ARE DATA? “data” are the smallest or lowest entities or recorded elements resulting from some experience, observation, experiment, or other similar situation. (Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  7. 7. Qualitative data collection methods essentially provide extensive, detailed and ‘rich’ data for later analysis. image blog.soundearphones.com PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  8. 8. Qualitative data collection methods essentially provide extensive, detailed and ‘rich’ data for later analysis. Qualitative data collection is not necessarily followed by qualitative data analysis. Qualitatively collected data may be analysed, sometimes, quantitatively. (Howitt & Cramer, 2011) image blog.soundearphones.com PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  9. 9. DATA COLLECTION
 METHODS
  10. 10. DATA COLLECTION METHODS (Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  11. 11. DATA COLLECTION METHODS INTERVIEWING & CONVERSING OBSERVING COLLECTING FEELINGS (Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  12. 12. DATA COLLECTION METHODS INTERVIEWING & CONVERSING Language (verbal and body) OBSERVING People’s gestures; social interactions; actions; scenes and the physical environment COLLECTING Contents of: personal documents, other printed materials, graphics, archival records, and physical artifacts FEELINGS Sensations (Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  13. 13. DATA COLLECTION METHODS INTERVIEWING & CONVERSING Language (verbal and body) OBSERVING People’s gestures; social interactions; actions; scenes and the physical environment COLLECTING Contents of: personal documents, other printed materials, graphics, archival records, and physical artifacts FEELINGS Sensations (Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  14. 14. INTERVIEWNG &
 CONVERSING researchers ask one or more participants general,
 (open-ended) questions and record their answers; involve an interaction between
 an interviewer and a participant (or interviewee). (Creswell, 2012; Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  15. 15. INTERVIEWNG &
 CONVERSING researchers ask one or more participants general,
 (open-ended) questions and record their answers; involve an interaction between
 an interviewer and a participant (or interviewee). STRUCTURED QUALITATIVE/ IN-DEPTH FOCUS
 GROUPS (Creswell, 2012; Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  16. 16. TYPES OF
 INTERVIEWING STRUCTURED INTERVIEWING image renaissancestandotcom.files.wordpress.com carefully script the interaction between an interviewer and a participant: • use a formal questionnaire • formally adopt the role of an interviewer • try to adopt the same consistent behavior (Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  17. 17. TYPES OF
 INTERVIEWING QUALITATIVE/IN-DEPTH INTERVIEWING image frontrow.espn.go.com the relationship between the researcher and the participant is not strictly scripted: • no formal questionnaire
 ➔ the specifically verbalized questions will differ according to the context and setting • does not try to adopt any uniform behavior
 ➔ follows a conversational mode • open- rather than closed-ended questions PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya (Yin, 2011) ardhiati © 2014
  18. 18. TYPES OF
 INTERVIEWING QUALITATIVE/IN-DEPTH INTERVIEWING A FEW HINTS TO DO A QUALITATIVE/IN-DEPTH INTERVIEWING: (Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  19. 19. TYPES OF
 INTERVIEWING QUALITATIVE/IN-DEPTH INTERVIEWING A FEW HINTS TO DO A QUALITATIVE/IN-DEPTH INTERVIEWING: 1. SPEAKING IN MODEST AMOUNTS • • • speak less than the other person—much less, find ways of querying
 others that will lead to extended dialogues on their part; avoid asking multiple questions that are embedded in the same
 sentence, or alternatively asking multiple questions on top of each
 other without giving the other person a chance to respond to
 the first question; master the use of probes and follow-up questions, must be an
 active and intelligent conversant. (Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  20. 20. TYPES OF
 INTERVIEWING QUALITATIVE/IN-DEPTH INTERVIEWING A FEW HINTS TO DO A QUALITATIVE/IN-DEPTH INTERVIEWING: 2. BEING NONDIRECTIVE • • • let participants vocalize their own priorities as part of their own way of
 describing the world as they perceive it; set the boundaries for the conversation but nevertheless permit
 the participant to color it; infer the importance a participant assigns to a topic by listening
 for its first mention. (Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  21. 21. TYPES OF
 INTERVIEWING QUALITATIVE/IN-DEPTH INTERVIEWING A FEW HINTS TO DO A QUALITATIVE/IN-DEPTH INTERVIEWING: 3. STAYING NEUTRAL • the researcher’s entire presentation of self during the conversing process
 needs to be carefully cast in a neutral manner. (Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  22. 22. TYPES OF
 INTERVIEWING QUALITATIVE/IN-DEPTH INTERVIEWING A FEW HINTS TO DO A QUALITATIVE/IN-DEPTH INTERVIEWING: 4. MAINTAINING RAPPORT • maintain good rapport with the participant, avoid conversations that
 might do harm to the other person. (Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  23. 23. TYPES OF
 INTERVIEWING QUALITATIVE/IN-DEPTH INTERVIEWING A FEW HINTS TO DO A QUALITATIVE/IN-DEPTH INTERVIEWING: 5. USING AN INTERVIEW PROTOCOL • • • the protocol should substantively reflect the broader study protocol
 that might exist, but the interview protocol itself will be modest
 in size; usually contains a small subset of topics—those that are
 considered relevant to a given interview, represents the
 researcher’s mental framework; an interview protocol therefore produces a “guided conversation,”
 with the protocol serving as a conversational guide. (Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  24. 24. TYPES OF
 INTERVIEWING QUALITATIVE/IN-DEPTH INTERVIEWING A FEW HINTS TO DO A QUALITATIVE/IN-DEPTH INTERVIEWING: 6. ANALYZING WHEN INTERVIEWING • data collection is constantly accompanied by analysis; decide when to
 probe for more detail, when to shift topics, and when to modify the
 original protocol or agenda to accommodate new revelations. (Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  25. 25. TYPES OF
 INTERVIEWING STRUCTURED INTERVIEWING image renaissancestandotcom.files.wordpress.com PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya QUALITATIVE INTERVIEWING image frontrow.espn.go.com (Howitt & Cramer, 2011) ardhiati © 2014
  26. 26. TYPES OF
 INTERVIEWING STRUCTURED INTERVIEWING QUALITATIVE INTERVIEWING • the researcher has highly specific and wellformulated questions that require answers • the researcher has a less clear agenda in terms of content and the agenda is less clearly researcherled • the research addresses concerns that emerge from the status of the researcher – which has research-based knowledge and theory as part of the components • the research normally is led in part by the agenda of concerns as felt by the participant • participants are ‘forced’ to stick to the point and there is little or no scope for them to express idiosyncratic points of view • the researcher is looking for rich and detailed answers which result in extensive and labour-intensive coding processes • inflexible • flexible image renaissancestandotcom.files.wordpress.com PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya image frontrow.espn.go.com (Howitt & Cramer, 2011) ardhiati © 2014
  27. 27. TYPES OF
 INTERVIEWING FOCUS GROUP INTERVIEWING image sjsu.edu (Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  28. 28. TYPES OF
 INTERVIEWING FOCUS GROUP INTERVIEWING image sjsu.edu group interviews are desirable when the researcher suspects that people may more readily express themselves when they are part of a group than when they are the target of a solo interview with the researcher. ➔ somewhat different from FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSION. (Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  29. 29. DATA COLLECTION METHODS INTERVIEWING & CONVERSING Language (verbal and body) OBSERVING People’s gestures; social interactions; actions; scenes and the physical environment COLLECTING Contents of: personal documents, other printed materials, graphics, archival records, and physical artifacts FEELINGS Sensations (Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  30. 30. observing the observations are a form of primary data
 and the researcher is completely passive; the process of gathering open-ended, firsthand information by observing people and places at a research site. (Creswell, 2012; Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  31. 31. observing the observations are a form of primary data
 and the researcher is completely passive; the process of gathering open-ended, firsthand information by observing people and places at a research site. PARTICIPANT NONPARTICIPANT CHANGING ROLES (Creswell, 2012; Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  32. 32. OBSERVATIONAL ROLES IN OBSERVing PARTICIPANT OBSERVER image janneinosaka.blogspot.com • the researcher takes part in activities in the setting they observe; • the researcher assumes the role of an “inside” observer who actually engages in activities at the study site. (Creswell, 2012) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  33. 33. OBSERVATIONAL ROLES IN OBSERVing NONPARTICIPANT OBSERVER image inc.com • the researchers visit a site and record notes without becoming involved in the activities of the participants; • the researcher is an “outsider” who sits on the periphery or some advantageous place (e.g., the back of the classroom) to watch and record the phenomenon under study. (Creswell, 2012) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  34. 34. OBSERVATIONAL ROLES IN OBSERVing changing role image smallfox-photos.webs.com • the researcher adapts their role to the situation; • for example, the researcher might first enters a site and observes as a nonparticipant, simply needing to “look around” in the early phases of research, then he slowly becomes involved as a participant. (Creswell, 2012) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  35. 35. OBSERVING WHEN, WHERE, & WHAT TO OBSERVE (Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  36. 36. OBSERVING WHEN, WHERE, & WHAT TO OBSERVE (Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  37. 37. OBSERVING WHEN, WHERE, & WHAT TO OBSERVE REPRESENTATIVENESS! Most qualitative research will not be based solely on his
 making observations at a single, fixed location; the
 researcher is likely to locate himself in some field setting
 that is fluid in time and space; The researcher may not has
 a strict rationale for making the decisions, but he needs
 to be aware of their consequences. (Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  38. 38. OBSERVING WHEN, WHERE, & WHAT TO OBSERVE REPRESENTATIVENESS! Most qualitative research will not be based solely on his
 making observations at a single, fixed location; the
 researcher is likely to locate himself in some field setting
 that is fluid in time and space; The researcher may not has
 a strict rationale for making the decisions, but he needs
 to be aware of their consequences. CONSIDER THIS: • Record the observational times and locations,
 make a summary notation of the type of event (or nonevent)
 that seems to be taking place; • Make the observations on multiple occasions; • Discuss the choices and their possible consequences as part of the researcher’s personal journal. (Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  39. 39. OBSERVING WHEN, WHERE, & WHAT TO OBSERVE • The characteristics of individual people, including their dress,
 gestures, and nonverbal behavior; • The interactions between or among people; • The “actions” taking place, whether human or mechanical; and • The physical surroundings, including visual and audio cues. (Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  40. 40. DATA COLLECTION METHODS INTERVIEWING & CONVERSING Language (verbal and body) OBSERVING People’s gestures; social interactions; actions; scenes and the physical environment COLLECTING Contents of: personal documents, other printed materials, graphics, archival records, and physical artifacts FEELINGS Sensations (Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  41. 41. COLLECTING public and private records that qualitative researchers obtain about a site or participants in a study, and they can include newspapers, minutes of meetings, personal journals, and letters; the compiling or accumulating of objects (documents, artifacts, and archival records) related to the study topic. (Creswell, 2012; Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  42. 42. COLLECTING THE TACTICS 1. get an initial idea of the full array of any type of object to
 be collected, such as the numerosity and scope of the
 available documents, or the size and range of an archive
 of statistical data ➔ decide whether you need to collect the entire array or
 whether a sample will do 2. immediately review the resulting data, consider how
 the collected material is likely to fit the rest of your study (Creswell, 2012; Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  43. 43. DATA COLLECTION METHODS INTERVIEWING & CONVERSING Language (verbal and body) OBSERVING People’s gestures; social interactions; actions; scenes and the physical environment COLLECTING Contents of: personal documents, other printed materials, graphics, archival records, and physical artifacts FEELINGS Sensations (Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  44. 44. FEELINGS feelings as covering a variety of traits within the researcher’s
 that are potentially important in his research
 and that he should not ignore. (Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  45. 45. FEELINGS DIFFERENT “FORMS” OF FEELINGS (Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  46. 46. FEELINGS DIFFERENT “FORMS” OF FEELINGS • explicit data about the environment (e.g., warmth/coldness,
 noisiness/quiet, or the temporal pace of a place) ➔ use a mechanical instrument (Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  47. 47. FEELINGS DIFFERENT “FORMS” OF FEELINGS • explicit data about the environment (e.g., warmth/coldness,
 noisiness/quiet, or the temporal pace of a place) ➔ use a mechanical instrument • data about other people (e.g., feeling that someone is
 dependent/rebellious in a work setting, that two people are
 distant/close, or that a group works congenially/disruptively) ➔ corroboration or rejection by triangulating with other data (Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  48. 48. FEELINGS DIFFERENT “FORMS” OF FEELINGS • explicit data about the environment (e.g., warmth/coldness,
 noisiness/quiet, or the temporal pace of a place) ➔ use a mechanical instrument • data about other people (e.g., feeling that someone is
 dependent/rebellious in a work setting, that two people are
 distant/close, or that a group works congenially/disruptively) ➔ corroboration or rejection by triangulating with other data • the intuitions or “gut feelings” about a situation; such feelings
 are not limited to any single sensation and cannot always be explained ➔ corroborated (or challenged) by other data (Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  49. 49. deSIrABle PrACTICeS To dATA ColleCTIon
  50. 50. CERTAIN PRACTICES (Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  51. 51. CERTAIN PRACTICES 1. BEING A GOOD “LISTENER” • the term listening refers to its figurative, not literal,
 meaning, and therefore to a desired way of attending
 to your surroundings. • ranges from letting others do more of the talking
 to being able to “listen between the lines” during
 a conversation, “read between the lines” when
 interpreting a document or written message. (Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  52. 52. CERTAIN PRACTICES 2. BEING INQUISITIVE • being a good “listener” but also being inquisitive at the
 same time; • as the researcher listens or observes, he also should be
 thinking about the meaning of what he hears or sees, and
 this should lead to additional questions. (Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  53. 53. CERTAIN PRACTICES 3. BEING SENSITIVE IN MANAGING TIME • find ways of learning about others’ time restrictions
 or preferences and cater to them, respecting these
 time restrictions or preferences; • be sensitive to the researcher’s own time restrictions
 or preferences. (Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  54. 54. CERTAIN PRACTICES 4. DISTINGUISHING BETWEEN FIRSTHAND, SECONDHAND, & THIRHAND EVIDENCE • “FIRSTHAND”: What the researcher hears with his own
 ears or see with his own eyes, which would give the greatest
 credibility to his primary evidence; • “SECONDHAND”: What someone’s writing about
 events, what a participant tells about something that has
 happened, need to be filtered; • “THIRDHAND”: What someone tells (first filter) what she or
 he has heard another person say (second filter) about some
 event (the actual behavior you are wanting to learn about),
 including a news article that is quoting another person speaking
 about an event, also need to be filtered. (Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  55. 55. CERTAIN PRACTICES 5. TRIANGULATING EVIDENCE FROM MULTIPLE SOURCES • to determine whether data from two or more sources
 converge or lead to the same finding (strengthening
 the validity of a study); the more that the researcher
 can shows such convergence, especially on key
 findings, the stronger the evidence. • the role of triangulation carries great importance in
 doing qualitative research, something that helps to keep
 the researcher’s eyes and ears open for corroborating or
 conflicting ideas or data. (Yin, 2011) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  56. 56. WANT TO KNOW MORE? Creswell, J. (2012). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (4th ed.). Boston: Pearson Education, Inc. Howitt, D. & Cramer, D. (2011). Introduction to research methods in psychology (3rd ed.). Harlow, England: Pearson Education Limited. Yin, R.K. (2011). Qualitative research from start to finish. Spring Street, New York: The Guilford Press.

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