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  1. 1. Principles of Management <ul><li>Managing Work groups & Teams </li></ul>Lecture 8
  2. 2. Groups and Teams in Organizations <ul><li>Group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two or more people who interact regularly to accomplish a common purpose or goal. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types of Groups and Teams </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informal or interest groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Task groups </li></ul></ul>19–
  3. 3. Figure 19.1: Types of Groups in Organizations 19–
  4. 4. Groups and Teams in Organizations (cont’d) <ul><li>Team </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A group of workers who function as a unit, often with little or no supervision, to carry out work-related tasks, functions, and activities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes called self-managed teams , cross-functional teams , or high performance teams . </li></ul></ul>19–
  5. 5. Groups and Teams in Organizations (cont’d) <ul><li>Self managed Team : </li></ul><ul><li>- Groups that are essentially independent and in </li></ul><ul><li>addition to their own tasks, take on traditional </li></ul><ul><li>responsibilities, such as hiring, planning and </li></ul><ul><li>scheduling, and performance evaluations </li></ul><ul><li>Cross Functional Team : </li></ul><ul><li>-Groups that bring together the knowledge and </li></ul><ul><li>skills of individuals from various work areas or </li></ul><ul><li>groups whose members have been trained to do </li></ul><ul><li>each others’ jobs </li></ul>19–
  6. 6. Groups and Teams in Organizations (cont’d) <ul><li>Team (cont’d) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Benefits of teams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Give more responsibility for task performance to the workers who do the tasks. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Empower workers by giving them greater authority and decision-making freedom. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allow organizations to capitalize on the knowledge and motivation of their workers. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enable the organization to shed its bureaucracy and to promote flexibility and responsiveness. </li></ul></ul></ul>19–
  7. 7. Table 19.1: Types of Teams 19–
  8. 8. Figure 19.2: Stages of Group Development 19–
  9. 9. Stages of Group Development <ul><li>Forming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Members join and begin the process of defining the group’s purpose, structure, and leadership. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Storming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intragroup conflict occurs as individuals resist control by the group and disagree over leadership. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Norming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Close relationships develop as the group becomes cohesive and establishes its norms for acceptable behaviour. </li></ul></ul>19– <ul><li>Performing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A fully functional group structure allows the group to focus on performing the task at hand. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Characteristics of Groups and Teams <ul><li>Role </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The part an individual plays in helping the group reach its goals. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Role Structures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The set of defined roles and interrelationships among those roles that the group or team members define and accept. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emerge as a result of role episodes in which the expected role is translated and defined into the enacted role. </li></ul></ul></ul>19–
  11. 11. Figure 19.3: The Development of a Role 19–
  12. 12. Characteristics of Groups and Teams (cont’d) <ul><li>Role Structures (cont’d) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Role ambiguity occurs when the sent role is unclear. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Role conflict occurs when the messages and cues comprising the sent role are clear but contradictory or mutually exclusive. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interrole conflict : Conflict between roles (different roles) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intrarole conflict : Conflicting demands from different sources within the context of same role. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intrasender conflict : Single source send clear but contradictory messages. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Person-role conflict : Between roles and personal values, attitudes and deeds. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Role overload occurs when role expectations exceed an individual’s capacities. </li></ul></ul>19–
  13. 13. Characteristics of Groups and Teams (cont’d) <ul><li>Behavioral Norms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Norms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are standards of acceptable and unacceptable behaviors that a group sets for its members. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Norm generalization (external) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Norm variation (internal) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>19–
  14. 14. Characteristics of Groups and Teams (cont’d) <ul><li>Cohesiveness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The extent to which members are loyal and committed to the group; the degree of mutual attractiveness within the group. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher Cohesiveness : Members work well </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>together, support and trust each other – effective achieving goals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower Cohesiveness : Members not well coordinated, not support each other – difficult to reach goals. </li></ul></ul>19–
  15. 15. Table 19.2: Factors That Influence Group Cohesiveness 19–
  16. 16. Figure 19.4: The Interaction Between Cohesiveness and Performance Norms 19–
  17. 17. Interpersonal and Intergroup Conflict <ul><li>The Nature of Conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A disagreement between two or more individuals, groups, or organizations. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is an optimal level of conflict in an organization: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Too little conflict and the organization becomes complacent and apathetic, and lacking in innovation and underperforms. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Too much conflict creates a dysfunctional organization where hostility and non-cooperation predominate, and suffers from low performance. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A moderate level of conflict in an organization fosters motivation, creativity, innovation, and initiative and can raise performance. </li></ul></ul></ul>19–
  18. 18. Figure 19.5: The Nature of Organizational Conflict 19–
  19. 19. Interpersonal and Intergroup Conflict (cont’d) <ul><li>Interpersonal Conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personality clash </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Differing beliefs or perceptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competitiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intergroup Conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interdependence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition for scarce resources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conflict Between Organization and the Environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict with competition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict with consumer groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict with employees </li></ul></ul>19– Causes of Conflict
  20. 20. Table 19.3: Methods for Managing Conflict 19–