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TED Fuller event | digital user-generated content - My tales from the field

Workshop presentation for TEDfuller event at University Lincoln on user-generated content and digital technology. Pitfalls and opportunities for social researchers.

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TED Fuller event | digital user-generated content - My tales from the field

  1. 1. Accessing, archiving and reconstructing user-generated data: The connected spheres ofdigitalDr Mariann Hardey, Associate Director Centre of Communication Science,Durham University@mazrred- Tales from the field
  2. 2. PREZI
  3. 3. Accessing cc
  4. 4. New forms of methodology (cc)
  5. 5. …as the social scientist Seb Paquet*observes, social tools make forridiculously easy group-forming. * Canadian Professor at Université du Québec à Montréal via Wikipedia Hardey, M. (2011)
  6. 6. Data monitoring Opportunities for data and research content Social media and user-generated content related to research activities Individual presence up and down social media Data at risk? Personalised content / publicly available…
  7. 7. research in action?
  8. 8. • Content curation• User-generated• Profile based• Personal• ‘Real’• and a bit sweary…
  9. 9. cc
  10. 10. data collation cc
  11. 11. (cc) socialradar/
  12. 12. the social researcher
  13. 13. Exposed: Research using Social Network Sites SNSs Purpose - A project that does something innovative with high impact status and will be seminal for future academic knowledge. Design/methodological approach - We used Facebook, YouTube, Twitter :-) Practical implications -Data relies on utilising social network platforms that contain personal information. The research depends on being able to access, observe, track and archive shared material from users willing to self-disclose. Research limitations -Data forms part of self-reportage and can only ever be a snap-shot of time, making it difficult to repeat for comparison or validation. ‘I will use Facebook for my fieldwork and ‘I don’t see anything wrong with ask my friends to fill in a questionnaire using Facebook for my fieldwork.’ there.’ ‘Facebook makes research easier and fun…’
  14. 14. In this together
  15. 15. Data Tagging User-generated content Advocacy Group pages SNSs profiles Transactions Comments Shares EmbedsSocial researcher Outcomes Role and responsibility (Guidelines of professional bodies) Training Processing Data organisation and modeling Knowledge sharing Academic culture Polices and guidelines Frameworks Adapted from Edelman business planning, 2010
  16. 16. Self disclosure; or more commonlyknown as the, process of makingthe self known to others. Jourard and Lasakow, 1958: 91. Some factors in self disclosure. The journal of abnormal and social psychology. Jourard, 1971. The Transparent Self. Nostrand. New York.
  17. 17. cc
  18. 18. Enacting engagement There is a wider shift towards multidirectional many-to-many communication. As modeled upon the “conversation”. An interchange made possible by new technologies, and the rhetoric suggests something of an inevitability in the “transformation” they engender. As museums are being increasingly conceptualised as “forums” and recognised as “contact zones”, places traditionally of imbalance, asymmetry, and often disempowerment, talk of “democracy” is now rife in the rhetoric. (cc) Kidd, 2011
  19. 19. d  out  to  50  cents/questionnaire;  respondents  were  tweets,  some  of  your  tweets,  and  some  tweets  posted  by  other  witty  ven if their data was eventually discarded.  folks. Part of the list looks like this:  SecretSquirrel  A  city  is  only  really  home  when  you  stop  being Mechanical Turk HIT consisted of 34 questions. Eight  mystified  by  its  public  transport  and  instead  are  just  constantly  questions characterized the respondent; six questions  angry at it.  ntended to measure the respondent’s familiarity with  RedRabbit My personality results came back. They’re negative.  r;  three  questions  tested  the  respondent’s  reading  ehension (a tactic other researchers have suggested to  NewJerseyDave  I’ll  go  to  the  co­dependency  workshop  if  you  come with me.  Rights to ownership   that  respondents  are  reading  the  survey before  they  responses  [14,12]);  16  questions  were  statements  of  for  respondents  to  assess  on  a  7­point  Likert  scale;  SecretSquirrel I might like the iPad better if it were red & furry.  rrmutt  I  know  how  you  feel,  hon:  “I’d  stage­dive  but  I’m  far  too  e  final  question  probed  the  respondent’s  willingness  elderly”—Courtney Love  Social Media Ownership: Using Twitter as a  ticipate  in  future  surveys  and  interviews.  Additional e.g. the respondent’s work time) was collected by the  NewJerseyDave  Maybe  the  person  in  the  car  ahead  of  you  isn’t  driving erratically because he’s texting; maybe he’s just knitting. anical Turk infrastructure.  Window onto Current Attitudes and Beliefs  Dave should only be able to store his own tweets on his hard drive.  Dave has the right to post his list of funny tweets to his Facebook wall.  ix Scenarios  Dave has the right to publish his list of funny tweets in a blog post.  Catherine C. Marshall belief  portion  of  the  HIT  consisted  of  six  short  Frank M. Shipman    Microsoft Research, Silicon Valley  ios  or  situations  involving  Twitter.  In  each,  users  Figure 1. A portion of Scenario 1 exploring views about Department of Computer Science  save,  retweet,  or  reuse  their  favorite  tweets  in  other  1065 La Avenida  saving, sharing, and republishing a collection.  Texas A&M University  s. The scenarios are followed by statements of belief  Mountain View, CA 94043  disagree)  with  the  statement  (is  there  a  College Station, TX 77843­3112  spondents  to  assess.  Each  scenario  is  specific,  and  tend  to  agree  (or  of  responses),  or  are  they  divided  into  es  the  actual  tweets.  By  posing  concrete  situations,  normal  distribution  ped to put all respondents on a more even footing (so  communities at opposition (is there a bimodal distribution)?    nvision  similar  situations)  and  to  draw  on  their  real    Social media by its very nature, The following definitions of the four data ownership terms  ABSTRACT  ences. We also hoped that specific content and details  people [20,22], it presents design challenges for new digital  were  provided  to  participants  before  they  began  the  is mitigate  This Social media, by its very nature, introduces questions about    help  to  social. gross  inconsistencies  between  introduces services such as archiving or publishing.  questionnaire to help ensure consistent interpretation:  ownership. Ownership comes into play most crucially when  es and behavior, such as those discussed at length in  Save  –  to  store  the  content  we investigate how social media is saved or archived; how  on  your  own  storage  media. they  can  (and  cannot)  do  with  What  do  people  feel  specific concerns about vacy literature [1]; nonetheless, we are careful to note  For  example, you  might  save  a  photo  to  your created  by  others?  We  divide  potential  it is reused; and whether it can be removed or deleted. We  information  local hard he  data  we  collected  reflects  attitudes  and  beliefs  activities  into  four  basic  categories:  (1)  saving  digital  research practices, ownershipmedia  ownership  issues  using  than behavior.  investigate  these  social  drive or burn it to a CD.  a  content;  (2)  sharing  digital  content  with  specified  (and  Share – to make the content available to a limited set of  and dissemination… Turk  survey  of  Twitter  users;  the  survey  uses  limited) groups of people; (3) publishing digital content so  Mechanical enario  1,  a  Twitter  user,  Dave,  collects questions  and  statements  of  belief  about  open­ended  humorous  friends or family members by using email or social media  realistic Twitter­based  scenarios  to  give  us a  window  onto  might  share  a  photo  with  and  (4)  removing  digital  content    posted  by  different  people,  including  himself;  in  websites.  For  example,  you  it  is  broadly  accessible; rio  2,  Dave  collects  tweets  that  represent  a  current  attitudes  and  beliefs. your friends on Facebook.  Our  findings  reveal  that  from its social media venue (and not necessarily deleting it rsation  he  is  having  with  two  other  Twitter  users.  In  from local storage, in line with reported behavior [21]).  Publish – to make the content available to the public by  respondents take a liberal attitude toward saving and storing rio  3,  Dave  encounters  an the  tweets  that  they  encounter.  More  caution  is  a  website  like  Flickr,  Blogspot,  or  offensive  tweet  about  uploading  it  to  exercised  CSCW applications have long demonstrated that users may  f. In Scenario 4, the respondent has received Dave’s  with  republishing  the  material, YouTube.  For with  sharing  might  publish  a  story  to  and  still  more  example,  you  not apply reciprocal standards to actions they feel they can  funny tweets via email, and we investigate what he or  the  material  among  friends  and  associates.  Respondents  take [5]. For example, they may want to see others without  your blog or publish a video to YouTube.  n do with the list subsequently. Scenario 5 covers the  type  of  lightweight  social  media  approach  removal  of  this  Remove – to ‘unpublish’ content; to delete content from  want  to  have  capabilities  that  are  on  in  which  the  respondent  most  cautiously. or  her  material’s  provenance  and  the  has  removed  his  The  being  seen,  or  they  may  not offered to their peers. In this case, we investigate what  a public website. For example, you might remove a photo  weet  from  the  Twitter  feed,  but  while  it  was  still  to  the  material  (whether  they  are  respondents’  relationship  , Dave has collected it, and is now posting it. Finally,  from Flickr if you don’t want everyone to see it.   they  should  be  able  to  do  with microblog  respondents  feel  the author or subject) has considerable bearing on what they  content  they  encounter,  as  well  as  probe  what  respondents  nario  6,  the  Library  of  Congress  acquires  the  entire  feel they can do with it.    Because  we  wanted  the  respondents  to  react  to  each  feel that others can do with the respondent’s content.  r  archive,  and  provides  access  to  it  under  three  scenario  without  perceiving  a  pattern  and  using  it  as  a  Author Keywords ent conditions.  shortcut  to  fill  in  answers,  we  made  concrete  statements  in  scaling  up  our  findings  from  Finally,  we  are  interested  Twitter, social media, information rights, survey, reuse.  individuals  to  public  institutions:  what  do  people  feel  that    1  shows  a  portion  of  Scenario  1,  followed  by  an  about  the  situation,  and  varied  the  ownership  rights  we  ACM Classification Keywords  public  institutions  should  be  able  to  do  with  today’s  tested. Again, refer to Figure 1 for examples. pt of the belief statements that followed the scenario.   ephemera  and  everyday  digital  belongings?  For  example,  CHI 2011, May 7-11 H4.3. Information Systems: Communications Applications.  
  20. 20. [The] freedom [of others] is dependent on mine, andmine on theirs… In choosing a mode of behaviour formyself, I choose it in a way for all men; I decide thatall men ought to behave in such and such a fashion.Hence man is totally responsible not only for his ownexistence but also for that of others. Wahl, J. (1959: 62). Philosophies of existence. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
  21. 21. Recognising Ethical Dilemmas We live, work and play ‘…in a network, where all communicators and all communication are connected’. Propose reconceptualizing the journalist’s role through a combination of existentialism and social responsibility theory. In an open medium that affords complete autonomy over personal communication, ‘the heart of a socially responsible existentialist lies in a combination of freely choosing to be responsible in order to fulfill a social role based on trust’ (Singer, 2006: 13).
  22. 22. Freedom and responsibility 5 key themes: 1. Ownership and control; 2. Content sharing and publication 3. Reuse and republication; 4. Deletion and removal; 5. Individual and institutional data rights.
  23. 23. Research Principles in Practice: Watching What HappensHammersley and Atkinson have The Digital Methods Initiativeargued that “the ethnographer Important to identify the constraints per socialparticipates, overtly or covertly, in networking platform in harvesting data. The furtherpeople’s daily lives for an extendedperiod of time, watching what step is to identify the set of relationships thathappens, listening to what is said, sh/could be studied, e.g., do friends have the sameasking questions; in fact collecting interests? When, and for which purposes, arewhatever data are available to throw interests a more significant mode of organizing,light on the issues with which he or sorting and recommending action thanshe is concerned” demographics?Hammersley, M., & Atkinson, P. (1989).Ethnography: Principles in practice. London: tudy:_Social_Networking_Sites
  24. 24. Everyone has three lives: a publiclife, a private life, and a secret life. Gabriel García Márquez, Colombian novelist, short-story writer, screenwriter and journalist.
  25. 25. Dr Mariann twitter @mazrred (cc)