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INTERACTION AMONG
      LIVING THINGS
ANIMAL              NUMBER OF
                   MEMBERS IN GROUP
Giraffe, dolphin        2 – 12
Hippopotamus            10 – 15
  Wolf , lion            2 – 25
   Elephant              2 – 29
    Ostrich              5 – 50
Chimpanzee`             40 - 60
   Some of the animals live in small groups and
    some of them live in large group.
   Some insects live in organised groups of
    colonies such as ant, honey bees and
    termites. They are call social insects.
   The social insects have specific job to carry
    out for their colonies.
1. For Protection
   The animals want to protect themselves from the predator so
   they are able to detect the enemies and protect themselves.
2. Easier looking for food
   When the animals work as a team, it is easy to find food.
   They are hunting more successfully.
3. In caring for the young
   They are cooperating with each other to take care of the
   young.
4. Defending their territory
   The female lions of a group aggressively defend their
   hunting grounds and water hole.
   Animals live in solitude are called solitary
    animals.
   They live alone except for mating or rearing
    young.
   Examples : tiger, giant panda, orang-utans,
    snow leopard, bears, skunks, woodpeckers
    and snakes.
   To avoid competition of food, nesting sites or
    space (territory).
   Easily to move around quietly without
    attracting attention.
   Competition is part of interaction among
    living things.
   Competition exist among plants, animals
    and between plants and animals.
   It is also exist among the similar animals
    and different animals.
   Competition become intense when
    number of organisms increase.
   Same animals live in the same habitat will
    compete for food.
   Animals that lose will not get the food.
   they will be thin and weak and later die
    for hunger.
   This happen during drought season or limited
    water sources such as deserts.
   Animals that lose have to look for other water
    sources or die of thirst.
   The animals will fight with each other to get
    the mate.
   The animals that lose have to look at other
    female or miss a chance to reproduce that
    season.
   An animals territory (space) provide animals with
    food, water, mate and shelter.
   Animal will try their best to defend its territory
    against other animals with the same kind.
   The compete to get the territory by fighting. The
    lose one will be forced to leave and look for
    another place.
   Plants need sunlight to make food.
   There are many ways the plant will use to get sunlight.
   Some grow taller, some climb from other tree
   Plants absorb water and nutrients from the soil through
    the root.
   Some has long roots to absorb water
   Some has extensive roots to absorb water.
   Plants grow in overcrowded place compete for
    space
   The effect if the plant did not get enough space,
    the plant will become smaller and unhealthy.
    They do not get enough sunlight, water and
    nutrient.
   They usually disperse their seeds and fruits far
    away to avoid competition of space
   Many animals already become extinct.
   Examples ; dinosaurs, woody mammoth, dado,
    aquagga
   Many species of animals and plants are now
    facing the danger of becoming extinct.
   Examples of endangered animals : Malayan Tapir,
    wrinkled hornbill, ‘orang utan’, tiger, panda bear,
    sun bear, rhinoceros, ‘seladang’ and proboscis
    monkey.
   Example s of endangered plants : rafflesia, pitcher
    plant, wild orchids, shorea
1.Defrorestration
  human cuts tree for logging and development

2. Excessive and illegal hunting
  The human hunted the animals for food, to make
  clothes, for sport or the animals killed other animals.
  Illegal hunting also called poaching. They killed the
  animals to get part of the body such as fur, horn and
  skin.

3. Pollution and collections of eggs also may cause
  the animals to extinct
Animals                               Reason being endangered
Dugong                                Excessive hunting for food and hide

Asian elephant, gorilla, orang utan   Deforestation
African elephant                      Illegal hunting for tusk
Tiger                                 Deforestation, excessive hunting for
                                      sport, illegal hunting for skin and head

Blue whale                            Excessive hunting for food and fat
Rhinoceros                            Deforestation, illegal hunting for horn

Snow leopard                          Illegal hunting for fur
Leatherback turtle                    Collection of eggs for sale
1. Conservation of endangered animals and plants
    - create the protecting area such as national parks,
    forest reserves and wild sanctuaries.
    - create the conservation area such as The Sepilok
    Orang Utan in Sabah, turtle hatchery.
2. Carrying out selective cutting in logging
3. New seed plants after timbering.
4. Carrying campaign against excessive logging.
5. Avoid consuming or buying product made from
    endangered animals
6. Enforcing the law to protect the animals.
7. Educating the public about the importance of conserving
    animals and plants.

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Living things

  • 1. INTERACTION AMONG LIVING THINGS
  • 2. ANIMAL NUMBER OF MEMBERS IN GROUP Giraffe, dolphin 2 – 12 Hippopotamus 10 – 15 Wolf , lion 2 – 25 Elephant 2 – 29 Ostrich 5 – 50 Chimpanzee` 40 - 60
  • 3. Some of the animals live in small groups and some of them live in large group.  Some insects live in organised groups of colonies such as ant, honey bees and termites. They are call social insects.  The social insects have specific job to carry out for their colonies.
  • 4. 1. For Protection The animals want to protect themselves from the predator so they are able to detect the enemies and protect themselves. 2. Easier looking for food When the animals work as a team, it is easy to find food. They are hunting more successfully. 3. In caring for the young They are cooperating with each other to take care of the young. 4. Defending their territory The female lions of a group aggressively defend their hunting grounds and water hole.
  • 5. Animals live in solitude are called solitary animals.  They live alone except for mating or rearing young.  Examples : tiger, giant panda, orang-utans, snow leopard, bears, skunks, woodpeckers and snakes.
  • 6. To avoid competition of food, nesting sites or space (territory).  Easily to move around quietly without attracting attention.
  • 7. Competition is part of interaction among living things.  Competition exist among plants, animals and between plants and animals.  It is also exist among the similar animals and different animals.  Competition become intense when number of organisms increase.
  • 8. Same animals live in the same habitat will compete for food.  Animals that lose will not get the food.  they will be thin and weak and later die for hunger.
  • 9. This happen during drought season or limited water sources such as deserts.  Animals that lose have to look for other water sources or die of thirst.
  • 10. The animals will fight with each other to get the mate.  The animals that lose have to look at other female or miss a chance to reproduce that season.
  • 11. An animals territory (space) provide animals with food, water, mate and shelter.  Animal will try their best to defend its territory against other animals with the same kind.  The compete to get the territory by fighting. The lose one will be forced to leave and look for another place.
  • 12. Plants need sunlight to make food.  There are many ways the plant will use to get sunlight.  Some grow taller, some climb from other tree
  • 13. Plants absorb water and nutrients from the soil through the root.  Some has long roots to absorb water  Some has extensive roots to absorb water.
  • 14. Plants grow in overcrowded place compete for space  The effect if the plant did not get enough space, the plant will become smaller and unhealthy. They do not get enough sunlight, water and nutrient.  They usually disperse their seeds and fruits far away to avoid competition of space
  • 15.
  • 16.
  • 17.
  • 18.
  • 19.
  • 20.
  • 21.
  • 22.
  • 23.
  • 24. Many animals already become extinct.  Examples ; dinosaurs, woody mammoth, dado, aquagga  Many species of animals and plants are now facing the danger of becoming extinct.  Examples of endangered animals : Malayan Tapir, wrinkled hornbill, ‘orang utan’, tiger, panda bear, sun bear, rhinoceros, ‘seladang’ and proboscis monkey.  Example s of endangered plants : rafflesia, pitcher plant, wild orchids, shorea
  • 25. 1.Defrorestration human cuts tree for logging and development 2. Excessive and illegal hunting The human hunted the animals for food, to make clothes, for sport or the animals killed other animals. Illegal hunting also called poaching. They killed the animals to get part of the body such as fur, horn and skin. 3. Pollution and collections of eggs also may cause the animals to extinct
  • 26. Animals Reason being endangered Dugong Excessive hunting for food and hide Asian elephant, gorilla, orang utan Deforestation African elephant Illegal hunting for tusk Tiger Deforestation, excessive hunting for sport, illegal hunting for skin and head Blue whale Excessive hunting for food and fat Rhinoceros Deforestation, illegal hunting for horn Snow leopard Illegal hunting for fur Leatherback turtle Collection of eggs for sale
  • 27. 1. Conservation of endangered animals and plants - create the protecting area such as national parks, forest reserves and wild sanctuaries. - create the conservation area such as The Sepilok Orang Utan in Sabah, turtle hatchery. 2. Carrying out selective cutting in logging 3. New seed plants after timbering. 4. Carrying campaign against excessive logging. 5. Avoid consuming or buying product made from endangered animals 6. Enforcing the law to protect the animals. 7. Educating the public about the importance of conserving animals and plants.