Season - French Grammar Review


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Season - French Grammar Review

  1. 1. Season - grammar - review Brought By: Mazizaacrizal a.k.a Dewa ng’Asmoro Mudhun BumiVisit me at : : :
  2. 2. Season - grammar - review COMMON GRAMMAR GLOSSARIES REVIEWCOMPONENTS OF ARTICLE ( INDEFINITE ).A. Partitive and Indefinite article 1. The partitive article indicates an unknown quantity of something, usually food or drink  Nous voudrions du lait. Wed like some milk.  Jai mangé de la glace. I ate some ice cream. 2. The plural partitive article des refers to something plural uncountable.  Il a mangé des épinards. He ate some spinach.  Peux-tu me donner des conseils ? Could you give me some advice ? 3. The plural indefinite article des refers to more than one countable thing in an indefinite sense.  Il a des livres intéressants. He has some interesting books.  Jai acheté des chaussettes. I bought some socks. 4. In a negative construction, the partitive and indefinite articles ( singular and plural ) change to de, usually meaning ( not ) any:  Nous ne voudrions pas de lait. We dont want any milk.  Je nai pas mangé de soupe. I didnt eat any soup.  Il na pas de livres intéressants. He doesnt have any interesting books.  Je nai pas acheté de chaussettes. I didnt buy any socks.  Nous navons pas de voiture. We dont have a car. a. Except if the verb is être :  Cest une poire, ce nest pas une pomme. Its a pear, its not an apple.  Cest de la viande. - Its meat. - Ce nest pas de la viande. Its not meat.
  3. 3. Season - grammar - review b. Or if you want to stress the negative aspect :  Je nai pas de sous - I dont have any money - Je nai pas un sou. I dont have a ( single ) cent. 5. When the plural indefinite or partitive article is used with an adjective that precedes a noun, des changes to de.  Jai des amis. - I have some friends. - Jai de jeunes amis. I have some young friends. ( Note: Jai un jeune ami ) ( Note: I have a young friend )  Jai mangé des épinards. - I ate some spinach. - Jai mangé de bons épinards. I ate some good spinach. Note: Jai mangé de la bonne sauce des épinards Note: I ate some good spinach sauce )B. Adverbs of quantity and Adjectives 1. After most adverbs of quantity, de stands alone. ( see lesson for exceptions )  Il y a beaucoup de problèmes. There are a lot of problems.  Peu détudiants sont ici. Few students are here.  Jai mangé moins de soupe que Lucie. I ate less soup than Lucie. 2. After adjectives, de stands alone.  La chambre est pleine de vêtements. The bedroom is full of clothes ( clothes in general ).  Les tables sont couvertes de gâteaux. The tables are covered in cakes ( a bunch of cakes ). 3. Except if the noun after de refers to specific people or things – then de is used with the definite article.  Beaucoup des problèmes sont graves. A lot of the problems are serious ( specific or previously-mentioned problems ).  Peu des étudiants de Thierry sont ici. Few of Thierrys students are here ( not students in general ).
  4. 4. Season - grammar - review  Le repas que Lucie a préparé est délicieux, mais The meal that Lucie made is delicious, but jai mangé moins de la soupe que toi. I ate less of the soup than you ( soup from previously-mentioned meal ).  La chambre est pleine des vêtements de David. The bedroom is full of Davids clothes ( specific ).  Les tables sont couvertes des gâteaux dont The tables are covered in the cakes that je tai parlé. I told you about.C. Descriptive vs Possessive de 1. To describe a noun with the de + descriptive noun construction, use de.  le livre détudiant student book ( book for or about students )  le panier de chien dog basket ( basket for a dog ) 2. To show possession of a noun, use de + definite article*  le livre de letudiant / le livre des étudiants the students / students book ( belongs to the student / s )  le panier du chien the dogs basket ( as opposed to Lisas basket ) * Of course, a proper noun would not need a definite article  le livre de Michel Michels book 3. If the descriptive noun is modified in order to distinguish a certain group of the given noun, use de + definite article. Note that these can then appear either descriptive or possessive. This construction is often used in advertising.  le livre de létudiant étranger the foreign student book ( book for foreign students ) or the foreign students book ( belongs 2 d student from Botswana ).
  5. 5. Season - grammar - review  le panier du chien délicat the discriminating dogs basket ( "for discriminating dogs" or "there are two dogs; this basket belongs to the discriminating one" ).D. Verbs with Prepositions When verbs and expressions must be followed by the preposition de, the de vs des issue is similar to part C, above. 1. If de introduces an unmodified noun, use de.  il faut changer de train ici You have to change trains here  nous avons besoin dargent We need money 2. If the noun that follows de is modified and refers to specific nouns ( the word "the" is needed in English), use de + definite article  Nous voulons profiter des nouveaux accords We want to take advantage of the new agreements  Il sagit de la réforme agraire Its a question of land reform 3. If the noun is preceded by an adjective but does not refer to specific nouns ( the word "the" is not needed ), use de  Jai besoin de nouvelles chaussures. I need new shoes.  Il se moque de mauvaises idées. He makes fun of bad ideas.
  6. 6. Season - grammar - reviewACCORD - French AgreementAgreement - the correspondence of gender, number, and / or person - is arguably one of the most difficult aspectsof the French language. This lesson summarizes all the different types of agreement and includes links to detailedlessons on each grammatical point.ADJECTIVESAll types of French adjectives ( e.g., descriptive, possessive, negative ) agree in gender and number with the nounsthat they modify. Exceptions : Adjectives used as adverbs - Invariable Adjectives  Ces livres sont intéressants. These books are interesting.  Ma grande maison verte. My big green house.ARTICLESDefinite, Indefinite, and Partitive articles each have three forms: Masculine, Feminine, and Plural.  le livre, la table, les stylos the book, the table, the pens  un homme, une femme, des enfants a man, a woman, some children  du fromage, de la salade, des pommes some cheese, some salad, some applesNOUNSNearly all French nouns have different forms for singular and plural. In addition, many nouns that refer to peoplehave both a masculine and a feminine form.  un cousin, une cousine, des cousins, des cousines cousin ( s )  un invité, une invitée, des invités, des invitées guest ( s )  un acteur, une actrice, des acteurs, des actrices actor ( s ) / actress ( es )NOUNS : COMPOUNDCompound nouns have their own special rules for pluralization and gender  des oiseaux-mouches hummingbirds  des gratte-ciel skyscrapers
  7. 7. Season - grammar - reviewPRONOUNS : IMPERSONALSome impersonal pronouns ( e.g., demonstratives, possessives ) change to agree in gender and numberwith the nouns they replace.  Celle qui parle, cest ma femme. The one who is speaking is my wife.  Dautres vont venir. Others are going to come.  Lesquels voulez-vous ? Which ones do you want ?PRONOUNS : PERSONALAll personal pronouns ( e.g., subject, object, stressed ) change according to the grammatical person thatthey represent.  Je te parle. Im talking to you.  Il va nous donner les clés. Hes going to give us the keys.  Dis-moi ! Tell me !VERBS : AVOIR VERBSVerbs which take avoir as the auxiliary verb in the compound tenses do not normally require agreement. However,when the direct object precedes the conjugated verb, the verb must agree with it.  Jai acheté la voiture --> Je lai achetée. I bought the car --> I bought it.  Les livres que javais reçus... The books I had received...VERBS : ÊTRE VERBSThe past participle of any verb conjugated with être in the compound tenses has to agree with the subject innumber and gender.  Nous sommes allés au cinéma. We went to the movies.  Lise était déjà arrivée quand... Lise had already arrived when...
  8. 8. Season - grammar - reviewVERBS : PASSIVE VOICEThe passive voice construction’s like : an être verb, with d’ auxiliary verb être + past participle.The past participle has to agree with the subject, not the agent, in gender and number.  Les voitures ont été lavées. The cars were washed.  La leçon sera écrite par un étudiant. The lesson will be written by a student.VERBS : PRONOMINAL VERBSIn compound tenses, pronominal verbs are conjugated with être, which means that the past participle must agreewith the subject. ( Except when the pronoun is the indirect object - learn more. )  Ana sest levée. Ana got up.  Ils se seraient arrêtés, mais... They would have stopped, but...Additional o’ Pronominal Verb Pronominal verbs are verbs that need a reflexive pronoun in addition to a subject pronoun, because the subject ( s ) performing the action of the verb are the same as the object ( s ) being acted upon.  Nous nous habillons. Were getting dressed ( dressing ourselves ).  Tu te baignes. Youre taking a bath ( bathing yourself ). The Pronominal voice is much more common in French than in English - many French verbs that require the pronominal voice are equivalent to the active voice in English. In French, you can recognize pronominal verbs by the se which precedes the infinitive. French has three types of pronominal verbs : 1. Reflexive Verbs 2. Reciprocal Verbs 3. Idiomatic Pronominal Verbs
  9. 9. Season - grammar - review There are two steps in conjugating pronominal verbs. First : take the reflexive pronoun se, change it to agree with the subject of the verb, and place it directly in front of the verb. Then ( 2nd ) : as with all verbs, conjugate the infinitive according to whether its an -er, -ir, -re, or irregular verb. i.e. : Elle se brosse les dents. Shes brushing her teeth. Vous vous levez tard. You get up late. See what pronominal verbs look like conjugated into all the simple tenses : se moquer | se souvenirFrench Reflexive Verbs - Verbes à sens réfléchiThe most common pronominal verbs are reflexive verbs, which indicate that the subject of the verb is performing theaction upon himself, herself, or itself. Reflexive verbs mainly have to do with parts of the body,* clothing, personalcircumstance, or location. Here are some common reflexive verbs:sapprocher de to approach se lever to get upsasseoir to sit down se maquiller to put on makeupse baigner to bathe, swim se marier ( avec ) to get married ( to )se brosser ( les cheveux, les dents ) se moquer de to brush ( ones hair, ones teeth ) to make fun of ( someone else )se casser ( la jambe, le bras ) se moucher to blow ones nose to break ( ones leg, ones arm ) se peigner to comb ones hairse coiffer to fix ones hair se promener to take a walkse coucher to go to bed se raser to shavese couper to cut oneself se regarder to look at oneselfse déshabiller to get undressed se reposer to restse doucher to take a shower se réveiller to wake upse fâcher to get angry se souvenir de to remembershabiller to get dressedse laver ( les mains, la figure ) to wash ( ones hands, ones face )
  10. 10. Season - grammar - review[ add.] French Reflexive Verbs - Verbes à sens réfléchiTu te reposes. Youre resting.Il se lève à 08:00. He gets up at 8:00Note: that many reflexive verbs also have a non-reflexive use; that is, they can describe someone performing the action of the verb on someone or something else: Elle se promène. Shes taking a walk. vs Elle promène le chien. Shes taking the dog for a walk. Je me lave les mains. Im washing my hands. vs Je lave le bébé. Im washing the baby.* When referring to parts of the body, the French possessive pronoun is rarely used. Instead, the owner isindicated with the reflexive pronoun and the definite article precedes the body part.Note: Some verbs that are normally not pronominal may be used with a reflexive pronoun in order to avoid the passive voice, in a construction known as the passive impersonal.
  11. 11. Season - grammar - reviewAsking Questions in French - Les QuestionsDo you know how to ask yes / no questions in French ?There are four different ways to ask, but two of them are considered familiar constructions : 1. Put est-ce que at the beginning of any sentence ( formal and familiar )  Est-ce que tu danses ( vous dansez ) ? Do you dance ?  Est-ce que tu aimes ( vous aimez ) danser ? Do you like to dance ? 2. Use inversion: invert the verb and subject pronoun, join by a hyphen ( formal / familiar )  Danses-tu ? Dansez-vous ? Do you dance ?  Aimes-tu danser ? Aimez-vous danser ? Do you like to dance ? 3. Raise the pitch of your voice at the end of any normal sentence ( familiar )  Tu danses ? You dance ?  Tu aimes danser ? You like to dance ? 4. Add the tag nest-ce pas to the end of the sentence ( familiar )  Tu danses, nest-ce pas ? You dance, right ?  Tu aimes danser, nest-ce pas ? You like to dance, right ?Note about inversion: When using the third person singular ( il, elle, or on ) with a verb that ends in a vowel, you must add t- between the verb and subject pronoun ( why ? ) :  Aime-t-il les films ? - Does he like movies ?  Parle-t-elle beaucoup ? - Does she talk a lot ?  A-t-on décidé ? - Have we decided ?
  12. 12. Season - grammar - reviewNote about negative questions: There is a special French word for yes, si, that is used only when responding yes to a negative question. ( I wish English had a word like this ! ) Vas-tu au ciné ? - Are you going to the movies ? Oui ! - Yes ! Ne vas-tu pas au ciné ? - Arent you going to the movies ? Si ! - Yes ( I am ) ! Tu ne vas pas au ciné ? - Youre not going to the movies ? Si ! - Yes ( I am ) !The examples above are all yes / no questions. For other questions, you need to use one of the following:  Interrogative pronouns ( qui / que / quoi – who / what )  Interrogative adjectives ( quel / quelles – which )  Interrogative adverbs ( quand, où, pourquoi, comment : when, where, why, how )
  13. 13. Season - grammar - reviewFrench Interrogative Adjectives - Adjectifs InterrogatifsFiled In: 1. French Grammar 2. Adjectives Sometimes French grammar is much stricter than English grammar. A simple question like "What book doyou want ?" is technically incorrect, because in proper English, the question should be "Which book do u want ?"In reality, the former is much more common than the latter. In French, however, one does not have this option : theFrench equivalent of which, quel, must be used whenever there is more than one noun that you are choosingbetween. Like all French adjectives, quel has to agree in gender and number with the noun it modifiesFrench Interrogative Adjectives Gender Singular Plural Masculine quel quels Feminine quelle quelles The uses of quel are fairly straightforward – you need it whenever you want to ask for specific information about a noun:  Pierre ma prêté un livre. Quel livre ? Pierre loaned me a book. Which book ?  Nous devons partir avant midi. Quelle heure est-il ? We have to leave before noon. What time is it ? Questions with quel may be asked with est-ce que or inversion:  Quel livre veux-tu ? / Quel livre est-ce que tu veux ? What book do you want ?  Quelles pommes aime-t-il ? / Quelles pommes est-ce quil aime ? Which apples does he like ? Quel + noun may be preceded by a preposition  À quelle heure veux-tu partir ? / À quelle heure est-ce que tu veux partir ? What time do you want to leave ?  De quels livres parle-t-il ? / De quels livres est-ce quil parle ? What books is he talking about ?
  14. 14. Season - grammar - review To ask "what is ...?" or "what are ...?" use quel plus the appropriate conjugation of être:  Quel est le problème ? Whats the problem ?  Quelles sont les différences ? What are the differences ?French Conjunctions - Les ConjonctionsSee More About: 1. conjunctions 2. intermediate frenchConjunctions provide a link between similar words or groups of words, such as nouns, verbs, people, etc. There aretwo types of French conjunctions:A. Coordinating Conjunctions join words and groups of words with an equal value.  Jaime les pommes et les oranges. I like apples and oranges.  Je veux le faire, mais je nai pas dargent. I want to do it, but I dont have any money.B. Subordinating Conjunctions join dependent clauses to main clauses.  Jai dit que jaime les pommes. I said that I like apples.  Il travaille pour que vous puissiez manger. He works so that you can eat.A. French Coordinating Conjunctions Coordinating conjunctions join words and groups of words of equal value; that is, which have the same nature or the same function in the sentence. In the case of individual words, this means that they must be the same part of speech, whereas if theyre clauses, they must be similar or complementary tenses / moods.  car for, because  or now, yet  donc so  ou or  ensuite next  ou bien or else  et and  puis then  mais but
  15. 15. Season - grammar - reviewExamples : Jaime les pommes, les bananes, et les oranges. I like apples, bananas, and oranges. Pommes, bananes, and oranges are all fruits ( nouns ). Veux-tu aller en France ou en Italie ? Do you want to go to France or Italy ? France and Italy are both places ( nouns ). Ce nest pas carré mais rectangulaire. Its not square but rectangular. Carré and rectangulaire are both adjectives. Je veux le faire, mais je nai pas dargent. I want to do it, but I dont have any money. Je veux le faire and je nai pas dargent are present tense. Fais tes devoirs, puis lave la vaisselle. Do your homework, then wash the dishes. Fais tes devoirs and lave la vaisselle are both commands.Certain French coordinating conjunctions can be repeated in front of each of the joined itemsfor emphasis :  et... et both... and  ou... ou either... or  ne... ni... ni neither... nor  soit... soit either... orExamples : Je connais et Jean-Paul et son frère. I know both Jean-Paul and his brother. Jean-Paul and son frère are both people ( nouns ). Tu peux ou regarder la télé ou jouer au foot. You can either watch TV or play soccer. Regarder and jouer are both infinitives. Soit avant, soit après, ça mest égal. Either before or after, I dont care. Avant and après are both prepositions. Il ne mange ni la viande ni les légumes. He eats neither meat nor vegetables. Viande and légumes are both foods ( nouns ).Note: that for the negative coordinating conjunction ne... ni... ni, the word ne goes in front of the verb, just like the ne in other negative structures.
  16. 16. Season - grammar - reviewB. French subordinating conjunctionsSubordinating conjunctions join dependent ( subordinate ) clauses to main clauses. A dependent clause cannotstand alone because its meaning is incomplete without the main clause. In addition, sometimes the dependentclause has a verb form that cannot stand alone.  comme as, since  que that  lorsque when  quoique* even though  puisque since, as  si if  quand when*Note : that quoique must be followed by the subjunctive.Examples : Jai dit que jaime les pommes. I said that I like apples. The main clause is jai dit. What did I say ? That jaime les pommes. Jaime les pommes is incomplete without jai dit. I might not in fact like apples, but I said that I did. Comme tu nes pas prêt, jy irai seul. Since youre not ready, Ill go alone. The main clause is jy irai seul. Why will I go alone ? Because tu nes pas prêt. The idea here is not that I want to go alone, but the fact that I will go alone Comme youre not ready. Si je suis libre, je tamènerai à laéroport. If Im free, Ill take you to the airrort. The main clause is je tamènerai à laéroport. Is this guaranteed ? No, only si je suis libre. If something else comes up, I cant take you. Jai peur quand il voyage. I am scared when he travels. The main clause is jai peur. When am I scared ? Not all the time, only quand il voyage. So jai peur is incomplete without the juxtaposition quand il voyage.
  17. 17. Season - grammar - reviewFRENCH CONJUNCTIVE PHRASESA conjunctive phrase is a group of two or more words that function as a conjunction. French conjunctive phrasesusually end in que and are usually subordinating conjunctions. à condition que* provided that  dès que as soon as afin que* so that  en admettant que* assuming that ainsi que just as, so as  en attendant que* while, until alors que while, whereas  encore que even though à moins que** unless  jusquà ce que* until après que after, when  parce que because à supposer que* assuming that  pendant que while au cas où in case  pour que* so that avant que** before  pourvu que* provided that bien que* although  quand bien même even though / if dans lhypothèse où in the event that  quoi que* whatever, no matter what de crainte que** for fear that  sans que** without de façon que* in such a way that  sitôt que as soon as de même que just as  supposé que supposing de peur que** for fear that  tandis que while, whereasNOTE :* These conjunctions must be followed by the subjunctive.** These conjunctions require the subjunctive and ne explétif.Examples : Il travaille pour que vous puissiez manger. He works so that you can eat. The main clause is il travaille. Why does he work ? Pour que vous puissiez manger. The idea here is not that you can eat, but the fact that you can eat because he works. Another clue is that vous puissiez manger cannot stand alone - the subjunctive is only found in subordinate clauses. Jai réussi à lexamen bien que je naie pas étudié I passed d’ test even though I didnt study. The main clause is jai réussi à lexamen. How did I pass the test ? Certainly not by studying, since je nai pas étudié. So jai réussi à lexamen is incomplete without d’ juxtaposition bien que je naie pas étudié. Il est parti parce quil avait peur. He left because he was afraid. The main clause is il est parti. Why did he leave ? Because il avait peur. The idea il avait peur is incomplete without the main clause il est parti.
  18. 18. Season - grammar - reviewALL ABOUT “ Être “Everything you need to know about the irregular French verb êtreêtre is one of d’ most common French verbs. It’s irregular in conjugation n’ literally means "to be."Être is also used in some idiomatic expressions and as an auxiliary verb for compound tenses and the passive voice.être ( CONJUGATIONS )French verb conjugator > être SUBJECT PRESENT FUTURE IMPERFECT PRESENT PARTICIPLE je ( j ) suis serai étais étant tu es seras étais il est sera était Passé Composé nous sommes serons étions Auxiliary Verb avoir vous êtes serez étiez Past Participle ils sont seront étaient été IMPERFECT SUBJECT SUBJUNCTIVE CONDITIONAL PASSÉ SIMPLE SUBJUNCTIVE je sois serais fus fusse tu sois serais fus fusses il soit serait fut fût nous soyons serions fûmes fussions vous soyez seriez fûtes fussiez ils soient seraient furent fussent SUBJECT IMPERATIVE ( tu ) sois ( nous ) soyons ( vous ) soyez
  19. 19. Season - grammar - reviewTo BeÊtre means "to be" in many senses that this verb is used in English. It is used with adjectives, nouns, and adverbs, to describe a temporary or permanent state of being :  Il est beau He is handsome  Je suis à Paris Im in Paris  Nous sommes français Were French  Il est là-bas Hes over there Être is used to describe someones profession however, note that the indefinite article is not used in this construction in French:  Mon père est avocat My father is a lawyer  Je suis étudiant Im a student There are a number of English "to be" expressions which are translated in French by : avoir ( to have ) :  avoir froid  avoir raison  avoir … ans to be cold to be right to be … years old When talking about the weather, French uses the verb faire ( to do / make ) rather than être :  Quel temps fait-il ? Hows the weather ?  Il fait beau Its nice out  Il fait du vent Its windy Être is found in the impersonal expressions cest and il est :  Cest difficile à decider Its hard to decide.  Il est possible quil mange avec nous Its possible that hell eat with us. Être can be used with the Preposition [ à ] plus a stressed pronoun to indicate possession  Ce livre est à moi This is my book.  À qui est cet argent ? Cest à Paul. Whose money is this ? Its Pauls.
  20. 20. Season - grammar - reviewÊtre as an Auxiliary Verba). Être is the auxiliary for some verbs in the compound tenses :  Je suis allé en France I went to France  Nous étions déjà sortis We had already left  Il serait venu si... He would have come if...b). Être is used to form the passive voice :  La voiture est lavée The car is washed  Il est respecté de tout le monde He is respected by everyoneMore Expressions with être : ça y est thats it, its done  nest-ce pas ? right ? isnt that so ? cest ça thats it, thats right  soit so be it, that is en être to take part in  soit... soit... either... or... être de to be at / in ( figuratively ) cest / on est / nous sommes + date its ( date ) être en train de + infinitive to be ( in the process of ) + present participle est-ce ( que ) no literal translation; this expression is used to ask questions
  21. 21. Season - grammar - reviewALL ABOUT VOULOIRirregular French verb vouloir Vouloir - to wantVouloir is one of the most common French verbs. It is irregular in conjugation and has several different meanings, depending on the tense and mood it is conjugated into.Vouloir indicates a strong will or command - " to want " or " to wish " : Je veux danser avec toi. I want to dance with you. Voulez-vous parler ? Do you wish to speak ? Je ne veux pas le faire ! I dont want to ( I wont ) do it !The French verb vouloir literally means "to want" and is also used in many idiomatic expressions. Learn how tohold a grudge, only half want something, wish someone well, and more with this list of expressions with vouloir.Possible meanings of vouloir  to want  to expect  to claim, assert  to need, requireSimple conjugations for the French verb vouloirFrench verb conjugator > vouloir Subject Present Future Imperfect Present Participle je veux voudrai voulais voulant tu veux voudras voulais il veut voudra voulait Passé composé nous voulons voudrons voulions Auxiliary Verb avoir vous voulez voudrez vouliez Past Participle voulu ils veulent voudront voulaient
  22. 22. Season - grammar - review Imperfect Subject Subjunctive Conditional Passé Simple Subjunctive je veuille voudrais voulus voulusse tu veuilles voudrais voulus voulusses il veuille voudrait voulut voulût nous voulions voudrions voulûmes voulussions vous vouliez voudriez voulûtes voulussiez ils veuillent voudraient voulurent voulussent Subject Imperative ( tu ) veuille ( nous ) veuillons ( vous ) veuillez Polite Requests and Desires Vouloir can be used to express polite requests or desires in three different constructions. a) in a question  Voulez-vous maider, sil vous plaît ? Will you help me, please ?  Veux-tu tasseoir, sil te plaît ? Please sit down. b) in the conditional  Je voudrais du thé. I would like some tea.  Voudriez-vous venir avec nous ? Would you like to come with us? c) in the imperative, usually in the second person plural, to express an extremely polite request.  Veuillez mexcuser. Please ( be so kind as to ) excuse me.  Veuillez vous asseoir. Please sit down.
  23. 23. Season - grammar - review Vouloir bien Vouloir bien means to be willing to, to be glad to, to be good / kind enough to.  Je veux bien le faire. Id be glad to do it.  Elle veut bien lacheter, mais il ne le vend pas. Shes willing to buy it, but hes not selling it.  Aidez-moi, si vous voulez bien. Help me, if you would be so kind. Vouloir dire Vouloir dire means "to mean" ( very useful in your French class ! )  Que veut dire volontiers ? What does "volontiers" mean ?  Volontiers veut dire gladly. "Volontiers" means "gladly." En vouloir En vouloir à quelquun means to hold something against someone ( be upset about something )  Il men veut de lavoir fait. He holds it against me for doing that.  Ne men veux pas ! Dont hold it against me !Notes : Vouloir is followed directly by the infinitive, with no preposition.  Je veux le faire. I want to do it.  Nous voulons savoir. We want to know. When vouloir is in a main clause with another verb in a subordinate clause, that verb must be in the subjunctive.  Je veux quil le fasse. I want him to do it.  Nous voulons que tu le saches. We want you to know ( it ).Vouloir can have different meanings in the imperfect and passé composé: Advanced French past tensesVouloir has different meaning in certain verb tenses and moods - see All about vouloir for details.
  24. 24. Season - grammar - reviewExpressions with vouloir vouloir à manger / boire en vouloir ( informal ) to want something to eat / drink to want / be raring to go vouloir absolument en vouloir à qqchose to be dead set on, determined to to be after something vouloir bien to really want to en vouloir à qqun to have a grudge against s.o., Vouloir, cest pouvoir ( proverb ) be mad at s.o. Where theres a will theres a way en vouloir à qqun de qqchose vouloir de + food / drink to hold s.t. against s.o., to want some resent someone for s.t. vouloir dire to mean ne pas vouloir blesser qqun to not mean to hurt someone vouloir du bien à qqun to wish someone well ne pas vouloir quon se croie obligé to not want someone to feel obliged vouloir du mal à qqun to wish someone ill / harm ne pas vouloir de qqun / qqchose to not want someone / something vouloir faire qqchose to want to do something ne plus vouloir de qqun / qqchose to no longer want s.o. / s.t. vouloir que qqun fasse qqchose to want something to do something sans le vouloir unintentionally, inadvertently vouloir que qqchose se fasse to want something to be done sans vouloir te / vous vexer no offense vouloir qqchose de qqun sen vouloir de + infinitive to want something from someone to be annoyed with oneself for vouloir sans vouloir to only half want
  25. 25. Season - grammar - reviewÇa va comme tu veux ? ( informal ) Ils en voulaient à sa vie Is everything all right / OK ? They wanted him deadcomme le veut la loi Jaurais voulu que vous voyiez sa tête ! according to the law, I wish you could have seen his face ! as the law requires Jaurais voulu ty voir !comme le veut la tradition Id like to see what youd have done ! according to tradition Je men voudrais ! Not on your life!Comme tu veux / vous voulez As you like / wish / please, Je ne ten veux pas Have it your way, Suit yourself Im not mad at you, No hard feelingsComment voulez-vous que je sache ? Je ne voudrais pas abuser How should I know ?, I dont want to impose How do you expect me to know ? Je veux ! ( familiar )Comment veux-tu / You bet ! Id love to !voulez-vous que + subjunctive ? How do you expect ( s.o. 2 do s.t.) ? Je veux bien Yes, pleasefaire de qqun ce quon veut Je veux bien le croire mais ... to do what one likes with someone, Id like to believe him but ... to twist someone around his / her little finger Je voudrais que vous voyiez sa tête ! I wish you could see his face !Le feu na pas voulu prendre the fire wouldnt light ou catch Je voulais te / vous dire... I wanted, meant to tell you...Le hasard voulut que as luck would have it Je voudrais bien voir ça ! Id like to see that !... en veux-tu en voilà tons of...Il y a des problèmes en veux-tu en voilà Je voudrais ty voir !( informal ) There are tons of problems Id like to see you try !
  26. 26. Season - grammar - reviewLe malheur a voulu quil + subjunctive Que voulez-vous quon y fasse ? He had the misfortune to... What do you expect us / them to do about it ?Moi je veux bien, mais... Fair enough, but ... Quest-ce que tu veux que je te dise ? What can I say ?Ne men veuillez pas ( formal ) what do you want me to say ?Ne men voulez pas ( informal ) Dont hold it against me Que lui voulez-vous ? What do you want with him ?Quand on veut, on peut ( proverb ) Where theres a will theres a way quil le veuille ou non whether he likes it or notQuest-ce que tu veux / vous voulez ?Que veux-tu / voulez-vous ? savoir ce quon veut What can you do ? to know what one wants What do you expect ?Si tu veux Tu ne men veux pas ? If you like / want, If you will No hard feelings?Si tu voulais bien le faire Tu veux bien leur dire que... If youd be kind enough to do it Would you please tell them that ...Si vous le voulez bien Lusage veut que... If you dont mind Custom requires that...Si vous voulez bien me suivre Veuillez agréer / croire... ( business letter ) This way, please Please accept...Tu las voulu ! You asked for it ! Veuillez croire à toute ma sympathie Please accept my deepest sympathyTu lauras voulu ! Itll be your own fault ! Veux-tu ( bien ) + infinitive ! Youll have brought it on yourself ! Will you ( please ) ...!
  27. 27. Season - grammar - review Veux-tu que je te dise / raconte pourquoi... ? Shall I tell you why ...? se vouloir to claim to be, to be supposed to be Voudriez-vous avoir lobligeance / lamabilité de... Would you be so kind as to ... Quest-ce quil me veut, celui-là ? ( informal ) What does he want from me ?ADVANCED FRENCH PAST TENSESLearn about specific French verbs in the passé composé and imperfectThe difference between the two main French past tenses, the passé composé and the imperfect, is a constantstruggle for many French students. In my lesson on passé composé vs imperfect, you learned about thefundamental differences between these two tenses. In this more advanced lesson, you will learn about theparticularities of certain verbs when used in the past.Usually ImperfectSome French verbs are nearly always used in the imperfect rather than the passé compose : aimer - to like, to love  penser - to think croire - to believe  sembler - to seem espérer - to hope  sentir - to feel être - to be Verbs like these describe a state of mind or state of being. They are most often in the imperfect becauseverbs like "wanting" and "being" do not usually have a clear indicator of start and finish - either they last for anunspecified amount of time or they are interrupted by some other action.i.e : Jaimais danser quand jétais jeune. I liked to dance when I was young. Je croyais en Dieu. I believed in God. Jespérais gagner. I hoped ( was hoping ) to win. Jétais heureux lannée passée. I was happy last year. Je pensais à mon frère. I was thinking about my brother. Il semblait trop parfait. It seemed too perfect. Je me sentais malade pendant toute la journée. I felt sick all day.
  28. 28. Season - grammar - review However, these verbs are used in the passé composé when there is a clear indication of the beginning or endof the action of the verb, or when it is obvious that this was a simple action that only occurred once.i.e : Je nai pas aimé le film. I didnt like the movie. Je ne tai pas cru quand tu as dit... I didnt believe you when you said... Hier, jai espéré que tu viendrais ; aujourdhui, ça mest égal. Yesterday I hoped you would come; today I dont care. Quand je lai vu, jai été surpris. When I saw him, I was surprised ( just at that moment ). Jai pensé à une bonne histoire. I thought of a good story. Il a semblé disparaître. He seemed to disappear ( all of a sudden ) Jai senti une goutte de pluie. I felt a drop of rain.The difference between the two main French past tenses, the passé composé and the imperfect, is a constantstruggle for many French students. On page one, you studied verbs which are usually in the imperfect. Here, you canlearn about verbs that have different meanings depending on the tense they are used in, and verbal constructionsthat are always in the imperfect.
  29. 29. Season - grammar - reviewMeaning ChangesThere are a few verbs that have different meanings depending on whether they are used in the passé composé orimperfect. NOTE however that these verbs are usually used in the imperfect; the passé composé meaning is fairly uncommon. avoir - to have  imperfect - had  passé composé - had, got, received  Jai eu un accident. - I had / got into an accident  Jai eu une bonne surprise. - I got a nice surprise  Jai eu faim. - I got hungry connaître - to know  imperfect - knew, was familiar with  Je la connaissais bien. - I knew her well  passé composé - met  Jai connu Michel hier. - I met Michel ( for the first time ) yesterday devoir - to have to  imperfect - was supposed to ( whether I did or not )  Je devais partir à midi. - I was supposed to leave at noon  passé composé - must have, had to  Jai dû le perdre. - I must have lost it  Jai dû partir à midi. - I had to leave at noon ( and did ) pouvoir - to be able to  imperfect - could, was able to ( whether I did or not )  Je pouvais mentir. - I could lie / was capable of lying  passé composé - could, was able to, managed to; ( negative ) couldnt, was unable to  Jai pu mentir. - I was able to lie  Je nai pas pu mentir. - I couldnt / was unable to lie
  30. 30. Season - grammar - review savoir - to know  imperfect - knew  Je savais ladresse. - I knew the address  Je savais nager. - I knew how to swim  passé composé - learned, found out  Jai su la solution. - I found out / discovered the solution  Jai su nager. - I learned how to swim vouloir - to want  imperfect - wanted  Je voulais partir. - I wanted to leave  Je voulais plus dargent. - I wanted more money  passé composé - tried, decided to; ( negative ) refused  Jai voulu partir. - I tried / decided to leave  Je nai pas voulu partir. - I refused to leaveVerbal ConstructionsSome verbs have particular constructions which, when referring to the past, are always in the imperfect. aller + infinitive ( near future ) Jallais étudier. - I was going to study. avoir ( with age ) Javais 18 ans. - I was 18. être en train de Jétais en train décrire une lettre. - I was writing a letter. faire ( with weather ) Il faisait beau. - It was nice out. venir de + infinitive ( recent past ) Je venais darriver. - I had just arrived.
  31. 31. Season - grammar - reviewIRREGULAR “ -IR “ VERBSLearn about patterns for irregular -ir French verbsIrregular verbs are the bane of every French students existence, but there is some good news. There are somepatterns in the irregularities - once you learn the conjugations for one verb in a group, you shouldnt have any troublewith the other verbs in that group.There are four kinds of -IR verbs 1. irregular -IR verbs like dormir… 2. irregular -IR verbs like ouvrir… 3. completely irregular verbs ( pouvoir, venir, etc… ) 4. regular -IR verbs1. The first group of irregular verbs includes dormir, mentir, partir, sentir, servir, sortir, and all of their derivations ( repartir, etc ). The endings for these verbs are as follows: Singular Plural je -s nous -ons tu -s vous -ez il -t ils -ent These verbs drop the last letter of the radical in the singular forms. DORMIR Singular Plural je dors nous dormons tu dors vous dormez il dort ils dorment
  32. 32. Season - grammar - review2. The second group of verbs includes couvrir, cueillir, découvrir, offrir, ouvrir, souffrir, and their derivations. These verbs are conjugated like regular -ER verbs. So the endings are : Singular Plural je -e nous -ons tu -es vous -ez il -e ils -ent To conjugate ouvrir, remove d’ infinitive ending to find the radical ouvr- and then add the appropriate endings: OUVRIR Singular Plural j ouvre nous ouvrons tu ouvres vous ouvrez il ouvre ils ouvrent3. Completely irregular -IR verbs: Unfortunately, some verbs do not follow a pattern - you have to memorize the conjugations for each one separately. asseoir pleuvoir valoir courir pouvoir venir devoir recevoir voir falloir savoir vouloir mourir tenir
  33. 33. Season - grammar - review4. French Regular -IR Verbs :FRENCH REGULAR “ -IR “ VERBSHow to conjugate regular -IR verbs in French - See More About: There are five main kinds of verbs in French : regular -ER, -IR, -RE; stem-changing; and irregular.Once youve learned the rules of conjugation for each of the first three kinds of verbs, you should have no problemconjugating regular verbs in each of those categories. Regular -IR verbs are the second largest category of Frenchverbs The verb form that ends in -IR is called the infinitive ( in English, the infinitive is the verb preceded by theword " to ") , and -IR is the infinitive ending. The verb with the infinitive ending removed is called the stem orradical. To conjugate -IR verbs, remove the infinitive ending to find the stem and add the endings in the tablebelow.French regular -IR verb conjugationsTo conjugate an -IR verb in the present tense, remove the infinitive ending and then add the appropriate endings.For example: here are the present tense conjugations for the regular -IR verbs choisir ( to choose ), finir ( to finish ), and réussir ( to succeed ) PRONOUN Ending choisir > chois- finir > fin- réussir > réuss- je -is choisis finis réussis tu -is choisis finis réussis il -it choisit finit réussit nous -issons choisissons finissons réussissons vous -issez choisissez finissez réussissez ils -issent choisissent finissent réussissent Regular -IR verbs share conjugation patterns in all tenses and moods.
  34. 34. Season - grammar - review French Regular -IR verbs, the second largest group of French verbs, share a conjugation pattern. Here are just a few of the most common regular -IR verbs  abolir to abolish  guérir to cure, heal, recover  agir to act  maigrir to lose weight, get thin  avertir to warn  nourrir to feed, nourish  bâtir to build  obéir to obey  bénir to bless  punir to punish  choisir to choose  réfléchir to reflect, think  établir to establish  remplir to to fill  étourdir to stun, deafen, make dizzy  réussir to succeed  finir to finish  rougir to blush, turn red  grossir to gain weight,  vieillir to grow old get fat