INTRODUCTION Science dealing with collection, preparation, and standardization of DRUGS, derives its name from the Greek root PHARMAKON, a drug a company that makes and sells pharmaceuticals
Pharmacy began in Van Established the H.T. Gould &Diemens Land with the supply of Co. Homeopathic Pharmacy in Hobart inmedicines by 1881military surgeons and dispensers Formal separation of medicine andAs the number of free settlers pharmacy came about when the Pharmacygrew, traders with ‘chemical Act was passed in 1908knowledge brought in shipmentsof medicines and chemicals Most medicines were compounded mixtures of natural ingredients until the The first was Michael Bateswho, in 1825, established a early 1900s, when the advent of patentbusiness as medicines and manufactured tablets suchPHARMACOPOLIST, Chemist as ASPIRIN AND PHENACETINand Druggist in Launceston The synthesis of antibiotics and Hatton & Laws Chemists, one of antipsychotics revolutionized drugthe oldest pharmacy businesses treatment in the 1940s and 1950sstill operating in Australia In 1978 Pharmacy moved to the Chemists were licensed by laws University of Tasmania, where it came toenacted in 1837, 1840 and 1842 be ranked as one of the best pharmacy courses in Australia.
INVOLVEMENT OFPHARMACEUTICALS IN INDIAn SECTOR Pharmaceuticals Other
BIOTECHNOLOGY PHARMAC-TAXES OF EUTICALPHARMAC- MARKETINEUTICALS G PHARMACEUTICALS products sold to the Government consumers support & & Foreign investment Consumer prefer products
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Pharmaceuticals products sold to the consumers & Consumer prefer products. Selling of products to the consumer is depend upon some Demographic changes :- Consumer’s healthcare Segments:-1. Personal care2. Scientifically based
1. Personal care:- Companies Persuade Consumers that theirproducts are testy and healthy. Promise to deliver health benefits inpharmaceuticals products. Companies provides specific health needs orincrease some dimension of performance. Pharmaceuticals companies expands theirbusiness beyond the over the counter market(expand business on large scale).
2. Scientific based care:- Companies encouraging peoples that theirproducts are scientifically based. Companies focusing on growth and profitability. E.g.. Nestle company starts consumer healthbusiness. Product should be organize or manage by expertspersons.
Consumer prefer products depends upon:- Increased focus on Public health. Increased consumers spending. New spending due to increased in population.
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PHARMACEUTICAL MARKETINGPharmaceutical marketing, sometimes calledmedico-marketing or pharma marketing in somecountries, is the business of advertising orotherwise promoting the sale of pharmaceuticalsor drugs. There is some evidence that marketingpractices can negatively affect both patients andthe health care profession. Many countries havemeasures in place to limit advertisingby pharmaceutical companies.
. Marketing of legitimate medications, such as painrelievers or allergy medicine, has also long beenpracticed, although, until recently, mass marketing ofprescription medications has been rare. It was longbelieved that since doctors made the selection ofdrugs, mass marketing was a waste of resources;specific ads targeting the medical profession werethought to be cheaper and just as effective. Animportant part of these efforts was marketing tomedical students.
In the United States, marketing and distribution ofpharmaceuticals is regulated by the FederalFood, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and the PrescriptionDrug Marketing Act, respectively. Food and DrugAdministration (FDA) regulations require allprescription drug promotion to be truthful and notmisleading, based on "substantial evidence orsubstantial clinical experience",
SUPPLY CHAIN MANUFACTURER CNF DISTRIBUTING AGENTS MEDICAL SHOPS CONSUMER
FREE SAMPLESFree samples have been shown to affect physicianprescribing behaviour.It is argued that a benefit to free samples is the “try itbefore you buy it” approach. Free Samples giveimmediate access to the medication and the patientcan begin treatment right away. Also, it saves timefrom going to a pharmacy to get it filled beforetreatment begins.free samples allows you to findwhich dose and brand of medication works bestbefore having to spend money on a filled prescriptionat a pharmacy.
TOTAL EXPENDITURETHE PHARMACEUTICLE INDUSTRY IN INDIA STANDSTHIRD IN THE WORLD IN CASE OF SALES.ACCORDING TO DEPARTMENT OFPHARMACEUTICLE ,MINISTERY OF CHEMICLE &FERTILIZER THE TOTL TURNOVER OF INDIASPHARMACEUTICLE INDUSTRY IN 2008-09 WAS21.04 BILLION.WHILE THE DOMESTIC MARKET WAS12.26 MILLION.THE EXPENES OF SAME NOW AT2012 IS 19.22 MILLION.
2008 in Canada $1.7 billion a year was spentmarketing drugs to physicians and in the UnitedStates $21 billion were spent in 2008. In 2011money spent on pharmaceutical marketing in the USwas estimated at $29.9 billion with one estimate ashigh as $57 MILLION.
FRAUDSCOMPANY SETTLMENT FRAUDSGLAXOSMITH 3 BILLION FALSE PROMOTONELI 1.4 BILLION FALSE PROMOTONTAP 875 MILLION MEDICARE FRAUDSERONO 704 MILLION POOR MANF.
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Governments Support and Foreign Investments inPharmaceutical Industries in India
Comparison with the U.S.The Indian biotech sector parallels that of the U.S. inmany ways. Both are filled with small start-ups while themajority of the market is controlled by a few powerfulcompanies. Both are dependent upon government grantsand venture capitalists for funding because neither willbe commercially viable for years. Pharmaceuticalcompanies in both countries have recognized thepotential effect that biotechnology could have on theirpipelines and have responded by either investing inexisting start-ups or venturing into the fieldthemselves. In both India and the U.S., as well as inmuch of the globe, biotech is seen as a hot field with a lotof growth potential.
Relationship with ITMany analysts have observed that the hype around the biotech sector mirrorsthat of the IT sector. Biotech colleges have been popping up around thecountry eager to service the pools of students that want to take advantage ofa growing industry. The International Finance Commission, the privateinvestment arm of the World Bank, called India the “centerpiece of IFC’s globalbiotech strategy.” Of the $110 million invested in 14 biotech projectsinvestment globally, the IFC has given $43 million to 4 projects in India.According to Dr. Manju Sharma, former director of the Department ofBiotechnology, the biotech industry could become the “single largest sectorfor employment of skilled human resource in the years to come.”British PrimeMinister Tony Blair was similarly impressed, citing the success of India’sbiotech industry as the reason for his own country’s own biotechopportunities. Malaysia is also looking to India as an example for growing itsown biotech industry.
Government supportThe Indian government has been very supportive. It established theDepartment of Biotechnology in 1986 under the Ministry of Scienceand Technology. Since then, there have been a number ofdispensations offered by both the central government and variousstates to encourage the growth of the industry. India’s scienceminister launched a program that provides tax incentives and grantsfor biotech start-ups and firms seeking to expand and establishesthe Biotechnology Parks Society of India to support ten biotechparks by 2010. Previously limited to rodents, animal testing wasexpanded to include large animals as part of the minister’s initiative.States have started to vie with one another for biotech business, andthey are offering such goodies as exemption from VAT and otherfees, financial assistance with patents and subsidies on everythingranging from investment to land to utilities.
Foreign investmentThe government has also taken steps to encourage foreigninvestment in its biotech sector. An initiative passed earlierthis year allowed 100% foreign direct investment withoutcompulsory licensing from the government. In April, adelegation headed by the Kapil Sibal, the minister ofscience and technology and ocean development, visitedfive cities in the U.S. to encourage investment in India, withspecial emphasis on biotech. Just two months later, Sibalreturned to the U.S. to unveil India’s biotech growthstrategy at the BIO2005 conference in Philadelphia. 100%offdi is allowed in India.
ChallengesThe biotech sector faces some major challenges in its quest forgrowth. Chief among them is a lack of funding, particularly forfirms that are just starting out. The most likely sources of funds aregovernment grants and venture capital, which is a relatively youngindustry in India. Government grants are difficult to secure, anddue to the expensive and uncertain nature of biotechresearch, venture capitalists are reluctant to invest in firms thathave not yet developed a commercially viable product. Aspreviously mentioned, India hopes to solve its funding problem byattracting overseas investors and partners. Before these potentialsaviors will invest significant sums in the industry, however, thereneeds to be better scientific and financial accountability. India isslowly working towards these goals, but it will be a while beforethey are up to the standards of Western investors.
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TAXES OF PHARAMACEUTICALS• GOODS AND SERVICE TAX(GST):- INTRODUCTION DUAL GST IN INDIA IMPACT ON PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY:- 1. Procurement 2. Manufacture 3. Sales and distribution 4. Pricing 5. Services 6. IT changes
• DIRECT TAX:- Tax structure Incentives to pharmaceutical sectors• INDIRECT TAXES:- Custom duty Central excise duty Value added Tax and central sales tax
Table Comparing Prices DRUGS MFG BY PRICES INCREASE IN TAX VALUE (approx)RISPERIDONE Johnson &(Risperdal) Johnson 366 491 34.15 %RISEDRONATE Cipla(Risofos) 166 221 33.13%CLOPIDOGREL Zydus(Noklot) 111 167 50.45%PREGABALIN Intas Pharma(Pregabit) 98 154 57.14%