In order to understand the imagability of
Lutyens Delhi, it is imperative to know its
history and why the site was chosen.
The capital shifted from Calcutta to delhi
Reasons for the shifting of the capital:
Contoversial partitioning of Bengal in 1905 – right to vote between
Bengali Hindus and Muslims.
Delhi’s geographical position at the centre of north India (roughly
equidistant from Bombay and Calcutta)
Delhi’s historic importance (important seat of the Mughal empire; for
Hindus-Mahabharata-era city of Indraprastha)
Perceived political need to rearticulate british power.
1911-foundation stone for new delhi at
On December 15, 1911, King George V and Queen Mary laid the
foundation stone for New Delhi, at a Darbar under a purposely built
Shah Jahani dome. The message was clear : the British were
legitimate successors of the Mughals and their new capital was
intended to express the power of the Raj, just as Shah Jahan’s capital
had expressed the authority of the Mughals.
The initial design
for new design
Lutyens had initially designed
New Delhi with
all the street crossings
at right angles,
much like in New York.
the Viceroy of
India warned him of
the dust storms that sweep
the landscape in these parts
, insisting on roundabouts,
hedges and trees to break
their FORCE GIVING him the plans of
Rome, Paris and Washington to study and
apply to Delhi.
PATTERN IN SETTLEMENT
THE PLANS OF LUTYEN’S DELHI IS
THREE LINED STREETS RADIATE FROM
THE CENTRAL VISTA & CONVERGE INTO
PLAN & SECTION SHOWING A TYPICAL
HEXAGONAL NODE WITH ROADS CONVERGING
INTO THE ROUND ABOUTS
Intentions of the layout
Lutynes’ Delhi was planned on the most spacious garden city lines with great
avenues decorated with classical buildings with lush landscape.
The Layout of Lutyens Delhi was governed by three major visual corridors,
linking the government complex with:
The plan reflects Lutyens’ “transcendent fervor for geometric
symmetry”, which is expressed through amazing sequences of
triangles and hexagons, through sightlines and axes.
Lutyens’ plan is also
remarkable for the generous
green spaces, lawns,
watercourses, flower and
fruit-bearing trees, and their
integration with parks
The attempt was to include
all natural and historical
wonders in the new city.
The Road network
Besides the major Pathway,
there were extremely wide
avenues. The original design
of the road network was
capable of accommodating
6000 vehicles, however these
avenues, had the potential of
increasing their carriageway-
the reason why the road
layout has survived till today.
In general the road network
consisted of diagonals and
radials, at 30 degree/60
degree angles to the main
axis, forming triangles and
LUTYEN’S DELHI - ZONING GOVERNMENT
Imageability of a city
Elements forming the ‘City Image’
• The “public” image of a city is the overlap of many individual
images. Such group images must exist within the city if it is to
be successful in communicating its own identity and
possessing its own imageability.
• It is defined by broadly:
• Element inter relationships
Paths are channels along which an
observer customarily, occasionally or
potentially moves. Eg: streets, avenues,
walkways, canals etc.
People observe the city while moving
through them; the other elements are
arranged and related along these paths
They are strategic spots in a city into which
an observer can enter, and which are the
intensive foci to and from which he is
traveling. Conceptually, they occur as small
points in a city image, but in reality they
are large squares, traffic rotaries, extended
linear shapes or even entire central
districts at the city level .
They are another type of point reference
(as nodes), however in this case the
observer can’t enter within them.
Usually they are simply defined physical
objects like statues, buildings, signs,
stores or even a mountain. They are
identified by singling them out from a
host of possibilities.
• They are sections of the city, conceived of
having two dimensional extents, which
the observer can mentally enter and which
are recognizable as having some common,
• They are linear elements not used or
considered as paths. They maybe the
boundary between two phases, linear
breaks in continuity, an area or an
element. E.g. shores, railroad cuts, edges
of developed areas, walls.
Element inter relationships:
• No element exists in isolation; elements
are simply the raw material of the city
image. They must be patterned together to
provide a satisfying city form.
THE GOVERNMENT COMPLEX
CONSIST OF BUILDINGS BASED
AROUND THE CENTRAL AVENUE
THE GOVERNMENT COMPLEX
INDO - SARCENIC ARCHITECTURE
THE GOVERNMENT COMPLEX INCLUDES ALL
FOCUS POINTS ON THE VISUAL AXIS
USE OF PINK & RED
G + 3 TYPOLOGY
LUTYEN’S BUNGLOW ZONE
REFERS TO BUNGLOW THAT LIE SOUTH TO THE CENTRAL VISTA
NO BUILDING HEIGHT DOMINATES TREE HEIGHT
BUILDING COMPONENT IS ONLY
7% OF THE GROUND AREA
A TYPICAL STREET SECTION OF LBZ
G + 1 TYPOLOGY
CONSIST OF CONNAUGHT PLACE
“INNER CIRCLE & OUTER CIRCLE” AND
ADJOINING AREAS LIKE KASTURBA
GANDHI MARG, BARAKHAMBA
RADIAL PATTERNS OF RAODS
VEHICULAR TRAFFIC NODES
G + 1 TYPOLOGY
PREDESTRIAN & VEHICULAR JUNCTIONS
TRAFFIC & RAILROAD JUNCTIONS
The government complex/administrative area
Lutyens laid out the central administration area of the city.
At the heart of the city was the impressive Rashtrapati Bhawan, located on top of
Raisnia Hill. The Rajpath connects India Gate to Rashtrapati Bhawan, while Janpath,
which crosses it at a right angle, connects South end with Connaught Place.
The Secretariat building, which houses various ministries of the Government of India
including Prime Minister’s Office are beside the Rashtrapati Bhawan, were designed
by Herbert Baker.
Also designed by Baker was the Parliament House, located on Sansad Marg, running
parallel with Rajpath.
INITIAL DESIGN CONCEPT
SECRETARIAT INDIA GATE
• The city plan of New Delhi (the area
surrounding Rajpath) was made by
the British architect Edwin Lutyens.
• Rajpath (then called King's Way by the
British) was of central importance to the
plan. its the
ceremonial boulevard in New
Delhi, Republic of India that runs
from Rashtrapati Bhavan on Raisina
Hill through Vijay Chowk and India
Gate to National Stadium, Delhi.
• Lutyens wanted a panoramic view of
the city of Delhi from the Viceroy’s
• Divides the vista into bilateral symmetry
giving a linear avenue with granduer
and straight characters.
• The avenue is lined on both sides by
huge lawns, canals and rows of trees.
Considered to be one of the most
• important roads in India.
• Janpath crosses the road.
• Rajpath runs in east-west
The rashtrapati bhawan
Lutyens’ grandiose Government House (Rashtrapati Bhawan) – located on Raisina
Hill, and one of New Delhi’s major thoroughfares, Rajpath, connects it to the Purana
Lord Hardinge chose the Raisina Hill site for locating the viceroy’s palace because:
It was a well drained site.
Constituted of slopes and plains
between the ridge and river.
Its eastern and southern margins
were studded with monuments of
vanished empires. A broad crescent
from Shahajanabad and Kotla Firoz
Shah, south to Tughlaqabad and
the Qutub with tombs of
Safdarjung and Lodhis as well as
Jantar Mantar in the foreground
could be viewed from the site.
EAST FAÇADE OF
The Secretariat building was designed by architect
Herbert Baker in Indo-Saracenic Revival
Much of the building is in classical architectural
style, yet it incorporated Mughal and Rajasthani
architecture style with motifs in its architecture.
These are visible in the use of Jaali.
Another feature of the building is a dome-like
structure known as the Chattri.
The style of architecture used in Secretariat
building is unique to Raisina Hill. In front of the
main gates on buildings are the four “dominion
columns”, given by Canada, Australia, New
Zealand and South Africa.
• The India Gate is the
national monument of
India, situated in the heart
of New Delhi, it was
designed by Sir Edwin
• The foundation stone of
India Gate was laid by His
Royal Highness, the Duke
of Connaught in 1921. The
monument was dedicated
to the nation 10 years later
by the then Viceroy, Lord
• Following India's
independence, the India
Gate became the site of
the Indian Armed
Forces's Tomb of the
Unknown Soldier, known
as Amar Jawan Jyoti ("the
flame of the immortal
The parliament house
The Parliament House was designed by Edwin Lutyens and Herbert Baker.
It was built with indigenous materials and by Indian labour and the architecture
of the building bears a close imprint of the Indian tradition.
The layout of fountains both inside and outside the building, the use of Indian
symbols, the “Chajjas” and the varied forms of “Jaali” in the marble are reminders
of the story of the craftsmanship displayed in ancient monuments and memorials.
The princely states
Starting from India Gate at the
lowest and eastern end of
Rajpath, nearby land was
allocated to numerous princely
states, each of which built small
palaces, such as the Bikaner
House (now the Rajasthan
tourism office) and Jaipur House
(now the National Gallery of
It might be said that this
placement mirrored the British
settlements toward the Princes,
who lost much of their former
power and status during the
British Raj. Here , too are the
state Bhawans (houses), where
you can taste the cuisine of each
The Hyderabad house
The largest of all palaces in New Delhi-a building that suited the status of the Nizam
of Hyderabad. Designed by Edwin Lutyens. The majestic mansion has 36 rooms.
Lutyens designed Hyderabad house in the shape of a butterfly – a plan that he had
first used for Papillon Hall in Leicestershire in 1903.
The main architectural feature of Hyderabad House is a dome with an entrance hall
beneath which symmetrical wings radiate at an angle of fifty five degrees. Its round
arches flanked by rectangular openings to the height of the impost was inspired by
the Pantheon in Rome, a city where Lutyens chose a combination of rectangular and
round arches that were inspired by the Uffizi to the Amo in Florence.
The majestic building that boasts of courtyards, archways, obelisks, large flower
containers, grand stairways, marble fireplaces, fountains, had a pre-dominantly
European character with some Mughal motifs.
The baroda house
Situated next to Hyderabad House, is another magnificent building designed b
Edwin Lutyens. He designed the Baroda House on a train from Bombay in
1921, and it took 15 years to build it. The Prince of Baroda, who was educated
in England, wanted his palace in New Delhi to be Anglo-Saxon in style.
The grand Baroda House is known for its terraces, grand corridors, cooling
arcades, beautiful gardens and well-ventilated salons and richly done up living
The Gaekwads led a very westernised lifestyle.
The patiala house
Patiala House was foremerly the palacial residence of the Maharaja of Patiala,
part of th central vista, this building built in the 1930s, has a central dome with a
butterfly layout, similar to other buildings of the Lutyens zone. Today it houses
the district Courts complex for New Delhi District. A double storeyed building,
the cental portion is emphasized with a domed pavilion on the terrace and
projection porch over the upper storey, there is a projecting chajja running the
entire length of the building. It has seen interesting occupants ever since the
Maharaja vacated it.
The jaipur house
Jaipur House (now National Gallery of Modern Art) is located diametrically opposite
Hyderabad House. Like other princes’ residences, the building was also designed in
the shape of a butterfly with a cental dome. But very few people know that it was
British architect Charles Blomfield, who designed the building. It was designed in a
mix of Neo-Classical and Art Deco style. The butterfly shaped building has two
symmetrical “wings” radiating from the cental court.
Two similar wings radiate towards the back facing gardens. The façade of this
comparatively austere palace is marked by two levels of small, vertical, slit-like
windows. A continuous sunshade or ‘chajja’ in redstone caps the entire façade. The
building has arched openings framed by Rajput columns.
In this whole process alast no
attention was paid to the problems
of Old Delhi. Due to the creation of
New Delhi, the old city experienced
a 28% surge in population from
1916-1926 resulting in the spilling
over of the population from inside
the walled city to the Paharganj
area, whose restructuring was later
abandoned by Lutyens due to
Also, no provision of housing was
premeditated for the large no. of
skilled and unskilled workers which
immigrated for the construction
work of New Delhi.
This negligence of the planners
towards Old Delhi resulted in its
transformation to a large slum area
through deterioration and
• Liinear plan
• Bilateral symmetrical
• Central visual axis
• Cross road cuts at 90 degres
Lutyens’ Plan for New Delhi
L’enfant’s Plan for Washington
• Union Buildings, in Pretoria, built from 1910 to
1913, though designed in 1908. It is the official
seat of the South African government, house
the offices of the President of South Africa, and
most interestingly like the Secretariat Building,
it also sits atop a hill, known as
• But the similarities between the two building
show a clear influence of the former, especially
in the basic structure of two wings and
colonnaded balconies at the end with almost
identical symmetrical bell towers.
• Both buildings have a similar symmetrical
design in case of the Union Building the two
wings are joined by a semi-circular colonnade,
while with Secretariat building, the North and
South Blocks are separated and face each other.
The colour scheme is reversed while the roof of
Union Building is covered with red tiles, in
secretariat red sandstone is used in the ground
floor walls only, the rest is the same pale
Bell tower and colonnaded
balcony, Union Buildings
Bell tower and colonnaded
Modern Elements Of Urban
In Context With
Human scale can be defined as the
proportional relationship of the physical
environment (buildings, trees, parking lots,
streets, etc.) to human dimensions.
INDIA HABITAT CENTRE, NEW DELHI
Massing describes the relationship of the building’s various parts to each other.
Architectural elements such as windows, doors and roofs as well as interior floor
plans can affect building mass. Massing is important because it is one of several
details that determine the visual interest of a building and how it blends with its
the relentless repetition of the
same building type produces monotony.
A view of navy nagar, Navi Mumbai
A streetscape refers to the natural and man-made elements in or near the street
right of way, including buildings, building setbacks, lawns, sidewalks, street
furniture, street trees, signs, street lights, transportation amenities, and public art.
Articulation refers to the division of a building into meaningful parts. Elements of articulation
include treatment to porches, balconies, doors, windows, roofs, materials and other architectural
Coherence refers to a sense of visual order. The degree of coherence is influenced by
consistency and complementarity in the scale, character, and arrangement of buildings,
landscaping, street furniture, paving materials, and other physical elements.
Allan Jacobs (1993, p. 287) describes coherence in architecture as follows:
“Buildings on the best streets will get along with each other. They are not the
same, but they express respect for one another, most particularly in respect to
height and the way they look.”
A prominent structure, feature or area of interest or activity.
INDIA GATE, NEW DELHI
The use of buildings to create a sense of defined space.
ST. PETER’S SQUARE, VATICAN CITY CANNUGHT PLACE, NEW DELHI
A place that has a clear image and
is easy to understand.
The City Image and its
Elements by Kevin Lynch
Rehabilitation of impoverished urban neighborhoods by large-scale renovation or reconstruction
of housing and public works.
A type of development occurring in established areas of the city. Infill can occur on long-time vacant lots or on pieces of
land with disuse buildings, or can involve changing the land use of a property from a less to a more intensive one.
THE HIGHLINE, NEW YORK
The elements of urban form and design which make transit more accessible and efficient, these
ranging from land use elements (i.e. locating higher density housing and commercial uses along
transit routes) to design (i.e. street layout which allows efficient bus routing) and encompassing
pedestrian-oriented features as most transit riders begin and end their rides as pedestrians.
THE CITY OF BOGOTA, COLUMBIA
Transit-oriented or Transit-supportive
Linkage refers to physical and visual connections—from building to street, building to
building, space to space, or one side of the street to the other—that tend to unify distinct
elements. Tree lines, building projections, and marked crossings all create linkage. Linkage
can occur longitudinally along a street or laterally across a street.
An environment designed to make movement by
pedestrians fast, attractive and comfortable for
various ages and abilities; considerations include
separation of pedestrian and auto circulation,
street furniture, clear directional and informational
signage, safety, visibility, shade, lighting, surface
materials, trees, sidewalk width, intersection
treatment, curb cuts, ramps and landscaping.
Beacon Hill, Boston,
Example of Large pedestrian-oriented space-
SELECT CITY WALK MALL, SAKET, NEW DELHI
It is a discontinuous pattern of urbanization, with patches of developed lands that are widely
separated from each other and from the boundaries , although blurred in cases , of recognized
urban areas. This form of development is costly in respect to providing urban services such as
water services such as water and sewerage.LEAPFROG DEVELOPMENT IN MELBOURNE, AUSTRALIA
Urban decay (also known as urban rot and urban blight) is the process whereby a previously
functioning city, or part of a city, falls into disrepair and decrepitude.
CANDEN, NEW JERSEY