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PRESENTED BY-
MAYANK AGGARWAL
JALAJ PRAKASH
SAHIL DHINGRA
ABHINAV
HIMANSHU DHIMAN
CENTRAL AVENUE,
NEW DELHI
In order to understand the imagability of
Lutyens Delhi, it is imperative to know its
history and why the site was chosen.
The capital shifted from Calcutta to delhi
(in 1911)
Reasons for the shifting of the capital:
 Contoversial partitioning ...
1911-foundation stone for new delhi at
delhi darbar
On December 15, 1911, King George V and Queen Mary laid the
foundation...
The initial design
for new design
Lutyens had initially designed
New Delhi with
all the street crossings
at right angles,
...
PATTERN IN SETTLEMENT
THE PLANS OF LUTYEN’S DELHI IS
PURELY GEOMETRICAL
THREE LINED STREETS RADIATE FROM
THE CENTRAL VISTA...
Intentions of the layout
 Lutynes’ Delhi was planned on the most spacious garden city lines with great
avenues decorated ...
features
 The plan reflects Lutyens’ “transcendent fervor for geometric
symmetry”, which is expressed through amazing seq...
The Road network
 Besides the major Pathway,
there were extremely wide
avenues. The original design
of the road network w...
LUTYEN’S DELHI - ZONING GOVERNMENT
COMPLEX
BUNGLOW
ZONE
COMMERCIAL D
Imageability of a city
Elements forming the ‘City Image’
• The “public” image of a city is the overlap of many individual
...
Paths:
 Paths are channels along which an
observer customarily, occasionally or
potentially moves. Eg: streets, avenues,
...
Districts:
• They are sections of the city, conceived of
having two dimensional extents, which
the observer can mentally e...
THE GOVERNMENT COMPLEX
CONSIST OF BUILDINGS BASED
AROUND THE CENTRAL AVENUE
THE GOVERNMENT COMPLEX
INDO - SARCENIC ARCHITE...
LUTYEN’S BUNGLOW ZONE
 REFERS TO BUNGLOW THAT LIE SOUTH TO THE CENTRAL VISTA
 NO BUILDING HEIGHT DOMINATES TREE HEIGHT
B...
COMMERCIAL DISTRICT
CONSIST OF CONNAUGHT PLACE
“INNER CIRCLE & OUTER CIRCLE” AND
ADJOINING AREAS LIKE KASTURBA
GANDHI MARG...
The government complex/administrative area
 Lutyens laid out the central administration area of the city.
 At the heart ...
RAJPATH
• The city plan of New Delhi (the area
surrounding Rajpath) was made by
the British architect Edwin Lutyens.
• Raj...
The rashtrapati bhawan
The rashtrapati bhawan
 Lutyens’ grandiose Government House (Rashtrapati Bhawan) – located on Raisina
Hill, and one of Ne...
The secretariat
The secretariat
 The Secretariat building was designed by architect
Herbert Baker in Indo-Saracenic Revival
architecture....
INDIA GATE
• The India Gate is the
national monument of
India, situated in the heart
of New Delhi, it was
designed by Sir ...
The parliament house
 The Parliament House was designed by Edwin Lutyens and Herbert Baker.
 It was built with indigenou...
The princely states
 Starting from India Gate at the
lowest and eastern end of
Rajpath, nearby land was
allocated to nume...
The Hyderabad house
 The largest of all palaces in New Delhi-a building that suited the status of the Nizam
of Hyderabad....
The baroda house
 Situated next to Hyderabad House, is another magnificent building designed b
Edwin Lutyens. He designed...
The patiala house
 Patiala House was foremerly the palacial residence of the Maharaja of Patiala,
part of th central vist...
The jaipur house
 Jaipur House (now National Gallery of Modern Art) is located diametrically opposite
Hyderabad House. Li...
drawbacks
 In this whole process alast no
attention was paid to the problems
of Old Delhi. Due to the creation of
New Del...
conclusion
• Liinear plan
• Bilateral symmetrical
• Central visual axis
• Cross road cuts at 90 degres
Lutyens’ Plan for N...
• Union Buildings, in Pretoria, built from 1910 to
1913, though designed in 1908. It is the official
seat of the South Afr...
Modern Elements Of Urban
Design
In Context With
LUTYEN’S DELHI
Human scale can be defined as the
proportional relationship of the physical
environment (buildings, trees, parking lots,
s...
Massing describes the relationship of the building’s various parts to each other.
Architectural elements such as windows, ...
A streetscape refers to the natural and man-made elements in or near the street
right of way, including buildings, buildin...
Articulation refers to the division of a building into meaningful parts. Elements of articulation
include treatment to por...
Coherence refers to a sense of visual order. The degree of coherence is influenced by
consistency and complementarity in t...
A prominent structure, feature or area of interest or activity.
INDIA GATE, NEW DELHI
FOCAL POINT
The use of buildings to create a sense of defined space.
ST. PETER’S SQUARE, VATICAN CITY CANNUGHT PLACE, NEW DELHI
ENCLOS...
A place that has a clear image and
is easy to understand.
SOURCE-
The City Image and its
Elements by Kevin Lynch
LEGIBILITY
LEGIBILITY
Rehabilitation of impoverished urban neighborhoods by large-scale renovation or reconstruction
of housing and public works...
A type of development occurring in established areas of the city. Infill can occur on long-time vacant lots or on pieces o...
The elements of urban form and design which make transit more accessible and efficient, these
ranging from land use elemen...
Linkage
Linkage refers to physical and visual connections—from building to street, building to
building, space to space, o...
Pedestrian-oriented
An environment designed to make movement by
pedestrians fast, attractive and comfortable for
various a...
Leapfrog Development
It is a discontinuous pattern of urbanization, with patches of developed lands that are widely
separa...
Urban Decay
Urban decay (also known as urban rot and urban blight) is the process whereby a previously
functioning city, o...
capitol complex new delhi, lutyens delhi
capitol complex new delhi, lutyens delhi
capitol complex new delhi, lutyens delhi
capitol complex new delhi, lutyens delhi
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capitol complex new delhi, lutyens delhi

  1. 1. PRESENTED BY- MAYANK AGGARWAL JALAJ PRAKASH SAHIL DHINGRA ABHINAV HIMANSHU DHIMAN
  2. 2. CENTRAL AVENUE, NEW DELHI
  3. 3. In order to understand the imagability of Lutyens Delhi, it is imperative to know its history and why the site was chosen.
  4. 4. The capital shifted from Calcutta to delhi (in 1911) Reasons for the shifting of the capital:  Contoversial partitioning of Bengal in 1905 – right to vote between Bengali Hindus and Muslims.  Delhi’s geographical position at the centre of north India (roughly equidistant from Bombay and Calcutta)  Delhi’s historic importance (important seat of the Mughal empire; for Hindus-Mahabharata-era city of Indraprastha)  Perceived political need to rearticulate british power.
  5. 5. 1911-foundation stone for new delhi at delhi darbar On December 15, 1911, King George V and Queen Mary laid the foundation stone for New Delhi, at a Darbar under a purposely built Shah Jahani dome. The message was clear : the British were legitimate successors of the Mughals and their new capital was intended to express the power of the Raj, just as Shah Jahan’s capital had expressed the authority of the Mughals.
  6. 6. The initial design for new design Lutyens had initially designed New Delhi with all the street crossings at right angles, much like in New York. However,LorD Hardinge, the Viceroy of India warned him of the dust storms that sweep the landscape in these parts , insisting on roundabouts, hedges and trees to break their FORCE GIVING him the plans of Rome, Paris and Washington to study and apply to Delhi.
  7. 7. PATTERN IN SETTLEMENT THE PLANS OF LUTYEN’S DELHI IS PURELY GEOMETRICAL THREE LINED STREETS RADIATE FROM THE CENTRAL VISTA & CONVERGE INTO HEXAGONAL NODES PLAN & SECTION SHOWING A TYPICAL HEXAGONAL NODE WITH ROADS CONVERGING INTO THE ROUND ABOUTS
  8. 8. Intentions of the layout  Lutynes’ Delhi was planned on the most spacious garden city lines with great avenues decorated with classical buildings with lush landscape.  The Layout of Lutyens Delhi was governed by three major visual corridors, linking the government complex with:  Jama Masjid  Indraprastha  Sajdarjung Tomb
  9. 9. features  The plan reflects Lutyens’ “transcendent fervor for geometric symmetry”, which is expressed through amazing sequences of triangles and hexagons, through sightlines and axes. Lutyens’ plan is also remarkable for the generous green spaces, lawns, watercourses, flower and fruit-bearing trees, and their integration with parks developed around monuments. The attempt was to include all natural and historical wonders in the new city.
  10. 10. The Road network  Besides the major Pathway, there were extremely wide avenues. The original design of the road network was capable of accommodating 6000 vehicles, however these avenues, had the potential of increasing their carriageway- the reason why the road layout has survived till today.  In general the road network consisted of diagonals and radials, at 30 degree/60 degree angles to the main axis, forming triangles and hexagons.
  11. 11. LUTYEN’S DELHI - ZONING GOVERNMENT COMPLEX BUNGLOW ZONE COMMERCIAL D
  12. 12. Imageability of a city Elements forming the ‘City Image’ • The “public” image of a city is the overlap of many individual images. Such group images must exist within the city if it is to be successful in communicating its own identity and possessing its own imageability. • It is defined by broadly: • Paths • Nodes • Districts • Landmarks • Edges • Element inter relationships
  13. 13. Paths:  Paths are channels along which an observer customarily, occasionally or potentially moves. Eg: streets, avenues, walkways, canals etc. People observe the city while moving through them; the other elements are arranged and related along these paths Nodes :  They are strategic spots in a city into which an observer can enter, and which are the intensive foci to and from which he is traveling. Conceptually, they occur as small points in a city image, but in reality they are large squares, traffic rotaries, extended linear shapes or even entire central districts at the city level . Landmarks:  They are another type of point reference (as nodes), however in this case the observer can’t enter within them. Usually they are simply defined physical objects like statues, buildings, signs, stores or even a mountain. They are identified by singling them out from a host of possibilities.
  14. 14. Districts: • They are sections of the city, conceived of having two dimensional extents, which the observer can mentally enter and which are recognizable as having some common, identifying character. Edges: • They are linear elements not used or considered as paths. They maybe the boundary between two phases, linear breaks in continuity, an area or an element. E.g. shores, railroad cuts, edges of developed areas, walls. Element inter relationships: • No element exists in isolation; elements are simply the raw material of the city image. They must be patterned together to provide a satisfying city form.
  15. 15. THE GOVERNMENT COMPLEX CONSIST OF BUILDINGS BASED AROUND THE CENTRAL AVENUE THE GOVERNMENT COMPLEX INDO - SARCENIC ARCHITECTURE THE GOVERNMENT COMPLEX INCLUDES ALL FOCUS POINTS ON THE VISUAL AXIS USE OF PINK & RED SANDSTONE CHHATRIS BUDHIST DOMES G + 3 TYPOLOGY
  16. 16. LUTYEN’S BUNGLOW ZONE  REFERS TO BUNGLOW THAT LIE SOUTH TO THE CENTRAL VISTA  NO BUILDING HEIGHT DOMINATES TREE HEIGHT BUILDING COMPONENT IS ONLY 7% OF THE GROUND AREA A TYPICAL STREET SECTION OF LBZ PEDIMENT IN FENESTRATION G + 1 TYPOLOGY COLONNADED VERANDAH SPRAWLING LAWNS COLONNADED VERANDAH
  17. 17. COMMERCIAL DISTRICT CONSIST OF CONNAUGHT PLACE “INNER CIRCLE & OUTER CIRCLE” AND ADJOINING AREAS LIKE KASTURBA GANDHI MARG, BARAKHAMBA ROAD,ETC RADIAL PATTERNS OF RAODS VEHICULAR TRAFFIC NODES G + 1 TYPOLOGY MULTISTORY TYPOLOGY PREDESTRIAN & VEHICULAR JUNCTIONS TRAFFIC & RAILROAD JUNCTIONS
  18. 18. The government complex/administrative area  Lutyens laid out the central administration area of the city.  At the heart of the city was the impressive Rashtrapati Bhawan, located on top of Raisnia Hill. The Rajpath connects India Gate to Rashtrapati Bhawan, while Janpath, which crosses it at a right angle, connects South end with Connaught Place.  The Secretariat building, which houses various ministries of the Government of India including Prime Minister’s Office are beside the Rashtrapati Bhawan, were designed by Herbert Baker.  Also designed by Baker was the Parliament House, located on Sansad Marg, running parallel with Rajpath. INITIAL DESIGN CONCEPT RASHTRAPATI BHAWAN SECRETARIAT INDIA GATE
  19. 19. RAJPATH • The city plan of New Delhi (the area surrounding Rajpath) was made by the British architect Edwin Lutyens. • Rajpath (then called King's Way by the British) was of central importance to the plan. its the ceremonial boulevard in New Delhi, Republic of India that runs from Rashtrapati Bhavan on Raisina Hill through Vijay Chowk and India Gate to National Stadium, Delhi. • Lutyens wanted a panoramic view of the city of Delhi from the Viceroy’s palace. • Divides the vista into bilateral symmetry giving a linear avenue with granduer and straight characters. • The avenue is lined on both sides by huge lawns, canals and rows of trees. Considered to be one of the most • important roads in India. • Janpath crosses the road. • Rajpath runs in east-west direction.
  20. 20. The rashtrapati bhawan
  21. 21. The rashtrapati bhawan  Lutyens’ grandiose Government House (Rashtrapati Bhawan) – located on Raisina Hill, and one of New Delhi’s major thoroughfares, Rajpath, connects it to the Purana Qila.  Lord Hardinge chose the Raisina Hill site for locating the viceroy’s palace because: It was a well drained site. Constituted of slopes and plains between the ridge and river. Its eastern and southern margins were studded with monuments of vanished empires. A broad crescent from Shahajanabad and Kotla Firoz Shah, south to Tughlaqabad and the Qutub with tombs of Safdarjung and Lodhis as well as Jantar Mantar in the foreground could be viewed from the site. MUGHAL GARDERN EAST FAÇADE OF RASHTRAPATI BHAWAN
  22. 22. The secretariat
  23. 23. The secretariat  The Secretariat building was designed by architect Herbert Baker in Indo-Saracenic Revival architecture.  Much of the building is in classical architectural style, yet it incorporated Mughal and Rajasthani architecture style with motifs in its architecture.  These are visible in the use of Jaali.  Another feature of the building is a dome-like structure known as the Chattri.  The style of architecture used in Secretariat building is unique to Raisina Hill. In front of the main gates on buildings are the four “dominion columns”, given by Canada, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa.
  24. 24. INDIA GATE • The India Gate is the national monument of India, situated in the heart of New Delhi, it was designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens. • The foundation stone of India Gate was laid by His Royal Highness, the Duke of Connaught in 1921. The monument was dedicated to the nation 10 years later by the then Viceroy, Lord Irwin. • Following India's independence, the India Gate became the site of the Indian Armed Forces's Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, known as Amar Jawan Jyoti ("the flame of the immortal soldier").
  25. 25. The parliament house  The Parliament House was designed by Edwin Lutyens and Herbert Baker.  It was built with indigenous materials and by Indian labour and the architecture of the building bears a close imprint of the Indian tradition.  The layout of fountains both inside and outside the building, the use of Indian symbols, the “Chajjas” and the varied forms of “Jaali” in the marble are reminders of the story of the craftsmanship displayed in ancient monuments and memorials.
  26. 26. The princely states  Starting from India Gate at the lowest and eastern end of Rajpath, nearby land was allocated to numerous princely states, each of which built small palaces, such as the Bikaner House (now the Rajasthan tourism office) and Jaipur House (now the National Gallery of Modern Art).  It might be said that this placement mirrored the British settlements toward the Princes, who lost much of their former power and status during the British Raj. Here , too are the state Bhawans (houses), where you can taste the cuisine of each state.
  27. 27. The Hyderabad house  The largest of all palaces in New Delhi-a building that suited the status of the Nizam of Hyderabad. Designed by Edwin Lutyens. The majestic mansion has 36 rooms.  Lutyens designed Hyderabad house in the shape of a butterfly – a plan that he had first used for Papillon Hall in Leicestershire in 1903.  The main architectural feature of Hyderabad House is a dome with an entrance hall beneath which symmetrical wings radiate at an angle of fifty five degrees. Its round arches flanked by rectangular openings to the height of the impost was inspired by the Pantheon in Rome, a city where Lutyens chose a combination of rectangular and round arches that were inspired by the Uffizi to the Amo in Florence.  The majestic building that boasts of courtyards, archways, obelisks, large flower containers, grand stairways, marble fireplaces, fountains, had a pre-dominantly European character with some Mughal motifs.
  28. 28. The baroda house  Situated next to Hyderabad House, is another magnificent building designed b Edwin Lutyens. He designed the Baroda House on a train from Bombay in 1921, and it took 15 years to build it. The Prince of Baroda, who was educated in England, wanted his palace in New Delhi to be Anglo-Saxon in style.  The grand Baroda House is known for its terraces, grand corridors, cooling arcades, beautiful gardens and well-ventilated salons and richly done up living rooms.  The Gaekwads led a very westernised lifestyle.
  29. 29. The patiala house  Patiala House was foremerly the palacial residence of the Maharaja of Patiala, part of th central vista, this building built in the 1930s, has a central dome with a butterfly layout, similar to other buildings of the Lutyens zone. Today it houses the district Courts complex for New Delhi District. A double storeyed building, the cental portion is emphasized with a domed pavilion on the terrace and projection porch over the upper storey, there is a projecting chajja running the entire length of the building. It has seen interesting occupants ever since the Maharaja vacated it.
  30. 30. The jaipur house  Jaipur House (now National Gallery of Modern Art) is located diametrically opposite Hyderabad House. Like other princes’ residences, the building was also designed in the shape of a butterfly with a cental dome. But very few people know that it was British architect Charles Blomfield, who designed the building. It was designed in a mix of Neo-Classical and Art Deco style. The butterfly shaped building has two symmetrical “wings” radiating from the cental court.  Two similar wings radiate towards the back facing gardens. The façade of this comparatively austere palace is marked by two levels of small, vertical, slit-like windows. A continuous sunshade or ‘chajja’ in redstone caps the entire façade. The building has arched openings framed by Rajput columns.
  31. 31. drawbacks  In this whole process alast no attention was paid to the problems of Old Delhi. Due to the creation of New Delhi, the old city experienced a 28% surge in population from 1916-1926 resulting in the spilling over of the population from inside the walled city to the Paharganj area, whose restructuring was later abandoned by Lutyens due to resource constraints.  Also, no provision of housing was premeditated for the large no. of skilled and unskilled workers which immigrated for the construction work of New Delhi.  This negligence of the planners towards Old Delhi resulted in its transformation to a large slum area through deterioration and dilapidation.
  32. 32. conclusion • Liinear plan • Bilateral symmetrical • Central visual axis • Cross road cuts at 90 degres Lutyens’ Plan for New Delhi L’enfant’s Plan for Washington
  33. 33. • Union Buildings, in Pretoria, built from 1910 to 1913, though designed in 1908. It is the official seat of the South African government, house the offices of the President of South Africa, and most interestingly like the Secretariat Building, it also sits atop a hill, known as the Meintjieskop. • But the similarities between the two building show a clear influence of the former, especially in the basic structure of two wings and colonnaded balconies at the end with almost identical symmetrical bell towers. • Both buildings have a similar symmetrical design in case of the Union Building the two wings are joined by a semi-circular colonnade, while with Secretariat building, the North and South Blocks are separated and face each other. The colour scheme is reversed while the roof of Union Building is covered with red tiles, in secretariat red sandstone is used in the ground floor walls only, the rest is the same pale sandstone. Bell tower and colonnaded balcony, Union Buildings Bell tower and colonnaded balcony, Secretariat buildings
  34. 34. Modern Elements Of Urban Design In Context With LUTYEN’S DELHI
  35. 35. Human scale can be defined as the proportional relationship of the physical environment (buildings, trees, parking lots, streets, etc.) to human dimensions. INDIA HABITAT CENTRE, NEW DELHI HUMAN SCALE
  36. 36. Massing describes the relationship of the building’s various parts to each other. Architectural elements such as windows, doors and roofs as well as interior floor plans can affect building mass. Massing is important because it is one of several details that determine the visual interest of a building and how it blends with its surroundings. MASSING the relentless repetition of the same building type produces monotony. A view of navy nagar, Navi Mumbai
  37. 37. A streetscape refers to the natural and man-made elements in or near the street right of way, including buildings, building setbacks, lawns, sidewalks, street furniture, street trees, signs, street lights, transportation amenities, and public art. STREETSCAPE
  38. 38. Articulation refers to the division of a building into meaningful parts. Elements of articulation include treatment to porches, balconies, doors, windows, roofs, materials and other architectural details. ARTICULATION
  39. 39. Coherence refers to a sense of visual order. The degree of coherence is influenced by consistency and complementarity in the scale, character, and arrangement of buildings, landscaping, street furniture, paving materials, and other physical elements. Allan Jacobs (1993, p. 287) describes coherence in architecture as follows: “Buildings on the best streets will get along with each other. They are not the same, but they express respect for one another, most particularly in respect to height and the way they look.” COHERENCE
  40. 40. A prominent structure, feature or area of interest or activity. INDIA GATE, NEW DELHI FOCAL POINT
  41. 41. The use of buildings to create a sense of defined space. ST. PETER’S SQUARE, VATICAN CITY CANNUGHT PLACE, NEW DELHI ENCLOSURE
  42. 42. A place that has a clear image and is easy to understand. SOURCE- The City Image and its Elements by Kevin Lynch LEGIBILITY
  43. 43. LEGIBILITY
  44. 44. Rehabilitation of impoverished urban neighborhoods by large-scale renovation or reconstruction of housing and public works. BILBAO, SPAIN Urban renewal
  45. 45. A type of development occurring in established areas of the city. Infill can occur on long-time vacant lots or on pieces of land with disuse buildings, or can involve changing the land use of a property from a less to a more intensive one. BEFORE NOW THE HIGHLINE, NEW YORK INFILL DEVELOPMENT
  46. 46. The elements of urban form and design which make transit more accessible and efficient, these ranging from land use elements (i.e. locating higher density housing and commercial uses along transit routes) to design (i.e. street layout which allows efficient bus routing) and encompassing pedestrian-oriented features as most transit riders begin and end their rides as pedestrians. THE CITY OF BOGOTA, COLUMBIA Transit-oriented or Transit-supportive development
  47. 47. Linkage Linkage refers to physical and visual connections—from building to street, building to building, space to space, or one side of the street to the other—that tend to unify distinct elements. Tree lines, building projections, and marked crossings all create linkage. Linkage can occur longitudinally along a street or laterally across a street. Queensway skyway
  48. 48. Pedestrian-oriented An environment designed to make movement by pedestrians fast, attractive and comfortable for various ages and abilities; considerations include separation of pedestrian and auto circulation, street furniture, clear directional and informational signage, safety, visibility, shade, lighting, surface materials, trees, sidewalk width, intersection treatment, curb cuts, ramps and landscaping. Beacon Hill, Boston, Massachusetts. Example of Large pedestrian-oriented space- SELECT CITY WALK MALL, SAKET, NEW DELHI
  49. 49. Leapfrog Development It is a discontinuous pattern of urbanization, with patches of developed lands that are widely separated from each other and from the boundaries , although blurred in cases , of recognized urban areas. This form of development is costly in respect to providing urban services such as water services such as water and sewerage.LEAPFROG DEVELOPMENT IN MELBOURNE, AUSTRALIA
  50. 50. Urban Decay Urban decay (also known as urban rot and urban blight) is the process whereby a previously functioning city, or part of a city, falls into disrepair and decrepitude. CANDEN, NEW JERSEY

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