Theme: Culture & EthicsUnit: Homophobia and Gay Marriage
In general, refers to the unfounded fear of homosexual individuals, of their sexual behavior, and of gay and lesbian communities.Often turns to discrimination and deep- seated hatred, including violence against individuals and groups who may be lesbian, gay (male homosexual), or transgender.Closely associated with the womens rights movement and struggles for sexual liberation
The word "homophobia" has been widely used since the 1970s.Especially since the Stonewall Inn rebellion on June 28 and 29, 1969, in New York City,Hundreds of men and women rioted against police harassment and extortion of the patrons of the Stonewall Inn gay bar in Greenwich Village.
Individual/Interpersonal, Institutional, Cultural/Social Individual/interpersonal level: involves an individuals fear of someone elses homosexuality and may also include peoples fear that they may come to be attracted to their own gender. Related to heterosexism, or the idea that all social and sexual life is heterosexual—the social and sexual relations between a woman and a man. Heterosexism assumes that there is only one "right" way to function as a man and as a woman. Homophobia at this level sometimes leads to name-calling
Homophobic name-calling often leads to "gay bashing"— acts of violence against homosexual individuals or those thought to be homosexual. Such violent acts are as much "hate crimes" as are those targeted at individuals because of their race, religion, ethnicity, mental or physical disability, or gender. Since the 1970s, gay rights groups such as the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force and Lambda Legal Defense and Education Fund have recorded an increasing number of violent attacks against gay, lesbian, and transgender communities in the United States.
Institutional level: refers to how institutions, employers, and organizations discriminate on the basis of sexuality. Most state and federal laws, for example, do not include sexuality or sexual orientation as a basis for protection against discrimination in Employment and attacks of violence. In March 1999, for example, a Bakersfield school district in California was ordered by the states Labor Commission to apologize to an award-winning science teacher for removing fifteen students from his class because some parents did not want their children in a gay teachers class.
Cultural and social level: helps create collective negative attitudes and beliefs against lesbian, gay, and transgender communities.In their advertisement and programming, the media have portrayed heterosexuality as the only possible norm, and have by and large underreported and ridiculed all other forms of sexual or erotic expression."Effeminate" and "ineffectual" men in television and motion pictures often bring ridicule to gay characters.
Focused on creating spaces where they can socialize and organize safely, without fear of harm by homophobic individuals or groups.Activists have emphasized that guaranteeing legal protection and rights for gays and lesbians must be part of a tradition of civil rights for all, and that these should not be considered "special rights."Recently, gay marriage has been on the forefront of these civil rights.
39 -- The number of states 9 -- The number of U.S. that have banned same-sex states that allow same-sex marriage. marriage. However, due to 5 -- The number of states the Defense of Marriage Act, the federal that allow civil unions government does not between same-sex couples, recognize the same-sex but not marriage. marriages in these states. 1,100 -- The number of Connecticut, Iowa, federal benefits to Massachusetts, New marriage. Hampshire, New York, and 2003 -- The year that the Vermont, plus U.S. Supreme Court ruled Washington D.C. that it is unconstitutional Most recently in this to criminalize sodomy. election: Washington, Maryland, & Maine
3.5% -- The approx. 646,000 -- The number percentage of Americans of same-sex-couple identifying as lesbian, households in the U.S. gay or bisexual, in 2010, according to the according to the U.S. census. Williams Institute at 48% -- The percentage UCLA. of Americans opposed to68% -- The percentage gay marriage in 2012, of Americans opposed to according to a Gallup gay marriage in 1996, poll. according to a Gallup poll.
80.4% -- The percentage growth of same-sex couple households in the U.S. between 2000 and 2010, according to the U.S. Census.1.8% -- The percentage of households in the District of Columbia comprised of same-sex couples, the highest in the nation.7% - Approximate percentage of same-sex couple households that live in states that recognize same- sex marriage, as of 2010.115,064 -- Number of same-sex couple households in the U.S. with children, according to the U.S. census.
While the United States is 2001 -- The year that the engaged in debate on a Netherlands made same- constitutional amendment sex marriage legal, the first banning gay marriage, country in the world to so. Canadians legalized it in 11 -- The number of 2007 and many European countries worldwide countries have adopted or where same-sex marriage are adopting civil unions is legal. for gay couples. France and Germany have civil union laws, and Britain is in the process of adopting them.
In Denmark, civil unions with the same rights as marriage have been around since 1989, and other Nordic countries followed suit in the 1990s.The Dutch were the first to eliminate any distinction between gay and straight, striking all references to gender in the marriage laws. Belgium soon did the same.
In most of Africa, homosexuality is illegal and gay marriage unthinkable.But in South Africa, gay rights were enshrined in the post-apartheid constitution and some groups are lobbying for the right to marry.In Japan, homosexuality is no longer considered a mental illness, but many gays still feel pressure to go through a sham heterosexual marriage.Japan however is more progressive than most of Asia.
Strongly Roman Catholic countries such as Italy refuse to recognize gay couples, following the Vaticans abhorrence of homosexuality.However, in Portugal, and in Spains Navarra and Basque regions, gay couples who live together long enough receive the same benefits as heterosexuals under common law unions.In Argentinas capital, Buenos Aires, gay couples can register for a civil union.
Horacio N. Roque Ramírez. (2000). Homophobia. In W. E. Martin, Jr. & P. Sullivan (Eds.), Civil Rights in the United States (Vol. 1). New York: Macmillan Reference USA. 2 Jul 2012. Caitlin Stark. “By the numbers: Same-sex marriage.” CNN Library. http://www.cnn.com/2012/05/11/politics/btn-same-sex-marriage/ : 2 Jul 2012. Toby Sterling .”The Global View Of Gay Marriage.” CBS News World. http://www.cbsnews.com/2100-202_162-604084.html. 2 Jul 2012