Child sexual abuse


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Child sexual abuse

  2. 2. Child sexual abuse is when a more powerful person uses a less powerful person for sexual gratification. ex: When an adult uses a child for his/her own sexual gratification. When the offender and the victim are in the same immediate family, the abuse is called “incest.” 
  3. 3.  A sexual act between two minors, where one exerts power over the other, is also considered sexual abuse.
  4. 4. 2 CATEGORIES OF SEXUAL ABUSE  1. NON-TOUCHING ABUSES  Exhibitionism, exposure to pornography, taking photographs of children in a sexualized manner, voyeurism, communicating in a sexual way, such as through telephone or the internet, and letting down the walls of privacy so that the child watches or hears sexual acts.  2. TOUCHING ABUSES  Kissing, fondling, oral sex, vaginal or anal intercourse, or attempted intercourse.
  5. 5. WHAT ARE THE CHARACTERISTICS OF CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE?  The offender depends on secrecy.
  6. 6. The prevalence of silence among children is explained by the following reasons: • • • • • Children are physically less powerful than adults; Children are obliged to obey adults; Children are provided limited information on matters regarding sex and sexuality; Children’s questions pertaining to sex and sexuality are frowned upon; The importance placed on keeping the family intact, or preserving the family reputation, keeps children from speaking about the abuse.
  7. 7. Studies show that most abusers of child sexual abuse are known to victims. They may be a male relative or an acquaintance. In many cases, it is the father who violates his own child.
  8. 8. GROOMING PROCESS  Grooming is a subtle, gradual, and escalating process of building trust with a child. It is deliberate and purposeful. Abusers may groom children for weeks, months, or even years— before any sexual abuse actually takes place. It usually begins with behaviors that may not even seem to be inappropriate.
  9. 9. Grooming children may include:    Befriending a child and gaining his or her trust. Testing a child’s boundaries through telling inappropriate jokes, backrubs, tickling, or sexual games. Moving from non-sexual touching to “accidental” sexual touching. This typically happens during play so the child may not even identify it as purposeful, inappropriate touching. It is often done slowly so the child is gradually desensitized to the touch.
  10. 10.  Manipulating the child to not tell anyone about what is happening. The abuser may use a child’s fear, embarrassment, or guilt about what has happened. Sometimes, the abuser uses bribery, threats, or coercion.  Confusing the child into feeling responsible for the abuse. Children may not notice or may become confused as the contact becomes increasingly intimate and sexual.
  11. 11. PHYSICAL EFFECTS       Sexual Transmitted Infections (STI) Urinary tract infections Pregnancy at a young age Unusual smells or bleeding Difficulty walking or sitting Bruises or wounds on the genitalia and mouth.
  12. 12. BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS       Distrust of others and themselves Terror and anxiety Shame, guilt and self-hatred Alienation from their bodies Isolation and withdrawal from people and activities Powerlessness, depression, and extreme passivity
  13. 13.         Anger Obsession with sex or complete aversion to it Questioning their sexuality and gender Drug and alcohol use, abuse, and addiction Eating and sleeping disorders Perfectionism and work holism Mental illness and suicide Sexual offending
  14. 14.  All children are vulnerable to sexual abuse, especially girls.
  15. 15. CHILDREN as “PERFECT VICTIMS”     Vulnerable Easily persuaded to cooperate Too ashamed to talk about it Many unsatisfied needs
  16. 16. Children often cannot tell about a touching problem because of the fear of:  REMEMBERING Children often cope with their abuse by pushing it so far back in their minds that they “forget”. To remember means to feel hurt again.
  17. 17.  LOSS OF LOVE Children often worry that their parents or friends will not love them once they know about their abuse, because now they are “dirty.” This is often because children will take responsibility for their abuse. Children also often fear separation from their families because of the telling.
  18. 18.  SHAME and GUILT Children either know or can sense that their sexual experiences with an adult are wrong. By telling someone and acknowledging that this happened, they tend to fear the shame of the abuse. Older children will experience more sense of guilt than younger children.
  19. 19.  BLAME Children fear that they will be blamed for the sexual touches, that they somehow wanted it. Adults tend to be believed over children, and offenders often state that the child “asked” for the sexual touch. Children ask for affection and attention, which is their right. However they do not ask for sex, for which they cannot have the appropriate context for consent.
  20. 20.  HARM Offender often maintain control over their victims by threatening harm to them or their families if they tell. Children are then burdened with the inappropriate responsibility of keeping their families safe.
  21. 21.  The best way to protect children and youth against sexual abuse is to give them the knowledge and skills necessary for their safety and well being, and by creating in our families and communities an atmosphere where they feel safe enough to come forward if they are being mistreated or abused. Children who know that they have rights, who are well informed about inappropriate touching, who are taught to trust their feelings about situations and people, and who know where to get help if needed are less likely to be victims of any type of assault.