Europe\'s Bologna Process


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Europe\'s Bologna Process

  1. 1. EUROPEAN HIGHER EDUCATION IN A CHANGING ENVIRONMENT – Impacts of the Bologna Process Fiona Hunter Immediate Past President, European Association for International Education (EAIE) International Director, Università Carlo Cattaneo - LIUC, Italy Member of Bologna Experts’ Team, Italy
  2. 2. OUTLINE OF THE PRESENTATION <ul><li>The way we were and the great leap forward </li></ul><ul><li>The emerging European Higher Education Area </li></ul><ul><li>Looking to the future – the road less travelled </li></ul>CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008
  3. 3. THE WAY WE WERE <ul><li>1980’s - First wave of internationalisation – intra-European co-operation and exchange </li></ul><ul><li>EC policy to stimulate education and research </li></ul><ul><li>Erasmus – largest programme in the world (1987-2003 one million students) </li></ul><ul><li>Model for international exchange </li></ul><ul><li>From academic experimentation to integrated institutional approaches - foundations for change </li></ul>CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008
  4. 4. THE GREAT LEAP FORWARD… <ul><li>Bologna Process 2010 – building the European Higher Education Area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>drivers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>achievements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ambitions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>implications </li></ul></ul>CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008
  5. 5. DRIVERS FOR CHANGE <ul><li>European Challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Integration </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge based economy </li></ul><ul><li>Globalisation </li></ul><ul><li>Bologna Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Promote employability </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate cross border educational and professional mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Increase competitiveness </li></ul>CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008
  6. 6. MOBILITY: KEY TO THE PROCESS <ul><li>“ As the European Union progresses as a knowledge-based society in a globalising world economy, we must work to boost further the mobility of workers and citizens. This is not only good for the economy, but also for society. Europe needs a mobile and flexible workforce for its future economic prosperity but mobility also breaks down barriers between Europeans, thereby helping to build a more cohesive European society.” </li></ul><ul><li>Jan Figel EU Commissioner for Education, Training, Culture and Youth </li></ul>CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008
  7. 7. BOLOGNA PROCESS ACTION LINES <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>introduced in the Bologna Declaration 1999 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Adoption of a system of easily readable and comparable degrees </li></ul><ul><li>Adoption of a system based on two cycles </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment of a system of credits </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion of mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion of European cooperation in quality assurance </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion of European Dimension in Higher Education </li></ul><ul><li> introduced in the Prague communiqué 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>7. Lifelong learning </li></ul><ul><li>8. Involving Higher Education institutions and students </li></ul><ul><li>9. Promoting the attractiveness of the EHEA </li></ul><ul><li> introduced in the Berlin Communiqué 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>10. Doctoral studies and synergy between EHEA and ERA </li></ul>CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008
  8. 8. DRIVING THE PROCESS FORWARD <ul><li>1998 - Sorbonne – 4 countries - harmonisation </li></ul><ul><li>1999 - Bologna – 30 countries - creation of European Higher Education Area </li></ul><ul><li>2001 - Prague – 33 countries - goals reconfirmed and debate broadened </li></ul><ul><li>2003 - Berlin – 40 countries - extension to doctoral studies, measurable priorities, intermediate deadlines </li></ul><ul><li>2005 - Bergen – 46 countries - stocktaking and priorities – degree systems, quality assurance and recognition </li></ul><ul><li>2007 - London – 46 countries - commitment to progress and global strategy </li></ul><ul><li>2009 - Leuven/Louvain-La-Neuve – looking back, looking forward </li></ul>CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008
  9. 9. EMERGING EUROPEAN HIGHER EDUCATION AREA <ul><li>Stretching from the Atlantic to the Pacific </li></ul><ul><li>Single biggest educational reform ever </li></ul><ul><ul><li>46 countries (so far) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 4000 institutions and 31 million students </li></ul></ul><ul><li>An initiative to restructure and harmonise historically diverse systems </li></ul><ul><li>Voluntary participation and jointly agreed principles </li></ul><ul><li>Reflects a search for a common answer to common problems </li></ul>CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008
  10. 10. CONVERGING SYSTEMS <ul><li>Three key features : </li></ul><ul><li>Three cycles of easily readable and comparable degrees </li></ul><ul><ul><li>variety of content with similar structures and comparable learning outcomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>flexibility, employability, multidisciplinarity, European dimension </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Compatible credit system - ECTS </li></ul><ul><li>Co-operation in quality assurance </li></ul><ul><li>NOT an attempt at harmonisation/homogenisation but creating connections/convergence between diverse national educational systems </li></ul>CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008
  11. 11. THE ACHIEVEMENTS: ENHANCING COMPARABILITY AND MOBILITY <ul><li>Reformed Higher Education Structures - Bachelors and Masters – 83% </li></ul><ul><li>50% studying in reformed national progr a mme (Continental Europe) </li></ul><ul><li>Doctoral reforms underway </li></ul><ul><li>Widespread use of ECTS (75% transfer - 66% accumulation) and Diploma Supplement (47%) </li></ul><ul><li>European Quality Assurance Guidelines and Register </li></ul><ul><li>European and National Qualifications Frameworks </li></ul><ul><li>Significant levels of interaction and co-operation at European, national and institutional level </li></ul><ul><li>Reforms happening at different speeds in different countries </li></ul>CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008
  12. 12. QUESTION 1 <ul><li>Europe is undertaking major reform of its higher education systems to bring them into line with a changing global environment. </li></ul><ul><li>What commonalities and differences do you see with the Canadian approach? </li></ul>CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008
  13. 13. NEW STRUCTURES AND TOOLS <ul><li>Three cycles – Bachelor Master and Doctoral </li></ul><ul><li>Credit System </li></ul><ul><li>Qualifications Frameworks </li></ul><ul><li>Quality assurance </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition </li></ul>CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008
  14. 14. FIRST CYCLE – BACHELOR LEVEL <ul><li>Common criteria 3-4 years/180-240 credits </li></ul><ul><li>Access varies in different countries </li></ul><ul><li>Shorter bachelor level more relevant to (European) labour market, more flexible, more multidisciplinary </li></ul><ul><li>Access to second cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Adopted in virtually all fields of study </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional long first degree programmes still offered in some countries in professional fields (EU directives) </li></ul>CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008
  15. 15. SECOND CYCLE – MASTER LEVEL <ul><li>Common criteria – 1-2 years/60-180 credits </li></ul><ul><li>Vast majority give access to doctoral level </li></ul><ul><li>New trend - vertical mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Growth of English taught programmes and European/international university consortia for double/joint degrees </li></ul><ul><li>Boosting global attractiveness </li></ul>CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008
  16. 16. THIRD CYCLE – DOCTORAL STUDIES <ul><ul><li>Reforms currently underway </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis on doctoral schools – European dimension, interface with industry, interdisciplinarity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New legislative frameworks for joint doctorates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EUA Council for Doctoral Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boosting global competitiveness </li></ul></ul>CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008
  17. 17. CHALLENGES FROM EUA REPORT <ul><li>Co-existence of old and new structures/practices </li></ul><ul><li>Employability questions </li></ul><ul><li>Academic vs professional qualifications </li></ul><ul><li>Admission to first cycle and articulation between cycles </li></ul><ul><li>Range of institutional attitudes from those who feel obliged to change to those who push for change </li></ul><ul><li>(Lack of) government support </li></ul>CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008
  18. 18. TOOLS FOR TRANSPARENCY AND COMPARABILITY <ul><li>ECTS compatible systems for transfer and accumulation introduced in the majority of countries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>… but still many misunderstandings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>European Qualifications Framework – three cycles- credits - competences - outcomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>… but lack of understanding and knowledge </li></ul></ul>CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008
  19. 19. TOOLS FOR TRANSPARENCY AND COMPARABILITY <ul><li>Lisbon Recognition Convention – vast majority of countries have ratified </li></ul><ul><ul><li>… but procedures still cumbersome in some countries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diploma supplement for transparent and reliable information and fair academic and professional recognition introduced in most countries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>… but it is not fully understood… or used yet. </li></ul></ul>CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008
  20. 20. “ INTERESTING” DS STATISTICS FROM EUA <ul><li>3% of students say that all master graduates receive the Diploma Supplement </li></ul><ul><li>44% of institutions say all master graduates receive it </li></ul><ul><li>20% of institutions don’t know it </li></ul><ul><li>25% of employers don’t know it </li></ul><ul><li>38% of academics don’t know it </li></ul><ul><li>… and 56% of students don’t know it….. </li></ul>CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008
  21. 21. QUALITY ASSURANCE <ul><li>Most countries have implemented a QA system </li></ul><ul><li>Common standards for internal and external QA and QA agencies </li></ul><ul><li>European register of QA agencies </li></ul><ul><li>… .but a genuine quality culture still to emerge </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008
  22. 22. CHANGING ERASMUS MOBILITY PATTERNS <ul><li>Since 1987 1.7 million students </li></ul><ul><li>9 out of 10 HEIs </li></ul><ul><li>3.4% of graduates </li></ul><ul><li>Target 3 million by 2012, growth of 8% </li></ul><ul><li>Average 6.2% but strong variation and imbalances across countries </li></ul><ul><li>EU solutions – increased grants and better recognition </li></ul><ul><li>EU High level expert forum to extend reach of mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Greater internal mobility for greater understanding and dialogue or greater educational efficiency and effectiveness? </li></ul>CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008
  23. 23. CHALLENGES FOR INTERNATIONAL CO-OPERATION <ul><li>Transition phase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>new names, structures, content </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shorter course duration and rigidity of curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Shifting objectives </li></ul><ul><li>English vs local language </li></ul><ul><li>National legislation for tuition </li></ul><ul><li>“ the anglicisation of competitive labour market oriented European graduate education?” (EUA) </li></ul>CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008
  24. 24. OPPORTUNITIES FOR INTERNATIONAL CO-OPERATION <ul><li>Mobility encouraged at all levels of study </li></ul><ul><li>New tools for new partnerships </li></ul><ul><li>Greater institutional commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible curricula with mobility windows </li></ul><ul><li>Careful choice of partners and programmes </li></ul><ul><li>Creative “made to measure” solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Individual and institutional gains </li></ul><ul><li>International co-operation as a competitive advantage </li></ul>CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008
  25. 25. DOUBLE AND JOINT DEGREES <ul><li>Developing the European Dimension </li></ul><ul><li>double degrees - two institutions award own degree </li></ul><ul><li>clearly defined, straightforward administration, built in quality </li></ul><ul><li>difference in content and workload for two awards often unclear. </li></ul><ul><li>joint degree - single document issued by the institutions involved </li></ul><ul><li>issues of legal validity and quality assurance </li></ul>CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008
  26. 26. ERASMUS MUNDUS <ul><li>Model for double and joint degrees in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>New EU flagship programme since 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion of European Joint and Double master degrees </li></ul><ul><li>Attracting talented students from other parts of the world </li></ul><ul><li>103 masters courses funded and some 6000 students and scholars supported so far </li></ul><ul><li>New enlarged phase from 2009 to 2013 with €900 million budget </li></ul>CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008
  27. 27. QUESTION 2 <ul><li>Europe has developed new degree structures and tools for comparability and transparency to promote mobility. </li></ul><ul><li>How do you see these changes impacting on co-operation between Canada and Europe? </li></ul>CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008
  28. 28. LISBON AGENDA 2000-2010 <ul><li>EU heads of state and government decide to make Europe by 2010: </li></ul><ul><li>“ an advanced knowledge society with sustainable development, more and better jobs and greater social cohesion” </li></ul>CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008
  29. 29. AMBITIONS OF AN ATTRACTIVE AND COMPETITIVE EUROPE <ul><li>Harmonised structures </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing use of English </li></ul><ul><li>Study abroad opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Consortia offering double and joint degrees </li></ul><ul><li>Erasmus Mundus </li></ul><ul><li>Competitive fees </li></ul><ul><li>Affordable and safe destinations </li></ul><ul><li>A European qualification as a gateway to Europe </li></ul>CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008
  30. 30. THE AMBITIONS: CREATING THE EUROPEAN HE BRAND <ul><li>Effective marketing strategy and coherent information policy required to promote advantages: </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Little understanding of qualifications, institutions and countries </li></ul><ul><li>No perception of Europe as a HE destination </li></ul><ul><li>Seen as “traditional” rather than “dynamic, innovative” </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity of languages and cultures not necessarily an asset </li></ul><ul><li>Few universities with high visibility </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of information on employment opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>ACA survey </li></ul>CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008
  31. 31. THE AMBITIONS: “THE MOST FAVOURED DESTINATION OF STUDENTS AND SCHOLARS” <ul><li>Lack of information on international mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Eurodata study - 2003 1.1 million foreign students - 6% of tertiary population </li></ul><ul><li>50% from outside Eurodata region </li></ul><ul><li>6% Chinese, 4% Germans, Greeks, French, 2% US </li></ul><ul><li>Highest proportion in Switzerland 17%, Austria 13,5%, Belgium 11,2% </li></ul><ul><li>Largest countries UK 11.2%, Germany 10.7% and France 10.5% </li></ul><ul><li>Less than 2% (Estonia, Italy, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia and Turkey </li></ul><ul><li>575,000 Eurodata students registered outside region- 3% of total number </li></ul><ul><li>Call for better data in London Communique </li></ul><ul><li>Key Lisbon indicator for attractiveness </li></ul><ul><li>International student recruitment increasingly viewed by universities as a means to enhance institutional reputation and to generate income </li></ul>CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008
  32. 32. INTERNATIONAL PROMOTION AND VISIBILITY <ul><li>Institutional – no overview available as yet </li></ul><ul><li>National campaigns– developing brand, websites, events, media campaigns, information offices, recruitment agents, market research but very unevenly distributed </li></ul><ul><li>European - global promotion project funded by EU - web portal </li></ul><ul><li>Feasibility study for European information offices, network of promoters, study on European TNE presence, training, tool kits, fairs, media campaign, information and promotion materials </li></ul><ul><li>8 European Higher Education Fairs in 7 Asian countries </li></ul><ul><li>ACA survey </li></ul><ul><li>Greater visibility than 10 years ago but still much to be done </li></ul>CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008
  33. 33. Welcome to Study in Europe www., <ul><li>There are more than four thousand higher education institutions in Europe, from top-level research establishments to small, teaching-focused colleges. Europe itself is no less diverse, extending from the Arctic Circle to the coast of Africa, where tiny principalities sit side-by-side with many of the world’s leading economies. </li></ul><ul><li>A fascinating destination, but which country should you go to? Which university should you choose? What do you need before you leave? What will happen when you arrive? These are just some of the questions you’re probably asking yourself already. </li></ul><ul><li>Study in Europe is here to help. We provide up-to-date information on thirty two European countries , their universities and what it takes to live and study in them. </li></ul><ul><li>Use Study in Europe to find the university that suits you best. A well-informed decision will make your time abroad even more valuable. </li></ul>CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008
  34. 34. SHIFTING STRATEGIES <ul><li>Internationalising the curriculum, programmes, teaching and learning strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Creating international research focus and collaborations </li></ul><ul><li>Attracting international talent </li></ul><ul><li>Providing cross border education </li></ul><ul><li>Setting up business linkages </li></ul><ul><li>Developing commercial contracts </li></ul><ul><li>From ad hoc activities to integrated strategies and processes </li></ul><ul><li>From bilateral agreements to strategic partnerships </li></ul><ul><li>New internationalisation in response to new challenges </li></ul>CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008
  35. 35. EUROPE AS A GLOBAL PLAYER <ul><li>Co-operation and competition in the global market place </li></ul><ul><li>External dimension increasingly important </li></ul><ul><li>Information and promotion of brand </li></ul><ul><li>Partnership with other world regions (policy dialogue) </li></ul><ul><li>Converging models –Bologna as soft model for domestic reforms </li></ul><ul><li>London Conference placed Bologna in a global setting </li></ul>CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008
  36. 36. QUESTION 3 <ul><li>The EHEA is increasingly taking on a global dimension. </li></ul><ul><li>Is Europe creating new initiatives/soft standards for the world and t o what extent will this impact on Canada as an international study destination? </li></ul>CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008
  37. 37. LOOKING TO THE FUTURE – THE ROAD LESS TRAVELLED <ul><li>Bologna has put the wheels of change in motion and commitment to a new vision beyond 2010 is a positive sign </li></ul><ul><li>Build on Bologna successes for a more ambitious reform agenda </li></ul><ul><li>European Higher education is ill-equipped to face the changes ahead – it is fragmented, over regulated and under funded </li></ul><ul><li>Emerging issues </li></ul><ul><li>Funding and fees, public and private roles of education, greater autonomy and accountability, regulation and competition, organisational governance and professional management </li></ul>CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008
  38. 38. PRESSURES TO MODERNISE <ul><li>Increase mobility within and from outside Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Improve academic quality / be more responsive to labour market providing graduates with more employable skills </li></ul><ul><li>Provide compatible curricula across Europe / maintain cultural diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Be more local, regional, European, global </li></ul><ul><li>Be more competitive / be more socially inclusive </li></ul><ul><li>Increase & widen participation </li></ul><ul><li>Concentrate on research / respond to regional needs </li></ul><ul><li>and do all of above with decreasing public funding... </li></ul><ul><li>European University Association </li></ul>CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008
  39. 39. LOOKING TO THE FUTURE – THE FUNDING DEBATE <ul><li>The debates </li></ul><ul><li>Who pays for higher education? </li></ul><ul><li>Average student fees in EU </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Finland, Iceland, Greece, Ireland, Poland €0 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portugal, France, Hungary, Germany €350-500 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Belgium, Spain, Austria, Italy €800-1000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Netherlands €1500 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UK £3000 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Differential fees and support systems </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative funding models </li></ul>CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008
  40. 40. LOOKING TO THE FUTURE – FURTHER DEBATES <ul><li>The debates </li></ul><ul><li>Who drives curricular reform? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Universities or stakeholders? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Who governs the institutions? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Issues of autonomy and accountability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Who has access to higher education? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social dimension, lifelong learning, admissions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Differentiation of institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What role for universities? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Balancing tensions – attractive and competitive vs socially responsible and democratic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Building the Europe of Knowledge </li></ul>CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008
  41. 41. THE GLOBAL DIMENSION <ul><li>“ One of the greatest strengths of the Bologna Process is that governments have joined forces with institutions of higher education and their national and European associations. A successful Global Dimension Strategy must be based on the same model.” </li></ul><ul><li>Global Dimension Strategy, London Ministerial Meeting 2007 </li></ul>CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008
  42. 42. WORDS OF WARNING FROM THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION <ul><li>“ Within the next 20 years, Europe’s economic paradigm will change fundamentally. Its manufacturing base will continue to shrink, future growth and social welfare will rely increasingly on knowledge-intensive industries and services, and ever more jobs will require a higher education qualification. Yet European universities, motors of the new, knowledge-based paradigm, are not in a position to deliver their full potential contribution to the re-launched Lisbon strategy.” </li></ul><ul><li>Mobilising the brainpower of Europe: enabling universities to make their full contribution to the Lisbon Strategy, European Commission 2005 </li></ul>CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008
  43. 43. SOME STARK STATISTICS <ul><li>21% of working age population attaining tertiary education (US 38%) </li></ul><ul><li>6 million (18-24 year olds) have left education prematurely – to reach 10% benchmark, 2 million need to continue </li></ul><ul><li>1.1% GDP on HE (US 2.7%) – need to spend extra €150 billion per year to match US </li></ul><ul><li>1.9% GDP on research (US 3%) – higher research investment from industry </li></ul>CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008
  44. 44. NEW WAYS FORWARD FOR EUROPEAN UNIVERSITIES <ul><li>Strategic international inter-university alliances </li></ul><ul><li>Stronger collaboration with employers for curriculum reform and design </li></ul><ul><li>Closer collaboration with industry for research </li></ul><ul><li>Greater investment in human resources and technology </li></ul><ul><li>Commitment to lifelong learning </li></ul><ul><li>Greater institutional autonomy , openness and flexibility </li></ul>CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008
  45. 45. A NEW POLICY APPROACH FOR BOLOGNA <ul><li>Funded Bologna: balance between public, business and private </li></ul><ul><li>Cyber Bologna : investment paramount for access to information </li></ul><ul><li>Quality Bologna : crucial for mobility and credit transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Communicating Bologna ; information and promotion of the brand </li></ul><ul><li>Lifelong Bologna : incentivised and promoted, more part time study </li></ul><ul><li>Skilled Bologna : wider access for people with low skills levels </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual Bologna : virtual environments for teaching and research beyond borders of university or country </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brenda Gourley, Vice Chancellor Open University, London 2007 </li></ul></ul></ul>CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008
  46. 46. BOLOGNA PROCESS 2009 <ul><li>The next Ministerial Conference of the Bologna Process will be hosted by the Benelux countries on 28-29 April 2009 in Leuven and Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium). </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008
  47. 47. LOOKING TO THE FUTURE – THE ROAD LESS TRAVELLED <ul><li>Internationalisation is the road that in 2020 will “have made all the difference.” </li></ul>CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008
  48. 48. QUESTION 4 <ul><li>The 2009 Ministerial Meeting will look forward to the post 2010 scenario and a new process for change. </li></ul><ul><li>Should this be a pan-European effort or should universities be left to develop on their own? Does Canada have examples of best practice for Europe? </li></ul>CBIE Conference, St.Johns, Canada 2nd November 2008