Barcelona & 1992 Olympic Game


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Averyanova Daria
Caroti Cristina
Alessandra Speri
Wu Xu

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Barcelona & 1992 Olympic Game

  1. 1. Barcelona & Olympic Games 1992
  2. 2. 1st stage Second stage (cir. 19 BC to 4th century) (5th to 19th century) History of urban planning from origin till 1992 Olympic Games Third stage Fourth stage (1860s - 1930s) (from 1930s to 1970s)
  3. 3. History of urban planning from origin till the Olympics of 1992 • 1979 End of Dictatorship • 1980s: Oriol Bohigas(architect and urban planner): «Recover the centre and monumentalize the periphery» • Pasqual Maragall (Barcelona Major from 1982 to 1996): run olympic bid • 1986: – EEC (European Economic Community, also called CEE) – Barcelona wins Olympic Bid
  4. 4. Urban Renewal: the Barcelona Model •Strong political and local leadership with a flexible rather than rigid approach to planning. •International events are used to: attract private investment and workforce • Investment in transport infrastructure to improve accessibility. This increases opportunities for economic and social activity. •High quality Buildings and infrastructure and the encouragement of innovative architecture and thinking. : • short-term use • long term as a means of regenerating a decaying area of the city. •Buildings of heritage value are conserved for public use. Building renovations and compulsory purchase of buildings in very poor condition to renovate them using public funds and tax incentives and grants to refurbish properties. •Mixed new land uses into an area (service industries, office and retail, private and public housing). •City as the sum of its neighborhoods emphasizes the building of communities (social mixing encouragement): intervention linked to demands of local community. The radical transformation of the perimeters of the worst affected areas. Education, job training, health, crime and leisure initiatives.
  5. 5. Planning principles Barcelona ‘92: Games of the city and in the city. Four areas chosen inside the municipality of Barcelona to locate the four Olympic areas: •- Montjuic, •- Diagonal •- Vall d'Hebron •- Poble Nou, Olympic Village From “acupuncture-urban - planning” (focused on little planning” (focused areas) to structural and areas) infrastructural (rondes - ring road, airport) changes of airport) whole areas of the town.
  6. 6. Olympic Ring
  7. 7. Olympic Village & Olympic Port
  8. 8. Olympic Swimming Pools Velodrome
  9. 9. Olympic Games Economic Impact Organizational costs: Infrastructures and facilities: •$1 million •$8 million • Short-term investments •Long-term investments •Organizational Committee •Both public and private sector •Aim: MINIMIZE •Aim: MAXIMIZE Huge construction works: 1. Road and transport infrastructure 2. Housing, offices and business centers (private investments) 3. Telecommunications and services 4. Hotels (private investments) 5. Sports facilities 6. Environmental infrastructure Return of investments of Organizing Committee: 75% KEY FACTOR OF SUCCESS: capability to attract both PUBLIC (63,2%) and PRIVATE FUNDERS (36,8%)
  10. 10. Olympic Games Economic impact • REGIONAL DECENTRALISATION: impact on the Region: only 38.5% of total investment was in Barcelona city. • BALANCE SHEET: positive income (gain) in both post-Olympic years and preparatory phase (through taxation of Olympic activities) • UNEMPLOYEMENT: between 1986 and 1992, Barcelona’s unemployment rate fell from 18.4% to 9.6%, the Spanish one from 20.9% to 15.5%. Construction works =temporary employment, then permanent jobs. • HOSTING CAPACITY: between 1986 and 2000 number of foreign visitors doubled (3.5 million visitors per year) and number of hotels, too.
  11. 11. Olympic Games Economic Impact • OLYMPIC LEGACY: includes urban transformation, changed economic structure, increased private and public capital, increased service sector activity, heightened international role, attractiveness (tourists + foreign companies establishing their business), centrality, productivity and competitiveness. • OLYMPIC GAMES ARE THE DRIVER OF BARCELONA’S SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC BOOM IN THE 90’S and the reason why the City overcome the international economic crisis of 1993! AND… …still one decade later the expansive trend continues: Barcelona has maintained the growth in all indicators. • BARCELONA’92 AS A MODEL of capacity to ride the Olympic wave. • RESULT: Improved quality of life and STRATEGIC POSITIONING, making Barcelona one of the most visited cities in Europe after London, Paris and Rome.
  12. 12. BARCELONA OLYMPICS IMPACT MODEL Olympic Games 1964-2008 ($)
  13. 13. Conclusions: “No one can survive merely by CONSERVATION. If there is no new construction, the city cannot stand {…}. Each city must find its own formula for combining existing symbols with new ones. Without the latter, antiquity becomes mere repetition.” Pasqual Maragall, Mayor of Barcellona from 1982 to 1997 • Shift: from typical industrial city to flexible (service+knowledge) city. • Tourist promotion: positioning itself as an international cultural and business meeting point • Developmental impact: Olympics used as planning tool to push forward projects that were already in progress (Olympic village case). • 3 main long-lasting impacts to the urban fabric instead of “white elephant”: – Vila Olimpica and the Sea Front (industrial area – Olympic village – Inhabited area) – restoring historical buildings in Gothic Quarters and on Montjuic Mountain – ring roads around the metropolitan area • Commercial aspect: Barcelona’s model set up an example of successfully combining a sporting event with commercial purposes. Barcelona’s games revenues were mainly generated by entities, which rose to 75.2% of the total, from sponsorship and television rights.
  14. 14. Current issues and developments: 22@Barcelona Hyper Community Diagonal Mar Universal Forum of Culture 2004
  15. 15. Thanks for your attention! Case study by: Alessandra Speri Cristina Caroti Xu Wu Daria Averyanova