The Hidden Web
Inside the Informal Networks that Drive Project
Performance
Project Management Institute
Central Massachuse...
The Point

                  Project managers can
                    improve projects
                                  j...
Project Success Rates are Not Where
    They N d to Be…
    Th Need t B
     Changes Completed On Time and With Minimal
  ...
Stronger Networks – Project Success
                           Successful Projects              Less Successful Projects

...
Today s
      Today’s Talk

                              1. What are networks?

                              2. How can ...
WHAT IS A NETWORK?




6
What is a Network?

                                       Public transportation networks
                                ...
The Simplest Work Network
      Human networks are also all about movement:
      The movement of information


          ...
People Form Networks within Teams




9
More People, More Complexity
      People




10
It s
 It’s Not Just the Grapevine




      Social               Decision-Making         Innovation




               Exp...
When They’re Good, They’re Very,
     Very Good…
     V    G d
     Healthy networks can…
     • Adapt quickly to change.
...
…When They’re Bad, They’re a Disaster




 13
Graphic: NetForm. Used with permission.
HOW CAN PROJECT MANAGERS
     USE NETWORKS TO IMPROVE
     PROJECT SUCCESS RATES?




14
PMs Work Through Informal Networks




 15
Image: Rebecca St. James
Networked Leaders are More Successful

                           Successful Projects              Less Successful Project...
Four Techniques
 1.   Know your own networks
 2.   Build strong networks
 3.
 3    Understand the project network
 4.   Bu...
1.
     1 Know Your Own Networks

                                                                                   I alr...
Map Your Network and Identify Gaps




 19
Image: Credit unknown.
You Can Do It By Hand
                      Hand…




 20
Image: Partnering Resources.
…Or You Can Use Software
  Or




                            TouchGraph.com

21
2.
     2 Build Strong Networks




 22
Image: Valdis Krebs.
23
A Common Tip for Network Building




24
Another Way to Network
     High Performers…
       g
     • Invest in relationships with
        sources of information a...
Key to Building Your Network




 26
Photo: Sizumaru’s Photo Stream, Flickr.
The Minimalist Approach

       1. Schedule 1 coffee meeting / month



       2.
       2 Forward 1 email / week



     ...
3. Understand Your Project Network

      •     How does information flow
            within your project team?
          ...
An Example




 29
Images: Partnering Resources using NetForm™ Connectors software.
How to Understand a Project Network




            1. Ask 10 people y trust: Who do you trust to get
                    ...
Automating Network Analysis
     •   Multiple web-based data
                  web based
         collection, analysis, an...
Outputs of Network Analysis
     •   Analysis using mathematical
         algorithms tested over 30+ years

     •   Insta...
4.
 4 Build Your Project Network




33
Use Multiple Techniques

             Ask informal leaders                   Leverage personal      Understand what the
  ...
Key Takeaways
 •   Stronger networks : better performance
 •   Understand your networks and your gaps
 •   Understand and ...
Let s
     Let’s Leverage Our Networks!


      What stands out as most
      relevant to your work?

      What questions...
About the Presenter

     • Founder of management consulting firm Partnering Resources.
     • Specializes in identifying ...
References
 Articles & Research
 • C
   Cross, R B
          R., Borgatti, S P & P k A (Wi
                     i S.P., Pa...
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Hidden Web: How Informal Networks Drive Project Performance

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These slides, from a May 11, 2010 presentation to the Project Management Institute Central Massachusetts Chapter, explain what PMs can do to boost project success rates through use of networks.

From the session description:
Influencing without authority is one of the hardest skills to acquire. Yet there is a powerful tool that can help PMs understand how to influence effectively. Underneath organization charts and process maps are hidden informal networks: the webs of relationships that underlie all organization activity. People activate these webs in order to solve problems, gain expertise, and innovate. For years, we have known that these networks exist, but haven't had the tools to leverage them properly. Today, thanks to advances in mathematics and technology, we now have the ability to scientifically identify, map, and analyze networks.

In this lively, interactive session, PMs will learn how to identify, nurture, and leverage these informal networks in order to boost project success rates. We'll look at the science underlying informal networks and influencing with authority. We'll review recent findings that show the connections between human network management and project performance. PMs will leave with a greater understanding of the practical steps they can take to use networks to improve project performance.

More: http://partneringresources.com/it-alignment-resources/

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Hidden Web: How Informal Networks Drive Project Performance

  1. 1. The Hidden Web Inside the Informal Networks that Drive Project Performance Project Management Institute Central Massachusetts Chapter May 11, 2010 Maya Townsend, Founder Partnering Resources
  2. 2. The Point Project managers can improve projects j success rates and personal performance if they attend to informal networks 2
  3. 3. Project Success Rates are Not Where They N d to Be… Th Need t B Changes Completed On Time and With Minimal Disruption 5% Gartner, 2001 Percentage of Originally Average Project Cost Defined Features Overrun Delivered 43% 54% 54%* * Of which 45% are never used Standish Group Standish Group 3
  4. 4. Stronger Networks – Project Success Successful Projects Less Successful Projects Very Strong Strong 27% 36% Strong 57% • 93% of successful change initiatives were led by p p with very g y people y strong / strong personal networks • 73% of less successful change initiatives were led by people with moderate / weak networks 4 Data: NEHRA / Partnering Resources study (2009).
  5. 5. Today s Today’s Talk 1. What are networks? 2. How can PMs use them to improve project success rates? 5 Image: Partnering Resources
  6. 6. WHAT IS A NETWORK? 6
  7. 7. What is a Network? Public transportation networks help people travel in cities Computer networks move data from location to location The circulatory system Networks are about movement carries oxygen and carbon i d b dioxide to and from our cells 7
  8. 8. The Simplest Work Network Human networks are also all about movement: The movement of information Sam knows how S k h to answer the question so Mary connects you to Sam S You have a You ask Mary at She doesn’t know question the next desk the answer and calls Sam for advice Problem solved! 8
  9. 9. People Form Networks within Teams 9
  10. 10. More People, More Complexity People 10
  11. 11. It s It’s Not Just the Grapevine Social Decision-Making Innovation Expertise Improvement 11
  12. 12. When They’re Good, They’re Very, Very Good… V G d Healthy networks can… • Adapt quickly to change. • Withstand stress. • Reorganize without significantly affecting productivity. • Diffuse information easily. • Grow quickly. quickly 12 Case studies: Plastrik & Taylor (2006) and Evans & Wolf (2005).
  13. 13. …When They’re Bad, They’re a Disaster 13 Graphic: NetForm. Used with permission.
  14. 14. HOW CAN PROJECT MANAGERS USE NETWORKS TO IMPROVE PROJECT SUCCESS RATES? 14
  15. 15. PMs Work Through Informal Networks 15 Image: Rebecca St. James
  16. 16. Networked Leaders are More Successful Successful Projects Less Successful Projects Moderate 7% Weak Strong Very 18% 27% g Strong 36% Strong Moderate 55% 57% • 93% of completely successful change initiatives were led by people with very strong / strong personal networks • 73% of less successful change initiatives were led by people with moderate / weak networks 16 Data: NEHRA / Partnering Resources study (2009).
  17. 17. Four Techniques 1. Know your own networks 2. Build strong networks 3. 3 Understand the project network 4. Build your project network 17
  18. 18. 1. 1 Know Your Own Networks I already know what’s going on in my network 18 Image: Stephenson, “Trafficking in Trust” in Coughlin, Wingard, & Hollihan, 2005
  19. 19. Map Your Network and Identify Gaps 19 Image: Credit unknown.
  20. 20. You Can Do It By Hand Hand… 20 Image: Partnering Resources.
  21. 21. …Or You Can Use Software Or TouchGraph.com 21
  22. 22. 2. 2 Build Strong Networks 22 Image: Valdis Krebs.
  23. 23. 23
  24. 24. A Common Tip for Network Building 24
  25. 25. Another Way to Network High Performers… g • Invest in relationships with sources of information and helpful critics p • Build relationships that span organizational levels • Position themselves at key points in the network and leverage people around them People who serve as bridges are for implementation p more likely to be in the organization’s organization s top 20% of performers 25 From Cross, Thomas, & Light, “How Top Talent Uses Networks and Where Rising Stars Get Trapped” and Groysberg, Lee, & Abrahams, “What It Takes to Make ‘Star’ Hires Pay Off”
  26. 26. Key to Building Your Network 26 Photo: Sizumaru’s Photo Stream, Flickr.
  27. 27. The Minimalist Approach 1. Schedule 1 coffee meeting / month 2. 2 Forward 1 email / week 3. Walk around the office and talk with people 1 time / day 27
  28. 28. 3. Understand Your Project Network • How does information flow within your project team? Where is it blocked? • Who are the ad hoc decision- makers? • Who has expertise needed to p solve problems? • Who can make things happen? 28 Image: Nancy Margulies (www.nancymargulies.com)
  29. 29. An Example 29 Images: Partnering Resources using NetForm™ Connectors software.
  30. 30. How to Understand a Project Network 1. Ask 10 people y trust: Who do you trust to get p p you y g things done? 2. Map the network by hand 3. Map the network using O ONA software f 30 Image: Adapted from Cross, Borgatti, & Parker, “Making Invisible Work Visible: Using Social Network Analysis to Support Strategic Collaboration.”
  31. 31. Automating Network Analysis • Multiple web-based data web based collection, analysis, and visualization tools ► InFlow, UCINET, NetMiner ► NetForm ► Visone for visualization • Data capture takes 30 minutes of user time Process: 1. Choose all of the people with whom you interact informally 2. Identify the purpose and frequency of your interactions 31
  32. 32. Outputs of Network Analysis • Analysis using mathematical algorithms tested over 30+ years • Instantaneous results on password- p protected site ► Graphical network maps ► Critical connectors and hidden resources 32
  33. 33. 4. 4 Build Your Project Network 33
  34. 34. Use Multiple Techniques Ask informal leaders Leverage personal Understand what the to help support the p pp contacts to help g p get g p grapevine has to say y change things done about change Brainstorm or explore Strategize how to Get feedback on ideas associated with overcome planning or documents, approach, the change with g implementation and aspects of the people outside the obstacles initiative before rollout change team 34 Data: NEHRA / Partnering Resources study (2009).
  35. 35. Key Takeaways • Stronger networks : better performance • Understand your networks and your gaps • Understand and build the project network • Nurture relationships with information sources, helpful critics and boundary spanners critics, 35
  36. 36. Let s Let’s Leverage Our Networks! What stands out as most relevant to your work? What questions do you have? 36 Image: Nancy Margulies (www.nancymargulies.com)
  37. 37. About the Presenter • Founder of management consulting firm Partnering Resources. • Specializes in identifying the hidden web of relationships that drive organization performance and helping leaders reach across the “white spaces” to develop solutions that stick. • Client list includes Alcatel-Lucent, eCopy, eTeck, Fidelity, Financial Profiles, Hanover Insurance Group, Merrimack Pharmaceutical, and Novartis, as well as public and third sector companies such as Andover / Phillips Academy, Close to Home, National Air and Space Administration, National Braille Press, and Project Harmony. • Teaches leadership, strategy, and alignment at Boston University Corporate Education Center and Northeastern University. • Published by CIO.Com, Chief Learning Officer, Mass High Tech, and other magazines and j g journals. • Serves on the Editorial Review Board for OD Practitioner, the premier organization development practitioner journal in the United States. • Likes chocolate a lot. Contact: 617.395.8396 o maya@partneringresources com o www partneringresources com 617 395 8396 maya@partneringresources.com www.partneringresources.com 37
  38. 38. References Articles & Research • C Cross, R B R., Borgatti, S P & P k A (Wi i S.P., Parker, A. (Winter 2002) “M ki I i ibl W k Vi ibl U i S i l N 2002). “Making Invisible Work Visible: Using Social Network A l i to k Analysis Support Strategic Collaboration.” California Management Review. • Cross, Martin, & Weiss (2006). “Mapping the Value of Employee Collaboration. McKinsey Quarterly. • Kleiner, A. (2002). “Karen Stephenson’s Quantum Theory of Trust.” strategy + business. Available at www.strategy- business.com. b siness com • Stephenson, K. (2005). “Trafficking in Trust.” In Enlightened Power (Coughlin, Wingard, & Hollihan, ed.). Available at www.drkaren.us/KS_publications01.htm. • Townsend, M. (2009). “Leveraging Human Networks to Accelerate Learning.” Available at bit.ly/3V0iF4. • T Townsend, M. (2008) “The Th d M (2008). “Th Three M t I Most Important P iti t t Positions Y D ’t K You Don’t Know Ab t Y t ” A il bl at About Yet.” Available t www.partneringresources.com/resources.html. • Townsend, M. & Yeung, S. (2009). “Informal Networks Linked to Change Success.” Available at bit.ly/17wANX. • Evans & Wolf (2005). “Collaboration Rules.” Harvard Business Review. Books • Anklam, P. (2007). Net Work: A Practical Guide to Creating and Sustaining Networks at Work and in the World. • Cohen, D. & Prusak, L. (2001). In Good Company: How Social Capital Makes Organizations Work. • Cross, R., & Parker, A. (2004). The Hidden Power of Social Networks: Understanding How Work Really Gets Done in Organizations. 38

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