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- 1. A Study of the growth pattern of “ Chay Kitli Walas” (Tea Makers) in Ahmedabad with respect to 7 P’s of marketing. In Partial Fulfillment Of Post Graduate Diploma in Management Submitted By: Mayank Sarode Roll No. 17, PGDM –Evening Batch -2010-2013 Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Guided By: Dr. Shrikant Rakhe Faculty – Consumer Behaviour & Advertising Management Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies SOM LALIT INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES St. Xavier’s Corner, University Road, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad380009. Approved by AICTE Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page 1
- 2. DECLARATION I, Mayank Sarode, student of PGDM-Evening Batch-2010-2013, Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies, hereby declare that the Project titled, A Study of the growth pattern of “ Chay Kitli Walas” (Tea Makers) in Ahmedabad with respect to 7 P’s of marketing, is an original work and same has not been submitted to any other institute for award of any degree. The feasible suggestions have been duly incorporated in consultation of guide. Date: 8th April, 2013 Place: Ahmedabad ______________________ Mayank Sarode (Roll no. 17) Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page 2
- 3. AUTHENTIFICATION CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the Grand Project On A Study of the growth pattern of “ Chay Kitli Walas” (Tea Makers) in Ahmedabad with respect to 7 P’s of marketing. By Mayank Sarode To Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies is in requirement of the partial completion of PGDM Program Date: 08/04/2013 ___________________ (Dr. Shrikant Rakhe) Faculty-CBAM PGDM (Evening) SLIMS Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page 3
- 4. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT A Project usually falls short of its expectation unless guided by the right person at the right time. Success of a project is an outcome of sincere efforts, channeled in the right direction, efficient supervision and the most valuable professional guidance. This project would not have been completed without the direct and indirect help and guidance of such luminaries. They provide me with the necessary recourses and atmosphere conductive for healthy learning and training. At the outset I would like to take this opportunity to gratefully acknowledge the very kind and patient guidance I have received from project guide Dr. Shrikant Rakhe. Without his critical evaluation and suggestion at every stage of the project, this report could not have reached its present form. Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page 4
- 5. I would like to extend my gratitude towards, The Course Co-ordinator of PGDM, Professor Rakesh Shastri, for his moral support required for the realization of this project report. Lastly, I would like to thank all those who have directly or indirectly contributed to this project. Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page 5
- 6. Table of Content Sr. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Name of the Chapter Abstract Introduction Literature Review Rationale and Objective of Study Research Methodology Research Objectives and Goals Research Objectives and Goals were Research Design Data Collection Method Sampling Technique Sampling Plan Sample Population Data Analysis Conclusions Limitation of Study Further Scope of Study Possible Contribution of Study Recommendation and Suggestion Bibliography Appendix Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page Number 7 8 19 21 23 23 23 24 26 27 27 27 28 74 75 75 76 79 80 81 Page 6
- 7. Abstract The Tea that is consumed by most of the people of India is also a major source of Income of the for the ‘Chay Kitli Walas’ of Ahmedabad. The ‘Chay Kitli Walas’ are a part of the unorganized sector and doing their business in Ahmadabad. The market of the ‘Chay Kitli Walas' is highly fragmented and also the customers are becoming more demanding and concerned regarding the quality of the product being provided by the vendors of the unorganized sector. In the present situation the ‘Chay Kitli Walas’ business is highly fragmented and requires a study of the various factors responsible for the growth of the business in the Ahmedabad city. Also Customer preference of a particular ‘Chay Kitli Walas’ is affected due to the lack of proper cleanliness, lack of quality and variety of products and flavours. This study being exploratory and descriptive in nature has focused on identifying the factors related to the business of the ‘Chay Kitli Walas’ of Ahmedabad and found out certain factor like the Quality, Vitality, Price of the Tea being served is important for sustaining and growth of the ‘Chay Kitli Walas’ of Ahmedabad. Also the various correlation of the factors taken under the consideration is explained in the analysis and the conclusions based on the findings of the data analysis are done. Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page 7
- 8. Introduction: ‘Strangely Enough the humanity has so far met in the Tea-cup. IT is the only Asiatic Ceremonial that commands universal respect. The white man has scoffed at our religion and our morals, but has accepted the brown beverage without hesitation.’Source: the Book Of Tea By Okakaru-Kakuzo. ‘It is hygiene, for it enforces cleanliness; it is economics, for it shows comfort in simplicity rather than in the complex and costly; it is moral geometry, in as much as it defines our sense of proportion to the universe. It represents the true spirit of Eastern democracy by making all its votaries aristocrats in taste.’ ’Source: the Book Of Tea By Okakaru-Kakuzo. So rightly said by Okakaru-Kakuzo who was lover of religion and Tea and held Tea drinking and the Tea Ceremony of Japan in high respect and also admired the true human spirit of freedom and joy. One good legacy that the Britishers left behind after the Independence of India to which no body will object is the legacy of Tea. Tea was an accidental discovery by the Englishman Major Robert Bruce in 1823 during his visit to a Shingpo King and was offered Tea to drink.Source: http://teatourindia.com/tea-history.html The drinking of tea not only became a social event for the upper classes, it altered the time and manner in which they took tea. Afternoon Tea became the bridge between meals because many wouldn't eat their evening meal until maybe 8pm. As such, Afternoon Tea became a ‘mini meal' in itself. This was all well and good for the upper classes, but the working classes ran to a different schedule and a different budget. Tea was still quite expensive at the time and the working classes could not afford to waste it on anything other than necessities. A wearied factory worker wouldn't arrive home until six in the evening, and when he did, he was famished! Thus, in the industrial areas of the UK (northern England and southern Scotland), the working classes evening meal evolved: high tea. English High Tea usually involved a mug of tea, bread, vegetables, cheese and occasionally meat. Variations on high tea could include the addition of pies, potatoes and crackers. So while Afternoon Tea was largely a social event for their upper class counterparts, high tea was a necessary meal in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. This traditional high tea still exists for some parts of the North and Scotland. Source:http://www.afternoontea.co.uk/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=838&Itemid=36#.UUv_bBdTAqM Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page 8
- 9. Thus the British High Tea which was a social gathering and part of the routine upper-class in England, over a period of time has percolated to all the classes of society irrespective of class and religion in India. The High Tea has lost it’s purpose in today’s fast moving world. Though the purpose of drinking the Tea more or less hovers around social gathering and enjoyment. Problem Definition: In the present situation the ‘Chay Kitli Wala’ business is highly fragmented and requires a study of the various factors responsible for the growth of the business in the Ahmedabad city. Also Customer preference of a particular ‘Chay Kitli Wala’ is affected due to the lack of proper cleanliness, lack of quality and variety of products and flavours. Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page 9
- 10. History of Tea “Tea” is the integral part of Indian Tradition. “Tea” has a very wonderful history of it’s discovery nearly 5000 years old. Tea is the most preferred drink among most of the Indians. The “Tea” has a unique culture or “Teaism” evolved among various countries of the world. Be it summer or bitter cold, Tea is there for young and the old. In India Tea is served as cultural drink to the guest and also a part of routine consumption outside home. India is the second largest producer of Tea in the world next to China. “Approximately 950 million kilograms is produced by India. The Tea Industry in India is about 19500 crore rupees and expected to grow at a compounded annual growth rate of 25 % per annum to Rs 33000 crores till the year 2015 according to ASSOCHAM December 2011 report. Tea may also be called the national drink of India as 25 % of the global Tea produced is consumed by India alone. According to the ASSOCHAM Secretary General D. S. Rawat, 90 percent of the Indian households are regular Tea drinkers and Tea is economic is price, affordable and addictive in nature.” Source: Article dated 26th April 2012 Food Service India Edition, March-April 2012, Tea Time by Varun Jain. The Japanese have their unique way of consuming Tea and so have the Chinese. The taste and flavor of the Tea may be different, but the urge for Tea remains the same among the Tea lover or consumers all over the world. The word Tea is derived from the ancient Chinese dialect TChai, Cha or Tay used to describe the Tea Leaf. Many books have been written on the process of growing and manufacturing Tea. The Tea was accidentally discovered in 2737B.C. by Emperor Shen Nong who was a great Chinese Scholar and Herbal Specialist. Source: http://www.chcp.org/tea.html, article on web by L.K.Yee.Shen Nong while traveling to a distant place in China along with his troops felt thirsty. He ordered his servants to bring some water. Shen Nong had laid very hygienic practices for eating food and drinking beverages. As per the instructions the servants boiled the waters and served it to the king and his companions. The Emporer found the water to have strong aromatic essence and felt to find out the reason for the aromatic flavour and essence. The emperor felt rejuvenated by the drink. This eventually led to the discovery of the Tea. Till 300 A.D. Tea was consumed as the medicinal drink. After 300 AD Tea became a regular drink for most of the Chinese.The Song and the Tang Dynasty made a significant contribution towards making Tea a popular drink among the Chinese people. In 780 AD during the Tang Dynasty a scholar named “LuYu” studied the process of planting, processing, tasting and brewing of Tea and wrote a first authentic book on Tea called the “Cha Ching” or “The Tea Classic”. Source: http://www.chcp.org/tea.html, article on web by L.K.Yee Thus Tea drinking reached a high status in China. For the first time the art of drinking tea was developed by the Chinese people. The Song dynasty added further value to the Tea culture by encouraging various poems, songs, paintings on Tea. Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page 10
- 11. The Yuan and Qing dynasty further contributed to the Tea manufacturing and the existing tradition by further simplifying the way of growing tea, processing tea and making tea more flavored. During the 900 AD the Chinese culture of Tea consumption spread to Japan in the form of Japanese cultural tradition of Tea Ceremony called “Chanoyu”. The Tea tradition later spread to Europe in the 1600 A.D. Tea was introduced to England during 1669 AD. Tea was discovered in India during the British Rule in India. Source: http://www.2basnob.com/tea-history-timeline.html “ The Tea plant’s scientific name is Camellia Sinensis and it is indigenous to China and parts of India. The tea plant is an evergreen shrub that bears fragrant white, five-petal flowers. Tea is plucked as young leaves and leaf buds from the tea plant when young. Two main varieties of Tea are found and cultivated Camellia Sinensis Sinensis, a Chinese plant with small leaves, and Camellia Sinensis Assamica, an Indian plant with large leaves. Hybrids of these two varieties are also cultivated. The “herbal tea” as it is known is technically a mixture of flowers, fruit, herbs and spices.” “Today more than 1500 varieties of Tea are available and cultivated in more than 25 countries of the world.” Source: http://www.chcp.org/tea.html, article on web by L.K.Yee Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page 11
- 12. The Current Scenario: India is a large country and so is the demand of the country people for food consumption. The food consumption pattern of the Indian population is about to increase to 12,430 billion INR by 2013. And what people of India require is more quality food that is nutritious and well processed. The F & B industry can be divided into three categories as follows: 1) Agricultural & Horticultural Produce Fruits, nuts, grains, milk, meats, poultry, fish, seafood, herbs and other crops 2) Processed foods and beverages Packaged Staples, alcoholic beverages, dairy products, baked goods, non alcoholic beverages like juices, cola and other health drinks) tea, coffee, confectionary 3) Food and beverage Retail It consists of both organized and unorganized sector where in the unorganized sector dominates with 84 % of market share. The unorganized sector consist of a large number of vendors in the form of dhabas, street stalls, halwais (sweet shops), road side vendors and food carts. The F & B service provides direct and indirect employment to a large Indian population. There are approximately 5 million workers in the F & b service Industry in addition to 10 million street vendors in India. The F & B food service industry currently contributes 11.91 billion INR tax revenue to the government of India and has a potential to grow at 41.69 billion INR. The food industry is bound to increase by 5-6% per annum with a total revenue upto 464.9 billion INR. Only 16 % of the F & B food service industry is organized which is about 108.11 billion INR in India. The growth is at a 25% compound annual rate. The major contributor being the unorganized sector amounts upto 248.5 billion INR lacks in the technical skills, a proper structured supply system and proper accounting standards. Source: Athena Infonomics India Pvt. Ltd. Scenario in Ahmedabad District: According to Dr. Suhas Kulkarni Medical Health Officer Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation, Central Government of India had implemented the Food Safety and Standard Act in August 2011due to which the AMC was suppose to register all the food vendors including the organized and the unorganized vendor in the city. According to Dr. Suhas Kulkarni due to the Prevention Of Food Adulteration Act,7000 Vendors were registered in Ahmedabad. Under FSSA, 35000 such vendors are to be registered. Till date only 4000 vendors have been registered by the AMC.Source:http://www.dnaindia.com/ahmedabad/report-few-vendorsin-ahmedabad-want-fssa-licences-1714073 Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page 12
- 13. Vendors incomes support a complex network within the urban value chain. Customers are mostly households or other small businesses, but vendors also act as outlets for larger concerns eg: shops and wholesalers. Most depend on passing trade, which means they cannot easily move to other locations. Markets are very specialist in their offer, forming different nodes in the supply chain.The overall value of street vending to the urban economy is significant, although difficult to calculate because of uncertainties in income data and numbers of street vendors. However, the research estimated that the 3,500 vendors in 1,400 businesses operating in Bhadra at the time of the survey produced an annual turnover of around Rs. 95 crore or US$19million (Jajoo 2011). The overall value of street vending to the urban economy is likely to be much larger. Source: Working Paper 2 Law, Rights and Regulation in Informal Economy, July 2012. This also points towards the underlying possible business potential of unorganized business in Ahmedabad including the “Chay Kitli Walas” . Definition of Vendor: According to the National Policy on Urban Street Vendors, 2009,“A vendor is the person who offers goods or services for sale to the public in a street without having a permanent built up structure.” There are three basic categories of street vendors: (a) stationary; (b) peripatetic and (c) mobile. Stationary vendors are those who carry out vending on a regular basis at a specific location, e.g. those occupying space on the pavements or other public places and/or private areas either open/covered (with implicit or explicit consent) of the authorities. Peripatetic vendors are those who carry out vending on foot and sell their goods and services and include those who carry baskets on their head/slung on their shoulders and those who sell their goods and pushcarts. Mobile street vendors are those who move from place to place vending their goods or services on bicycle or mobile units on wheels, whether motorized or not. They also include vendors selling their wares in moving buses, local trains etc. The “Urban Street Vendor” broadly covers all the vendors including the “Chay Kitli Walas” carrying out their business in the Urban Areas. In this policy, the term “Urban Street Vendor” incorporates all other local/regional specific terms used to describe them, such as Hawkers, Pheriwallas, Rehri-Patri wallas, Foothpath Dukandars, Sidewalk traders, etc. Source: National Policy on Urban Street Vendors, 2009. Government of India, Minsitry of Housing & Urban Poverty Alleviation. The definition of Vendor clearly specifies that the “Chay Kitli Walas” are a legitimate part of the organized retail business and contribute positively towards the economic growth of the country at a micro level. Hence Government of India has made certain rules and regulations for the authorized sell of the products by these micro-entrepreneurs through various local and state government level Agencies or corporations. Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page 13
- 14. The Current Players: There are not many tea bars in India currently that fit this bill, but those which do include names like Passion – My Cup of Tea in Delhi; Tapri in Jaipur; Infinitea,Chaipatty, and Chai Point in Bangalore; the Tea Junction in Kolkata; Tea Pot in Cochin; Tea Centre in Mumbai; and, the Cha Bar chain run by the Kolkata-based Oxford Book Store at its master book shops all over the country. Apart from these, there are many lesser-known regional players. At the national level, the modern phenomenon of tea bars is mostly confined to a handful of players in metros such as Mumbai, Delhi, Bangalore, Chennai, and Kolkata. Says Parag Desai, Executive Director, Sales and Marketing, Wagh Bakri Tea Group: “There are not many tea bars in the country at present. Many open up now and then, but most do not have proper resources and shut down soon. The kind of passion entrepreneurs should have towards running a tea bar is missing and that is actually the reason why we don’t see a lot of them coming up in India.” Source: Food Service India Edition, March-April 2012 The well known player in the Ahmedabad city is the ‘Lucky Tea Stall’ located near the ‘Sidi Saiyed Ni Jali’, Lal Darwaja Area. The ‘Lucky Tea Stall’ delivers excellent service and value to it’s customers. Even famous world reknowned painter like Maqbul Fida Hussain was fond of the Tea served at the Lucky Tea Stall and most of the time he never missed to spend his time at the Lucky Tea Stall whenever he visited in Ahmedabad. Maqbul Fida Hussain had his ancestors buried in the grave yard of Saraspur and thus knew regarding the ‘Lucky Tea Stall’ of Ahmedabad. Maqbul Fida Hussain as a token of respect gifted a painting to the owner of the ‘Lucky Tea Stall. The painting depicts a scene from the Arabian Nights. There are two camels and a castle-like construction in the foreground, and a desert in the backdrop. “The painting reminds of an oasis in the desert. I think Husain must have found Lucky Tea Stall like an oasis of peace.”source: http://www.dnaindia.com/india/report_he-went-fida-over-tea-the-tea-stall-got-lucky_1553242 If Maqbul Fida Hussain would not have got the perceived value of tranquility and peace like that of a king sitting in his palace while being in the busiest place of the city like Lal Darwaja during his visit at the ‘Lucky Tea Stall’ the painting given by him might had been something different than what it is. This shows that how creation of value through the product, place, people, infact from all the 7p’s of marketing makes an ordinary business, an extraordinary one with respect to its competitors. Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page 14
- 15. The Seven P’s of Marketing: The seven P’s of marketing are very important from the point of view of business. The success of any business especially at a micro level critically depends upon the proper management of the 7 P’s of marketing. The seven P’s of Marketing as per Philips Kotler are as follows: 1) Product The ‘Chay’ is a product which generally everybody likes to have any time of the day. There may be different time at which people like to have Tea. But the common feeling and value derived is of social gathering and satisfaction. There are more than 40 to 45 varities of Tea being served at some of the Tea Lounges in India. This shows that increasing the number of offerings and innovation is necessary for the ‘Chay Kitli Walas’ of Ahmedabad. The importance of having variety of products is evident from this statement, “We wanted to do tea and not coffee because the potential lying under ‘thadi’ [local tea stall] has still not been recognized in India. We were totally fixated on opening up a ‘chai ki dukaan’ and were sure of setting up a new trend – in this I think we have succeeded,” says Bohra of Tapri which sells 40 types of tea in Jaipur and is planning to open a second outlet in few months. Source: Article dated 26th April 2012 Food Service India Edition, March-April 2012, Tea Time by Varun Jain. 2) Price The price of a cup of Tea depends on the quantity served. For a half cup of Tea approximately 30 ml to 50 ml Rs. 6 per cup is charged. For a full cup of Tea approximately 60 to 90 ml Rs. 12 per cup is charged. 3) Place The place is of utmost importance in this business. Generally the ‘Chay Kitli’ near the corporate offices, colleges and the places where is there is more foot fall are earning more than those at distant and lonely places. The major vending areas of Ahmedabad are Bhadra, Delhi Darwaja, Kankaria Lake, Jamalpur Market, Parasnagar Market and Khodiyarnagar.Source: Working Paper 2 Law, Rights and Regulation in Informal Economy, July 2012. Apart from this the ‘Chay Kitli Walas’ are found equally among all the areas of Ahmedabad irrespective of the earning capacity or density of the population. So it becomes easy for research. Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page 15
- 16. 4) Promotion The promotion in this business is generally word of mouth based. No ‘Chay Kitli Wala’ of Ahmedabad is engaged in the promotion of his/her business due to high cost of investment. Also the product is so generic that it does not require any sort of promotion but yet if efforts are made by the ‘Chay Kitli Walas’ to promote themselves then it may be possible for them to increase the footfall at their particular Tea Stall. 5) People Ahmedabad is the seventh largest metropolis in India, and the largest of the State of Gujarat, with an estimated population of 6.35 million in 2011 and an urban area of over 450 sq km. Gujarat is the second most industrialized, fourth richest and third most urbanized state of India. Central Ahmedabad, administered by Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation (AMC), had a population of 5.5m in 2010. Greater Ahmedabad includes the new state capital of Gandhinagar, and the AhmedabadUrban Development Authority (AUDA) areas. Ahmedabad is an industrial heartland specializing in chemicals, textiles, drugs and pharmaceuticals, with major investment in urban projects such as the Sabarmati Riverfront, the Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS), and the Gujarat International Finance Tech City (GIFT) Source: Working Paper 2 Law, Rights and Regulation in Informal Economy, July 2012 . The demographics of Ahmedabad is constantly increasing and so is the importance of the microentrepreneurs like the ‘Chay Kitli Walas’ who are an important component of the urban retail trade of Ahmedabad. 6) Process The process of making Tea and serving is very conventional and there is need of technology to take part in the development of the business of the ‘Chay Kitli Wala’ of Ahmedabad. 7) Physical Evidence The packaging /physical evidence is very raw and needs to be given a professional look so as to please the customers at the ‘Chay Kitli’ Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page 16
- 17. The Format of Indian F & B Service Outlets The table below represents the various formats of retail used by the both unorganized and organized sector. It is very clear from the above information that the 7 p’s of marketing are well addressed in the organized retail as compared to the unorganized retail. Yet Unorganized retail leads the 84 % of the market. This shows how much scope of business potential is there in the both the organized and unorganized retail. Indian F & B Food Service Formats Unorganised (84%) Sector Type Dhabas: Often referred to as rural India’s fast food joints, these are located street side, at truck stops, and along highways. Typical fare includes spicy Indian food and snacks, lassi, and chai. Characterised by tandoors (pit oven) and chaarpais (cots), dhabas offer the authentic, raw Indian experience. Halwais: Confectioners and sweet-makers found mainly in north India. The name is derived from the word halwa, a popular sweet made of flour, ghee, sugar, almonds, and raisins. Typical fare includes mithai (sweets) like laddus and burfi and savoury snacks like samosas and pakoras. Food carts and trolleys: These are stand-alone units run by individuals and typically sell street food and snacks such as grilled corn, boiled or roasted peanuts, Description Organised Sector (16%) Examples Fine Dining: Offer finest in food, service, and ambience; high priced; staff highly trained; usually located in luxury hotels in metropolitan cities Taj Hotels, The Leela Hotels, Oberoi Hotels, Sheraton Hotels Casual: Offer moderately priced SaravanaBhavan, some also provide takeaway and home delivery Street,Chili’s, Great Kabab Factory, California Pizza Kitchen,Hard Rock Cafés, Sbarro, Yellow Chilli, SpaghettiKitchen, Noodle Bar, Bombay Blue, Copper Chimney Also called fast food joints; serve processed foods fast at low prices; typical menu items include burgers,pizza, milkshakes, French fries; minimal table service;also provide takeaway and home delivery McDonald’s, Nirula’s, Taco Bell, KFC, KaatiZone, Pizza Hut, Domino’s, Haldirams, Papa John’s, Subway,Quiznos, Café Darshini, South Thindies, Rasna’s Devil’s Workshop, Bikanervala, Wimpy, Adiga, Faaso’s Outlets serving range of coffee and other hot and cold drinks, quick bites such as pastries and sandwiches,drinks, quick bites such as pastries and sandwiches,and breakfast Casual or upscale establishments serving alcoholic beverages and food Café Coffee Day, Barista, Costa Café, Starbucks,Brahmin’s Coffee Bar, Gloria Jean’s, Coffee Bean and Tea Leaf, Dessert Café, Chai Point, Au Bon Pain, Le Pain Quotidien, Cinnabon, Dunkin’ Donuts Mai Tai, Shiro, Aer, Aurus, Dome, Wink, Mocha,Esocobar, Vie Deck and Lounge, Enoteca, Flame Le Club, Leather Bar, Zara Tapas, Gallop, Bike and Barrel,Poker, Provogue, Geoffrey’s T.G.I. Friday's, Full Service food, casual Punjab Grill, Zambar,FresCo, Asia 7, Restaurants atmosphere, quick table service; Street Foods of India, Baker's Quick Service Restaurants Bars and Lounges Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page 17
- 18. chaat, paubhaji, idlis, fruit juices, and samosas. They are more commonly found in busy streets and tourist spots and tend to move around. Outlets usually exclusively selling ice cream, gelato,sundaes and shakes, sorbet, and frozen yogurt Haagen-Dazs, Hapinezz (Vadilal), Movenpick,Swensen’s, Baskin Robbins, Amul, Hatsun’sIbacco (formerlyArun), Natural Ice creams, Kwality, Pinkberry Roadside hawkers/vendors: These are found at street corners and usually set up shop at the same location every day. These vendors sell street foods, juices, lassi, ice cream, snacks, and cater to low-income populations who want a quick bite on the go. Stores usually exclusively selling fresh and bottled fruit and vegetable juices, smoothies, and juice blends; some also sell soups, salads, and wraps HAS Juice Bar, Tropical Smoothies, Amoretto,Evolution Fresh (from Starbucks) , Juice Lounge, BlendzJuice Bar, Fruit Shop On Greams Road, Booster Juice Small standalone structures dispensing quick snacks and drinks; typical items include wraps, Indian snacks, sugarcane and fruit juice, Chinese food, corn,ice cream, salads; commonly found in public spaces like shopping malls A designated area in large public places (shopping malls, airports, hospitals, offices) with several quick service brands serving food at designated stalls Salad Chef, Big Mos' Rolls and Wraps, Yo China, Chai Garam, Chokola, Candy Treat, Sweet World, Mr Orange,VadaaPaa, Burgerman, Nirula's Express, Go Chatzz,GoliVadaaPav, Cane-o-la, Petawrap, Café Coffee Day,Chamosa, Gelato Italiano Comesum, Spoon, Yatra, Foodtalk, Polynation,SagarRatna, Kailash Parbat Diners, drive-ins, and dives: These are the numerous standalone joints along streets (e.g., at bus stops) serving affordable Indian foods and beverages to the mass market. Many also offer takeaway and home delivery services. Juice Bars Food Courts Source: Enterprise Consulting, Athena Infonomics Be it any form of product and business carried out by the vendors in the Urban or Rural the service format in the unorganized sector can be compared with the organized service format according to the information given above. The “Chay Kitli Walas’ generally set up the service point and the shop on a movable trolley that is approximately 1.8 meters to 2.0 meters in length to 1.0 to 1.2 meters in width. It is commonly known as the “Larry” in local dialect. Majorly all urban micro entrepreneurs of the unorganized sector use it on permanent basis to carry on their business in the urban areas of the city. Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page 18
- 19. Literature Review: F & B Food Service In India: o This literature review provides the insight regarding the Food and Beverage market in India. Also it clearly depicts what different service formats are used in both Organized and Unorganized sector in India for the services commonly rendered in both sectors. The overall market statistics of Food and Beverage market in India is clearly given. Hence it forms the basis of the report. National Policy on Urban Street Vendors 2009: o The national policy on the Urban Street Vendors is very important literature review with respect to this report as this report clearly defines the Vendors and applies to the ‘Chay Kilti Walas’ as well since they fall under the preview of the National Policy on Urban Street Vendors 2009. In this literature the Urban Street Vendors which are a part of the unorganized sector including the ‘Chay Kitli Walas’ are given the importance as a legitimate part of the Urban Service Distribution system by the Government of India. Also the guidelines for improving the livelihood of the Urban Vendors are clearly given in this policy. o As the ‘Chay Kitli Walas’ of Ahmedabad also fall under definition of the Vendors this literature review is of importance to the Research Topic. Claiming Urban Space- Street Vending in Ahmedabad o This is very relevant literature in this project, since this literature review clearly defines the vending zones in Ahmedabad and also given the market statistics in INR for one of the vending zone in Ahmedabad which helps the researcher to get an estimate regarding the market size of the unorganized sector in Ahmedabad. Moreover the threats and the opportunities which are there in the unorganized sector of Ahmedabad can be understood by the study of this literature. Also the various legal implications and the other factors related to the Urban Vendors are very well studied in this literature. Hence the study of this literature helps the researcher to select the sampling area. Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page 19
- 20. The Book Of Tea By Okakaru-Kakuzo. Though many book have been written which describes the origin and discovery of Tea, this book is of great importance to the topic under the study as this book is written by Okakaru-Kakuzo during the 1906 which was pre world War I period. The author of this book holds the humanity as top priority and describes how the ordinary ceremony of Tea drinking is important in installing and maintaining the dignity of human relationship. This book helps to understand the cultural aspect of the Tea and gives and insight regarding the history of the Tea and helps the researcher to understand the significance of Tea with respect to the ‘Zennism’ of Japan and ‘Taoism’ of China. This literature review was done to get an insight for writing the Introduction of the Research Topic. According to Okakaru-Kakuzo for Tea, ‘It is hygiene, for it enforces cleanliness; it is economics, for it shows comfort in simplicity rather than in the complex and costly; it is moral geometry, in as much as it defines our sense of proportion to the universe. It represents the true spirit of Eastern democracy by making all its votaries aristocrats in taste’. In Ahmedabad city also cleanliness at the ‘Chay Kitli Wala’ may be a factor which can be explored in the Reseach Topic. Tea Time by Varun Jain This article gives insight regarding the various ‘Tea Bar Chains’ opened up in various cities of India and how they have become succefull over a period a time. Ahmedabad being a metro city and well known over the world due to it’s cultural heritage is an ideal place for some one who want sot explore the possibility of opening a’ Tea Bar’. Moreover the Topic of Research focuses on how one can make the business profitable which is addressed in this article given by Mr. VArun Jain. Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page 20
- 21. Rationale and Objective of Study: Government of India has recognized Urban Vendors as a legitimate part of the Urban retail trade. Source: National Policy on Urban Street Vendors, 2009. Government of India, Minsitry of Housing & Urban Poverty Alleviation. ‘Chay Kitli Walas’ fall under the definition of the Vendor and hence studying ‘Chay Kitli Wala’ business from the marketing point of view becomes an ideal topic to study for gaining the insight regarding the business on the micro level . It also gives the researcher a chance to closely monitor the various factors that can affect the value chain with respect to the 7 P’s of Marketing. Tea as it is consumed by most of the people in Ahmedabad. Tea making and selling is a lucrative business for the people with weak social-economic background and it is not a costly business to start. The Tea making business is spread in every nook and corner of the Ahmedabad and mostly the process of making the Tea remains the same. In such circumstances any effort made by the ‘Chay Kitli Walas’ to differentiate his/her business from the competitor may help them to survive in the market in profitable manner. At the same time it is necessary for the researcher to know the preferences and behavior of the customer towards the ‘Chay Kitli Walas’ to find the necessary factor which needs to be modified. In current scenario it is not possible for an entrepreneur to open a tea lounge and charge a premium price for a milk tea that is available at an very economic cost at the “Chay Kitlis’ in Ahmedabad. The objective of the study is to get an insight regarding the current situation of the “Chay Kitli Wala’ business in Ahmedabad from the perspective of the customers and to derive conclusions from the study to help the ‘Chay Kitli Wala’ sustain and improve their growth in the market. Now it has been known that factors like age, income, profession, household income, various flavours of tea are necessary for the growth of business of the ‘Chay Kitli Walas’ of Ahmedabad. To identify the factors influencing the 7 P’s of Marketing related to the Tea Making business in Ahmedabad. From the point of view of study the quality of product, price, place and people influence the business of the ‘Chay Kitli Walas’ of Ahmedabad. Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page 21
- 22. To identify and analyze whether the quality of Tea is responsible for growth of business. After analyzing the factors responsible for the growth of ‘Chay Kitli Walas’ in Ahmedabad, it is important for a ‘Chay Kitli Wala’ to provide quality and interpret quality in terms of price, cleanliness, flavours of tea, To identify the importance of factor like price involved in Tea making business. The study shows that there is a relation established between quality and price and hence providing good quality may help the ‘Chay Kitli Walas’ in terms of price to customers. To identify the factors necessary for developing the future business potential of ‘Chay Kitli Walas’ in Ahmedabad. Various factors responsible which can lead to the growth of ‘Chay Kitli Walas’ of Ahmedabad have been identified. Indians are very social people and like to have a small informal get-together on regular basis within friends, relatives and other known people. A “Chay Kitli” Stall serves as an ideal place for such things to happen. The research shows that most of the people perceive ideal ‘Chay Kitli’ as stall in the open near the road side. Now a day the tea is also preferred with other food accompaniment. The product is available easily and also there is ample scope of getting the data related to the research. To understand the need of the consumer, their expectation from the Tea makers and the limitation and the problems faced by the Tea maker. Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page 22
- 23. Research Methodology Research Objectives and Goals The objective of the study is to get an insight regarding the current situation of the “Chay Kitli Walas’ business in Ahmedabad from the perspective of the customers and to derive conclusions from the study to help the ‘Chay Kitli Walas’ sustain and improve their growth in the market. To identify the factors influencing the 7 P’s of Marketing related to the Tea Making business in Ahmedabad To identify and analyze whether the quality of Tea is responsible for growth of business. To identify the importance of factor like price involved in Tea making business. To identify the factors necessary for developing the future business potential of ‘Chay Kitli Wala’ in Ahmedabad. Research Objectives and Goals were The objective of the study is to get an insight regarding the current situation of the “Chay Kitli Walas’ business in Ahmedabad from the perspective of the customers and to derive conclusions from the study to help the ‘Chay Kitli Walas’ sustain and improve their growth in the market. To identify the factors influencing the 7 P’s of Marketing related to the Tea Making business in Ahmedabad To identify and analyze whether the quality of Tea is responsible for growth of business. To identify the importance of factor like price involved in Tea making business. To know whether consumption of Tea maintains the Vitality of a person. To identify the factors necessary for developing the future business potential of ‘Chay Kitli Walas’ in Ahmedabad. Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page 23
- 24. Now it has been known that factors like age, income, profession, household income, various flavors of tea are necessary for the growth of business of the ‘Chay Kitli Walas’ of Ahmedabad. From the point of view of study the quality of product, price, place and people influence the business of the ‘Chay Kitli Walas’ of Ahmedabad. Various factors responsible which can lead to the growth of ‘Chay Kitli Walas’ of Ahmedabad have been identified. Research Design A research design is a frame work or blue print for conducting the market research project. It specifies the details of the procedures necessary for obtaining the information needed to structure and/or solve marketing research problem. The research design is both Exploratory and Conclusive in nature. The conclusive research design are of two types (a) Descriptive Research (b) Causal Research. Research Design in case of Exploratory Research: Exploratory research studies are also termed as formulative research studies. The main purpose of such studies is that of formulating a problem for more precise investigation or of developing the working hypothesis from an operational point of view. The major emphasis in such studies is on the discovery of ideas and insights. Generally , the following three methods in the context of research design for such studies are taked about (a) the survey of concerning literature; (b) the experience survey and (c) the analysis of ‘insight-stimulating’ examples. Source: Research Methodolgy by C.R. Kothari, first edition. With context to this study ‘Literature Review was done for gaining insight of the topic under study. Research Design in case of Conclusive Research: Conclusive Research is typically more formal and structured than exploratory research. It is based on large, representative samples, and the data obtained are subjected to quantitative analysis. The findings from this research are considered to be conclusive in nature in that they are used as input into managerial decision making. Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page 24
- 25. The objective of the conclusive research is to test specific hypothesis and examine specific relationships. Source: Marketing Research, sixth Edition, Naresh K Malhotra & Satyabhushan Das For the purpose of this study, hypothesis is formed and the study is Descriptive in nature. The research process is formal and structured. Data analysis is quantitative and the sample size is large and representative. The study is also Single Cross Sectional since only one sample of the respondent is drawn from the target population, and information is obtained from this sample only once. The nature of the study is majorly primary research as not much secondary data is available on this topic of research. Research Hypothesis in relation with the Research Objectives are, 1) Ho: Quality of Tea has less relation to flavor of Tea, cleanliness, vitality and price. H1: Quality of Tea has strong relationship with flavor of Tea, cleanliness, vitality and price. 2) Ho: Preference of Tea has no relation with maintaining vitality of customer. H1: Maintaining Vitality is strongly related with preference of Tea. Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page 25
- 26. Data Collection Method: Primary Data: The primary data was collected by means of a survey. A well structured questionnaire was prepared and the customers were approached to fill up the questionnaires. The questionnaire contains 22 questions which reflect on the customer behavior and preferences and demaographics of the ‘Chay Kitli Walas’ of Ahmedabad. Dichotomous, Nominal, Ordinal and Likert Scale questions were taken. A pretest of the questionnaire was done with seven respondants after which two questions were removed from the study which were not in tune to the study. The questions were: (1) During the office time do you prefer tea available in the office or fro the ‘Chay Kitli Walas’ outside the office? Please Tick This question was removed as students were one of the options given in the Profession related question. Since Students do not work in office the question was of no use to the students. (2) I believe that using solar technology for preparing Tea is beneficial to ‘Chay Kitli Walas’? The questionnaire does not include the education of the population hence if somebody who is not knowing regarding the use of Solar Technology will give a biased answer. Secondary Data: In order to have a proper understanding of the ‘Chay Kitli Walas’ of Ahmedabad literature relevant to the topic was collected and studied to get an insight regarding the current situation and the problems faced the Unorganized Sector Vendors of Ahmedabad. Field Work: The field work was done among the different areas of Ahmedabad like Maninagar, Sabarmati, Kalupur, Jamalpur, Laldarwaja, Old City Area of Ahmedabad, Odhav, Ghodasar, Naranpura, Navrangpura. Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page 26
- 27. Sampling Technique: Simple Random Sampling (SRS) A probability sampling technique in which each element in the population has a known and equal probability of selection. Every element is selected independently of every other element and the sample is drawn by random procedure from a sampling frame. In this study since the majority of the people like drinking Tea samples were taken from different places at different times and randomly so as to get a mix population of respondants. Sampling Plan To give the questionnaire to the customers and ask them to fill the questionnaire. Sample Size: 81 Rejected: 9 Actual sample size: 72 Total 81sample were surveyed through questionnaire out of which 9 samples did not drink Tea, hence their survey was not taken into consideration for analysis. Sample Population The sample population was considered to the population of Ahmedabad City for the purpose of this study. Data Analysis Tool : SPSS Methods of Data Analysis: Frequency chart, Descriptive Analysis, Factor Analysis, Regression Analysis, Correlation and Annova. Confidence Interval: 95 % Alpha – 0.05% Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page 27
- 28. Data Analysis: Frequency Age Age Cumulative Frequency Valid Percent Valid Percent Percent 1 5 6.9 6.9 6.9 2 37 51.4 51.4 58.3 3 18 25.0 25.0 83.3 4 6 8.3 8.3 91.7 5 6 8.3 8.3 100.0 72 100.0 100.0 Total From the analysis of the above graph it is inferred that 51 % of the people surveyed preferred drinking tea. They were between the age group of 21years to 30 while 25 % of the sample collected who preferred drinking Tea were between the age group of 31 years to 40 years. Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page 28
- 29. Gender Sex Cumulative Frequency Valid Percent Valid Percent Percent 1 63 87.5 87.5 87.5 2 9 12.5 12.5 100.0 72 100.0 100.0 Total From the analysis of the above graph it is inferred that 63 respondents that is 87.5 % are male and only 9 respondents were female. This shows that male among the age group of 21 years to 30 years are the major respondents. Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page 29
- 30. Like drinking Tea. Like drink Tea Cumulative Frequency Valid Percent Valid Percent Percent 1 71 98.6 98.6 98.6 2 1 1.4 1.4 100.0 72 100.0 100.0 Total From the analysis of the above graph it is inferred as the samples surveyed like to drink Tea, almost 100 % of the samples collected liked to drink Tea. Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page 30
- 31. Profession Profession Cumulative Frequency Valid Percent Valid Percent Percent 1 44 61.1 61.1 61.1 2 12 16.7 16.7 77.8 3 3 4.2 4.2 81.9 4 12 16.7 16.7 98.6 5 1 1.4 1.4 100.0 72 100.0 100.0 Total From the analysis of the above graph it is inferred that 44 respondents which are 61% of the total sample were employed in services. So the major segment to be concentrated is the service class. Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page 31
- 32. Income income Cumulative Frequency Valid Percent Valid Percent Percent 1 9 12.5 12.5 12.5 2 15 20.8 20.8 33.3 3 16 22.2 22.2 55.6 4 13 18.1 18.1 73.6 5 19 26.4 26.4 100.0 Total 72 100.0 100.0 From the above graph it is inferred that Tea consumption is liked by consumers irrespective of their difference in household income. Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page 32
- 33. Flavors of Tea are known. Flavours of Tea Cumulative Frequency Valid Percent Valid Percent Percent 1 11 15.3 15.3 15.3 2 12 16.7 16.7 31.9 3 10 13.9 13.9 45.8 4 30 41.7 41.7 87.5 5 9 12.5 12.5 100.0 72 100.0 100.0 Total From the above graph it is inferred that 41% of the respondents preferred the Adrak Chai flavor while Milk Chai, Masala Chai, Elaichi Chai and others were equally less preferred. Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page 33
- 34. Make of Tea Make Tea Cumulative Frequency Valid Percent Valid Percent Percent 1 4 5.6 5.6 5.6 2 56 77.8 78.9 84.5 3 10 13.9 14.1 98.6 5 1 1.4 1.4 100.0 71 98.6 100.0 1 1.4 72 100.0 Total Missing Total System From the analysis of the above graph it is inferred that 78 % of the respondents preferred handmade tea over machine tea and only 14% of respondents preferred both handmade and machine made Tea. Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page 34
- 35. Number of times Tea consumption in a day. per day consumption Cumulative Frequency Valid Percent Valid Percent Percent 1 11 15.3 15.3 15.3 2 27 37.5 37.5 52.8 3 14 19.4 19.4 72.2 4 20 27.8 27.8 100.0 Total 72 100.0 100.0 From the analysis of the above graph it is inferred that very less respondents consume Tea for only one time and three times a day. While majority of consumers like to drink Tea either two times in a day of more than three times in a day. Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page 35
- 36. Try Flavors Try Flavours Cumulative Frequency Valid Percent Valid Percent Percent 1 56 77.8 77.8 77.8 2 15 20.8 20.8 98.6 3 1 1.4 1.4 100.0 72 100.0 100.0 Total From the analysis of the above graph it is inferred that 77% of the respondents will like to try different flavour of Tea other than Milk Tea and Masala Tea. Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page 36
- 37. Vitality Vitality Cumulative Frequency Valid Percent Valid Percent Percent 1 38 52.8 53.5 53.5 2 10 13.9 14.1 67.6 3 18 25.0 25.4 93.0 4 3 4.2 4.2 97.2 5 2 2.8 2.8 100.0 71 98.6 100.0 1 1.4 72 100.0 Total Missing Total System From the analysis of the above graph it is inferred that 52% of the respondents strongly agreed that Tea is important for maintaining the Vitality of a person. Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page 37
- 38. Quality Quality Cumulative Frequency Valid Percent Valid Percent Percent 1 41 56.9 56.9 56.9 2 19 26.4 26.4 83.3 3 8 11.1 11.1 94.4 4 1 1.4 1.4 95.8 5 3 4.2 4.2 100.0 72 100.0 100.0 Total From the analysis of the above graph it is inferred that 56% of the respondents strongly agreed that Tea is important factor for preference of Tea from ‘Chay Kitli Walas’ Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page 38
- 39. Reason For Drinking Tea Reason for drinking Cumulative Frequency Valid Percent Valid Percent Percent 0 3 4.2 4.2 4.2 1 24 33.3 33.3 37.5 2 15 20.8 20.8 58.3 3 16 22.2 22.2 80.6 4 8 11.1 11.1 91.7 5 4 5.6 5.6 97.2 6 2 2.8 2.8 100.0 72 100.0 100.0 Total From the analysis of the above graph it is inferred that 33% of the respondents consumed Tea at the ‘Chay Kitli Walas’ for the feeling of refreshment. Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page 39
- 40. Location Location Cumulative Frequency Valid Percent Valid Percent Percent 1 14 19.4 19.4 19.4 2 30 41.7 41.7 61.1 3 15 20.8 20.8 81.9 4 3 4.2 4.2 86.1 5 9 12.5 12.5 98.6 6 1 1.4 1.4 100.0 72 100.0 100.0 Total From the analysis of the above graph it is inferred that 42% of the respondents preferred ‘Chay Kitlis’ near the office vicinity. Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page 40
- 41. Ideal Chay Kitli Ideal chay Kitli Cumulative Frequency Valid Percent Valid Percent Percent 1 19 26.4 26.4 26.4 2 4 5.6 5.6 31.9 3 10 13.9 13.9 45.8 4 39 54.2 54.2 100.0 Total 72 100.0 100.0 From the analysis of the above graph it is inferred that 54% of the respondents perceived ‘Ideal Chay Kitlis’ as Tea stalls on the road side in the open area with ordinary sitting facility. Also 26% of the respondents perceived ‘Ideal Chay Kitlis’ as a proper ventilated room type, sitting arrangement with Air Conditioners. Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page 41
- 42. Preferred Variety of Tea preffered variety of Tea Cumulative Frequency Valid Percent Valid Percent Percent 0 13 18.1 18.1 18.1 1 17 23.6 23.6 41.7 2 12 16.7 16.7 58.3 3 12 16.7 16.7 75.0 4 8 11.1 11.1 86.1 5 5 6.9 6.9 93.1 6 4 5.6 5.6 98.6 7 1 1.4 1.4 100.0 72 100.0 100.0 Total From the analysis of the above graph it is inferred that 18% of the respondents who were willing to try different flavours of Tea if available preferred to Herbal Tea, 23 % of the respondents preferred to try Green Tea ,17% of respondents preferred to try Rose Tea and 17 % of the respondents also preferred to try Jasmine Tea. Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page 42
- 43. Clean ‘Chay Kitlis’ Cleanliness Cumulative Frequency Valid Percent Valid Percent Percent 1 42 58.3 58.3 58.3 2 13 18.1 18.1 76.4 3 11 15.3 15.3 91.7 4 3 4.2 4.2 95.8 5 3 4.2 4.2 100.0 72 100.0 100.0 Total From the analysis of the above graph it is inferred that 58% of the respondents strongly agreed on consuming Tea from ‘Chay Kitli Walas’ with clean ‘Chay Kitlis’. Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page 43
- 44. Neatly Dressed Neatly Dressed Cumulative Frequency Valid Percent Valid Percent Percent 1 32 44.4 44.4 44.4 2 6 8.3 8.3 52.8 3 20 27.8 27.8 80.6 4 6 8.3 8.3 88.9 5 8 11.1 11.1 100.0 72 100.0 100.0 Total From the analysis of the above graph it is inferred that 44% of the respondents strongly agreed on consuming Tea from ‘Chay Kitli Walas’ who are neatly dressed. Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page 44
- 45. Descriptive Analysis: Descriptive Statistics N Range Minimum Maximum Sum Mean Std. Deviation Variance Statistic Statistic Statistic Statistic Statistic Statistic Statistic Statistic Skewness Statistic Kurtosis Std. Error Statistic Std. Error Age 72 4 1 5 187 2.60 1.030 1.061 .964 .283 .423 .559 Sex 72 1 1 2 81 1.13 .333 .111 2.316 .283 3.461 .559 Like drink Tea 72 1 1 2 73 1.01 .118 .014 8.485 .283 72.000 .559 Profession 72 4 1 5 130 1.81 1.194 1.426 1.204 .283 -.065 .559 income 72 4 1 5 234 3.25 1.381 1.908 -.136 .283 -1.239 .559 Flavours of Tea 72 4 1 5 230 3.19 1.296 1.680 -.453 .283 -1.025 .559 Make Tea 71 4 1 5 151 2.13 .559 .312 2.067 .285 9.705 .563 per day consumption 72 3 1 4 187 2.60 1.057 1.117 .068 .283 -1.254 .559 Try Flavours 72 2 1 3 89 1.24 .459 .211 1.709 .283 2.016 .559 preffered variety of Tea 72 7 0 7 165 2.29 1.842 3.393 .599 .283 -.476 .559 Vitality 71 4 1 5 134 1.89 1.103 1.216 .953 .285 .012 .563 Quality 72 4 1 5 122 1.69 1.016 1.032 1.730 .283 2.903 .559 Economic price 72 4 1 5 173 2.40 1.241 1.540 .547 .283 -.543 .559 Cleanliness 72 4 1 5 128 1.78 1.116 1.246 1.394 .283 1.180 .559 Neatly Dressed 72 4 1 5 168 2.33 1.404 1.972 .572 .283 -.939 .559 price half cup 72 3 1 4 103 1.43 .709 .502 1.596 .283 1.936 .559 price of full cup 72 3 1 4 181 2.51 .787 .620 .220 .283 -.374 .559 Reason for drinking 72 6 0 6 166 2.31 1.430 2.046 .657 .283 -.174 .559 Location 72 5 1 6 182 2.53 1.289 1.661 .911 .283 .062 .559 Ideal chay Kitli 72 3 1 4 213 2.96 1.294 1.674 -.683 .283 -1.334 .559 Valid N (listwise) 71 Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page 45
- 46. Valid N List Wise: This is the number of non-missing values. In the SPSS run for the sample size of 72 samples, the Valid N (list wise) N - This is the number of valid observations for the variable. The total number of observations is the sum of N and the number of missing values. For the purpose of this study the N is 72 samples. Minimum - This is the minimum, or smallest, value of the variable. Here the minimum value of a variable is 0. Maximum - This is the maximum, or largest, value of the variable. Here the maximum value of a variable is 7. Mean - This is the arithmetic mean across the observations. It is the most widely used measure of central tendency. It is commonly called the average. The mean is sensitive to extremely large or small values. Std. Deviation- Standard deviation is the square root of the variance. It measures the spread of a set of observations. The larger the standard deviation is, the more spread out the observations are. Variance - The variance is a measure of variability. It is the sum of the squared distances of data value from the mean divided by the variance divisor. The Corrected SS is the sum of squared distances of data value from the mean. Therefore, the variance is the corrected SS divided by N-1. We don't generally use variance as an index of spread because it is in squared units. Instead, we use standard deviation. Skewness - Skewness measures the degree and direction of asymmetry. A symmetric distribution such as a normal distribution has a skewness of 0, and a distribution that is skewed to the left, e.g. when the mean is less than the median, has a negative skewness. Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page 46
- 47. Kurtosis - Kurtosis is a measure of the heaviness of the tails of a distribution. A normal distribution has kurtosis 0. Extremely nonnormal distributions may have high positive or negative kurtosis values, while nearly normal distributions will have kurtosis values close to 0. Kurtosis is positive if the tails are "heavier" than for a normal distribution and negative if the tails are "lighter" than for a normal distribution. The above analysis shows that the mostly the data is positively skewed. Moreover in the Kurtosis the peak formed is high as Tea is consumed by people of all Age. Also The parameter such a Make of Tea is also resulting for high peak in Kurtosis. So both the factor of Age and Make of Tea are considered to be the outliers in the data. The Mean value of the all the 20 variables taken into the descriptive anlaysis falls majorly between 2.0 to 2.6. The minimum mean value being 1.01 and the maximum mean values being 3.25. Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page 47
- 48. Factor Analysis: Factor analysis is a method of data reduction. It does this by seeking underlying unobservable (latent) variables that are reflected in the observed variables (manifest variables). There are many different methods that can be used to conduct a factor analysis (such as principal axis factor, maximum likelihood, generalized least squares, unweighted least squares). KMO and Barlett’s Test KMO and Bartlett's Test a Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy. Bartlett's Test of Sphericity Approx. Chi-Square .548 314.426 df 190 Sig. .000 Based on correlations Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy - This measure varies between 0 and 1, and values closer to 1 are better. For the data collected relevant to this study the KMO value is .548 which is higher than 0.500 and tends to be near to 1.0 Bartlett's Test of Sphericity - This tests the null hypothesis that the correlation matrix is an identity matrix. An identity matrix is matrix in which all of the diagonal elements are 1 and all off diagonal elements are 0. You want to reject this null hypothesis. Taken together, these tests provide a minimum standard which should be passed before a factor analysis (or a principal components analysis) should be conducted. To know whether the data is sufficient or not related to the study the KMO Test was performed which revealed that the available KMO value tends to be near to 1, so the data is sufficient with relevance to this study. Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page 48
- 49. Total Variance Explained Total Variance Explained Extraction Sums of Squared Initial Eigenvalues Compon Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings Loadings a % of Cumulativ Variance e% % of Variance e% % of Variance e% Total 1 4.208 16.940 16.940 4.208 16.940 16.940 2.761 11.114 11.114 2 3.985 16.043 32.983 3.985 16.043 32.983 2.009 8.088 19.203 3 2.742 11.039 44.022 2.742 11.039 44.022 2.352 9.468 28.671 4 2.399 9.658 53.680 2.399 9.658 53.680 3.806 15.323 43.993 5 1.747 7.034 60.714 1.747 7.034 60.714 2.078 8.367 52.360 6 1.490 6.000 66.714 1.490 6.000 66.714 1.928 7.761 60.121 7 1.346 5.419 72.134 1.346 5.419 72.134 2.358 9.495 69.615 8 1.260 5.074 77.207 1.260 5.074 77.207 1.886 7.592 77.207 9 1.085 4.367 81.574 10 .961 3.868 85.442 11 .826 3.323 88.766 12 .743 2.990 91.756 13 .549 2.209 93.965 14 .506 2.036 96.002 15 .405 1.629 97.631 16 .240 .967 98.598 17 .163 .654 99.252 18 .108 .436 99.689 19 .066 .266 99.955 20 .011 .045 100.000 Rescal 1 4.208 16.940 16.940 2.317 11.587 11.587 2.037 10.183 10.183 ed 2 3.985 16.043 32.983 2.178 10.892 22.479 1.901 9.503 19.686 3 2.742 11.039 44.022 1.722 8.609 31.088 1.692 8.459 28.145 4 2.399 9.658 53.680 1.714 8.570 39.657 1.544 7.721 35.866 5 1.747 7.034 60.714 1.515 7.576 47.234 1.336 6.679 42.545 6 1.490 6.000 66.714 .956 4.779 52.013 1.279 6.393 48.939 7 1.346 5.419 72.134 1.045 5.226 57.239 1.258 6.289 55.228 8 1.260 5.074 77.207 .845 4.227 61.466 1.248 6.238 61.466 9 1.085 4.367 81.574 Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Total Cumulativ ent Raw Total Cumulativ Page 49
- 50. 10 .961 3.868 85.442 11 .826 3.323 88.766 12 .743 2.990 91.756 13 .549 2.209 93.965 14 .506 2.036 96.002 15 .405 1.629 97.631 16 .240 .967 98.598 17 .163 .654 99.252 18 .108 .436 99.689 19 .066 .266 99.955 20 .011 .045 100.000 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. When analyzing a covariance matrix, the initial eigen values are the same across the raw and rescaled solution. Factor - The initial number of factors is the same as the number of variables used in the factor analysis. However, not all 20 factors will be retained. In this example, only the first eight factors will be retained. Initial Eigenvalues - The Eigenvalues are the variances of the factors. Because we conducted our factor analysis on the correlation matrix, the variables are standardized, which means that the each variable has a variance of 1, and the total variance is equal to the number of variables used in the analysis which is 22 in this particular case. Total - This column contains the Eigenvalues. The first factor will always account for the most variance (and hence have the highest Eigenvalue), and the next factor will account for as much of the left over variance as it can, and so on. Hence, each successive factor will account for less and less variance. % of Variance - This column contains the percent of total variance accounted for by each factor. Cumulative % - This column contains the cumulative percentage of variance accounted for by the current and all preceding factors. For example, the third row shows a value of 77.207. This means that the first eight factors together account for 77.207% of the total variance Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings - The number of rows in this panel of the table correspond to the number of factors retained. In this analysis only 8 variables are retained. Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings- The values in this table represent the distribution of the variance after the varimax rotation. Varimax rotation tries to maximize the variance of each of the factors, so the total amount of variance accounted for is redistributed over the three extracted factors. The Total Variance in the above analysis shows that majorly there are 8 factors retained that if manipulated will bring 77.207 % of variance. Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page 50
- 51. Since one of the objective of the study was to study the growth pattern of the ‘Chay Kitli Walas’, the 8 factors of the consumers stated below are important from the point of view of the ‘Chay Kitli Wala’ as these factors are related to the demographics of the customers which play an important role in considering the growth and sustainence of ‘Chay Kitli Wala’ business. Age Gender Like drinking Tea Service House hold income per annum Falvours of Tea known Preferred way of making Tea Consumption of Tea Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page 51
- 52. Scree Plot The Scree plots plot the value of the factor in the first coloum of the the Total Variance Explained Table corresponding to the value of the factor in the second coloumn. The above 8 factors which are important for the ‘Chay Kitli Wala’ business are further proven relevant by the Scree Plot above. It shows that after the 8th factor a very little variance in the dependent variable namely the ‘Growth of Chay Kitli Wala’ is explained by each incremental factor taken. Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page 52
- 53. Regression Try different flavours b Model Summary Change Statistics Adjusted R Model R 1 .663 R Square a .440 Std. Error of R Square Square the Estimate Change .231 .398 .440 Sig. F F Change 2.106 df1 df2 19 Change 51 .018 Predictors: (Constant), Ideal chay Kitli, Location, Preferred variety of Tea, Gender, Like drink Tea, price half cup, Make Tea, Economic price, Reason for drinking, Flavours of Tea, Age, Cleanliness, income, Profession, per day consumption, Vitality, Neatly Dressed, Quality, price of full cup Dependent Variable: Try Flavours Model - SPSS allows you to specify multiple models in a single regression command. This tells you the number of the model being reported. R - R is the square root of R-Squared and is the correlation between the observed and predicted values of dependent variable. R-Square - This is the proportion of variance in the dependent variable ‘Try Flavours’ which can be explained by the independent variables in the above point mentioned in ‘Predictors’. This is an overall measure of the strength of association and does not reflect the extent to which any particular independent variable is associated with the dependent variable. Adjusted R-square - This is an adjustment of the R-squared that penalizes the addition of extraneous predictors to the model. Adjusted R-squared is computed using the formula 1 - ((1 Rsq)((N - 1) /( N - k - 1)) where k is the number of predictors. Std. Error of the Estimate - This is also referred to as the root mean squared error. It is the standard deviation of the error term and the square root of the Mean Square for the Residuals in the ANOVA table. F and Sig. - This is the F-statistic the p-value associated with it. The F-statistic is the Mean Square (Regression) divided by the Mean Square (Residual). The p-value is compared to some alpha level in testing the null hypothesis that all of the model coefficients are 0. Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page 53
- 54. Vitality b Model Summary Change Statistics R Model 1 .676 a Std. Error of R Square F Square R Adjusted R Square the Estimate Change Change .458 .255 .951 .458 2.264 Sig. F df1 df2 19 Change 51 .011 Predictors: (Constant), Ideal chay Kitli, Location, Preferred variety of Tea, Gender, Like drink Tea, price half cup, Make Tea, Economic price, Reason for drinking, Flavours of Tea, Age, Cleanliness, income, Profession, per day consumption, Neetly Dressed, Try Flavours, Quality, price of full cup Dependent Variable: Vitality Model - SPSS allows you to specify multiple models in a single regression command. This tells you the number of the model being reported. R - R is the square root of R-Squared and is the correlation between the observed and predicted values of dependent variable. R-Square - This is the proportion of variance in the dependent variable ‘Try Flavours’ which can be explained by the independent variables in the above point mentioned in ‘Predictors’. This is an overall measure of the strength of association and does not reflect the extent to which any particular independent variable is associated with the dependent variable. Adjusted R-square - This is an adjustment of the R-squared that penalizes the addition of extraneous predictors to the model. Adjusted R-squared is computed using the formula 1 - ((1 - Rsq)((N - 1) /( N k - 1)) where k is the number of predictors. Std. Error of the Estimate - This is also referred to as the root mean squared error. It is the standard deviation of the error term and the square root of the Mean Square for the Residuals in the ANOVA table. F and Sig. - This is the F-statistic the p-value associated with it. The F-statistic is the Mean Square (Regression) divided by the Mean Square (Residual). The p-value is compared to some alpha level in testing the null hypothesis that all of the model coefficients are 0. Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page 54
- 55. Quality b Model Summary Change Statistics Adjusted R Model 1 R .714 R Square a .510 Std. Error of R Square Square the Estimate Change .327 .839 .510 Sig. F F Change 2.790 df1 df2 19 Change 51 Predictors: (Constant), Ideal chay Kitli, Location, preffered variety of Tea, Gender, Like drink Tea, price half cup, Make Tea, Economic price, Reason for drinking, Flavours of Tea, Age, Cleanliness, income, Profession, per day consumption, Vitality, Neetly Dressed, Try Flavours, price of full cup Dependent Variable: Quality Model - SPSS allows you to specify multiple models in a single regression command. This tells you the number of the model being reported. R - R is the square root of R-Squared and is the correlation between the observed and predicted values of dependent variable. R-Square - This is the proportion of variance in the dependent variable ‘Try Flavours’ which can be explained by the independent variables in the above point mentioned in ‘Predictors’. This is an overall measure of the strength of association and does not reflect the extent to which any particular independent variable is associated with the dependent variable. Adjusted R-square - This is an adjustment of the R-squared that penalizes the addition of extraneous predictors to the model. Adjusted R-squared is computed using the formula 1 - ((1 Rsq)((N - 1) /( N - k - 1)) where k is the number of predictors. Std. Error of the Estimate - This is also referred to as the root mean squared error. It is the standard deviation of the error term and the square root of the Mean Square for the Residuals in the ANOVA table. F and Sig. - This is the F-statistic the p-value associated with it. The F-statistic is the Mean Square (Regression) divided by the Mean Square (Residual). The p-value is compared to some alpha level in testing the null hypothesis that all of the model coefficients are 0. Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page 55 .002
- 56. Cleanliness b Model Summary Change Statistics Adjusted R Model 1 R .698 R Square a .487 Std. Error of R Square Square the Estimate Change .296 .935 .487 F Change 2.553 df1 df2 19 Sig. F Change 51 Predictors: (Constant), Ideal chay Kitli, Location, preffered variety of Tea, Gender, Like drink Tea, price half cup, Make Tea, Economic price, Reason for drinking, Flavours of Tea, Age, Quality, Profession, income, per day consumption, Neetly Dressed, Try Flavours, Vitality, price of full cup Dependent Variable: Cleanliness Model - SPSS allows you to specify multiple models in a single regression command. This tells you the number of the model being reported. R - R is the square root of R-Squared and is the correlation between the observed and predicted values of dependent variable. R-Square - This is the proportion of variance in the dependent variable ‘Try Flavours’ which can be explained by the independent variables in the above point mentioned in ‘Predictors’. This is an overall measure of the strength of association and does not reflect the extent to which any particular independent variable is associated with the dependent variable. Adjusted R-square - This is an adjustment of the R-squared that penalizes the addition of extraneous predictors to the model. Adjusted R-squared is computed using the formula 1 - ((1 Rsq)((N - 1) /( N - k - 1)) where k is the number of predictors. Std. Error of the Estimate - This is also referred to as the root mean squared error. It is the standard deviation of the error term and the square root of the Mean Square for the Residuals in the ANOVA table. F and Sig. - This is the F-statistic the p-value associated with it. The F-statistic is the Mean Square (Regression) divided by the Mean Square (Residual). The p-value is compared to some alpha level in testing the null hypothesis that all of the model coefficients are 0. Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page 56 .004
- 57. Neetly Dressed b Model Summary Change Statistics Adjusted R Model 1 R .648 R Square a .419 Std. Error of R Square Square the Estimate Change .203 1.254 .419 Sig. F F Change 1.940 df1 df2 19 Change 51 .031 Predictors: (Constant), Ideal chay Kitli, Location, preffered variety of Tea, Gender, Like drink Tea, price half cup, Make Tea, Economic price, Reason for drinking, Flavours of Tea, Age, Cleanliness, income, Profession, per day consumption, Vitality, Try Flavours, Quality, price of full cup Dependent Variable: Neetly Dressed Model - SPSS allows you to specify multiple models in a single regression command. This tells you the number of the model being reported. R - R is the square root of R-Squared and is the correlation between the observed and predicted values of dependent variable. R-Square - This is the proportion of variance in the dependent variable ‘Try Flavours’ which can be explained by the independent variables in the above point mentioned in ‘Predictors’. This is an overall measure of the strength of association and does not reflect the extent to which any particular independent variable is associated with the dependent variable. Adjusted R-square - This is an adjustment of the R-squared that penalizes the addition of extraneous predictors to the model. Adjusted R-squared is computed using the formula 1 - ((1 Rsq)((N - 1) /( N - k - 1)) where k is the number of predictors. Std. Error of the Estimate - This is also referred to as the root mean squared error. It is the standard deviation of the error term and the square root of the Mean Square for the Residuals in the ANOVA table. F and Sig. - This is the F-statistic the p-value associated with it. The F-statistic is the Mean Square (Regression) divided by the Mean Square (Residual). The p-value is compared to some alpha level in testing the null hypothesis that all of the model coefficients are 0. Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page 57
- 58. Price of Full Cup b Model Summary Change Statistics Adjusted R Model R 1 .743 R Square a .552 Std. Error of R Square Square the Estimate Change .386 .620 .552 F Change 3.313 df1 df2 19 Sig. F Change 51 Predictors: (Constant), Ideal Chay Kitli, Location, preffered variety of Tea, Gender, Like drink Tea, price half cup, Make Tea, Economic price, Reason for drinking, Flavours of Tea, Age, Cleanliness, income, Profession, per day consumption, Vitality, Neetly Dressed, Try Flavours, Quality Dependent Variable: price of full cup Model - SPSS allows you to specify multiple models in a single regression command. This tells you the number of the model being reported. R - R is the square root of R-Squared and is the correlation between the observed and predicted values of dependent variable. R-Square - This is the proportion of variance in the dependent variable ‘Try Flavours’ which can be explained by the independent variables in the above point mentioned in ‘Predictors’. This is an overall measure of the strength of association and does not reflect the extent to which any particular independent variable is associated with the dependent variable. Adjusted R-square - This is an adjustment of the R-squared that penalizes the addition of extraneous predictors to the model. Adjusted R-squared is computed using the formula 1 - ((1 Rsq)((N - 1) /( N - k - 1)) where k is the number of predictors. Std. Error of the Estimate - This is also referred to as the root mean squared error. It is the standard deviation of the error term and the square root of the Mean Square for the Residuals in the ANOVA table. F and Sig. - This is the F-statistic the p-value associated with it. The F-statistic is the Mean Square (Regression) divided by the Mean Square (Residual). The p-value is compared to some alpha level in testing the null hypothesis that all of the model coefficients are 0. Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page 58 .000
- 59. Quality b Model Summary Change Statistics Adjusted R Model R 1 .657 R Square a .432 Std. Error of R Square Square the Estimate Change .397 .794 .432 F Change df1 12.535 df2 4 Sig. F Change 66 Predictors: (Constant), price of full cup, Try Flavours, Cleanliness, Vitality Dependent Variable: Quality Model - SPSS allows you to specify multiple models in a single regression command. This tells you the number of the model being reported. R - R is the square root of R-Squared and is the correlation between the observed and predicted values of dependent variable. R-Square - This is the proportion of variance in the dependent variable ‘Try Flavours’ which can be explained by the independent variables in the above point mentioned in ‘Predictors’. This is an overall measure of the strength of association and does not reflect the extent to which any particular independent variable is associated with the dependent variable. Adjusted R-square - This is an adjustment of the R-squared that penalizes the addition of extraneous predictors to the model. Adjusted R-squared is computed using the formula 1 - ((1 Rsq)((N - 1) /( N - k - 1)) where k is the number of predictors. Std. Error of the Estimate - This is also referred to as the root mean squared error. It is the standard deviation of the error term and the square root of the Mean Square for the Residuals in the ANOVA table. F and Sig. - This is the F-statistic the p-value associated with it. The F-statistic is the Mean Square (Regression) divided by the Mean Square (Residual). The p-value is compared to some alpha level in testing the null hypothesis that all of the model coefficients are 0. Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page 59 .000
- 60. Vitality b Model Summary Change Statistics Adjusted R Model R 1 .486 R Square a .236 Std. Error of R Square Square the Estimate Change .189 .993 .236 F Change df1 5.089 df2 4 Sig. F Change 66 Predictors: (Constant), price of full cup, Try Flavours, Cleanliness, Quality Dependent Variable: Vitality Model - SPSS allows you to specify multiple models in a single regression command. This tells you the number of the model being reported. R - R is the square root of R-Squared and is the correlation between the observed and predicted values of dependent variable. R-Square - This is the proportion of variance in the dependent variable ‘Try Flavours’ which can be explained by the independent variables in the above point mentioned in ‘Predictors’. This is an overall measure of the strength of association and does not reflect the extent to which any particular independent variable is associated with the dependent variable. Adjusted R-square - This is an adjustment of the R-squared that penalizes the addition of extraneous predictors to the model. Adjusted R-squared is computed using the formula 1 - ((1 Rsq)((N - 1) /( N - k - 1)) where k is the number of predictors. Std. Error of the Estimate - This is also referred to as the root mean squared error. It is the standard deviation of the error term and the square root of the Mean Square for the Residuals in the ANOVA table. F and Sig. - This is the F-statistic the p-value associated with it. The F-statistic is the Mean Square (Regression) divided by the Mean Square (Residual). The p-value is compared to some alpha level in testing the null hypothesis that all of the model coefficients are 0. Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page 60 .001
- 61. Cleanliness b Model Summary Change Statistics Adjusted R Model 1 R .546 R Square a .299 Std. Error of R Square Square the Estimate Change .256 .961 .299 F Change 7.024 df1 df2 4 Sig. F Change 66 Predictors: (Constant), price of full cup, Try Flavours, Quality, Vitality Dependent Variable: Cleanliness Model - SPSS allows you to specify multiple models in a single regression command. This tells you the number of the model being reported. R - R is the square root of R-Squared and is the correlation between the observed and predicted values of dependent variable. R-Square - This is the proportion of variance in the dependent variable ‘Try Flavours’ which can be explained by the independent variables in the above point mentioned in ‘Predictors’. This is an overall measure of the strength of association and does not reflect the extent to which any particular independent variable is associated with the dependent variable. Adjusted R-square - This is an adjustment of the R-squared that penalizes the addition of extraneous predictors to the model. Adjusted R-squared is computed using the formula 1 - ((1 Rsq)((N - 1) /( N - k - 1)) where k is the number of predictors. Std. Error of the Estimate - This is also referred to as the root mean squared error. It is the standard deviation of the error term and the square root of the Mean Square for the Residuals in the ANOVA table. F and Sig. - This is the F-statistic the p-value associated with it. The F-statistic is the Mean Square (Regression) divided by the Mean Square (Residual). The p-value is compared to some alpha level in testing the null hypothesis that all of the model coefficients are 0. Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page 61 .000
- 62. Findings Try Different Falvours : The regression analysis shows that 44% of the depedent variable is explained by 19 independent variables with a significance level of 0.018, so trying different flavours of Tea by the cutomers is significant for the ‘Chay Kitli Walas’ of Ahmedabad. Vitality: The regression analysis shows that 45% of the depedent variable is explained by 19 independent variables with a significance level of 0.011, so vitality is associated with consuming Tea by the customers and is significant for the ‘Chay Kitli Walas’ of Ahmedabad. Quality: The regression analysis shows that 51% of the depedent variable is explained by 19 independent variables with a significance level of 0.002, so Quality is associated with consuming Tea by the customers and is significant for the ‘Chay Kitli Walas’ of Ahmedabad. Cleanliness: The regression analysis shows that 48% of the depedent variable is explained by 19 independent variables with a significance level of 0.004, so Cleanliness is associated with consuming Tea by the customers and is significant for the ‘Chay Kitli Walas’ of Ahmedabad. Neatly Dressed: The regression analysis shows that 20% of the depedent variable is explained by 19 independent variables with a significance level of 0.031, so Cleanliness is associated with consuming Tea by the customers and is significant for the ‘Chay Kitli Walas’ of Ahmedabad. Price of Full Cup:The regression analysis shows that 55% of the depedent variable is explained by 19 independent variables with a significance level of 0.000, so Price is associated with consuming Tea by the customers and is significant for the ‘Chay Kitli Walas’ of Ahmedabad. Quality: The regression analysis shows that 43% of the depedent variable is explained by 4 independent variables with a significance level of 0.000, so Quality of Tea is associated with consuming Tea by the customers and is significant for the ‘Chay Kitli Walas’ of Ahmedabad. Vitality: The regression analysis shows that 23% of the depedent variable is explained by 4 independent variables with a significance level of 0.001, so Vitality is associated with consuming Tea by the customers and is significant for the ‘Chay Kitli Walas’ of Ahmedabad. Cleanilness: The regression analysis shows that 29% of the depedent variable is explained by 4 independent variables with a significance level of 0.000. Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page 62
- 63. Correlation: Correlations Pearson Correlati on Neetly Dressed Age Neetly Dress ed 1.000 -.332 Age .332 Sex .056 1.00 0 .110 .110 1.00 0 .046 Like drin k Tea .056 Professi on -.105 inco me .059 Flavou rs of Tea .140 Mak e Tea .094 per day consumpt ion -.049 Try Flavou rs .277 preffer ed variety of Tea -.282 .088 .224 -.033 .263 -.110 -.288 .146 -.216 -.189 .076 -.190 .046 .181 .142 -.339 -.003 .054 .001 -.176 -.126 .036 .044 .219 .152 .078 .027 .045 -.060 -.084 -.097 -.081 -.039 .026 .069 .046 1.00 0 Vitali ty .339 Quali ty .226 Econo mic price .194 Clea n .274 pric e half cup .021 pric e of full cup .124 Reas on for drinki ng .047 Locati on .193 .238 .274 .063 -.058 .048 .072 .185 .129 -.093 .075 .143 -.050 Idea l cha y Kitli .325 .134 .049 .098 Gender .056 Like drink Tea .056 .069 Professio n -.105 .088 .190 .219 1.000 -.151 -.257 .093 .111 -.160 .005 -.254 -.094 .032 .106 .260 .250 .048 .193 .126 income .059 .224 .046 .152 -.151 1.000 .241 .009 -.159 -.058 .153 .154 .115 .183 .054 .051 .055 .248 -.216 .195 Flavours of Tea .140 .033 .181 .078 -.257 .241 1.000 .109 -.180 .007 .158 .134 .192 .063 .138 .048 .013 .042 -.183 .160 Make Tea -.094 .263 .142 .027 -.093 .009 .109 1.00 0 -.227 -.171 -.023 -.162 -.030 -.014 .088 .043 .176 -.030 -.154 .089 per day consumpt ion -.049 .110 .339 .045 .111 -.159 -.180 .227 1.000 .039 .038 -.087 -.088 .123 .226 .016 .071 .068 .321 .162 Try Flavours .277 .288 .003 .060 -.160 -.058 .007 .171 .039 1.000 -.471 .194 -.063 -.064 .090 .011 .004 -.060 .229 .119 preffered variety of Tea -.282 .146 .054 .084 .005 .153 .158 .023 .038 -.471 1.000 -.039 .057 .188 .055 .077 .036 -.060 -.025 .052 Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page 63
- 64. Vitality Quality .226 Economic price .194 Cleanline ss price half cup -.254 .154 .134 .176 .126 .097 .081 .039 -.094 .115 .192 .032 .183 .063 .036 .044 .026 .106 .054 .021 .238 .048 .072 .260 price of full cup -.124 .274 .185 .075 Reason for drinking .047 .063 .129 Location .193 .058 Ideal chay Kitli .162 .030 .014 -.087 .194 -.039 -.088 -.063 .057 1.00 0 .412 .123 -.064 .188 .138 .088 -.226 -.090 -.051 -.048 .043 .016 .250 -.055 .013 .176 .143 .048 .248 .042 .093 .050 .193 -.216 .134 .049 .098 -.126 . .002 .323 .323 Age .002 . .180 Gender .323 .180 Like drink Tea .323 Professio n .412 .397 .094 .257 .523 .397 1.00 0 .257 .102 .006 1.000 .123 .157 -.055 .094 .523 .123 1.00 0 .202 .011 .077 -.102 .006 .157 .202 .071 -.004 -.036 -.114 -.174 .149 .030 .068 -.060 -.060 .030 -.044 -.183 .154 .321 .229 -.025 .003 .195 .160 .089 -.162 .119 -.052 .191 .312 .121 .218 .342 .010 .285 .232 .030 .392 .013 .182 . .353 .056 .352 .065 .119 .285 .353 . .033 .104 .260 .191 .232 .056 .033 . .104 income .312 .030 .352 .104 .104 Flavours of Tea Sig. (1tailed) .339 .216 .189 .076 .001 .274 .325 Neetly Dressed .121 .392 .065 .260 .015 Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies .030 .003 .275 -.044 -.024 .310 .075 .137 .129 .006 -.009 -.029 .307 1.00 0 .580 .086 .170 .073 .006 .580 1.00 0 .231 .080 .125 .075 .009 .086 .231 1.000 -.140 .185 -.024 .137 .029 .170 .080 -.140 1.000 .001 .275 .310 .129 .307 .073 .125 .185 .001 1.00 0 .009 .002 .029 .053 .010 .432 .151 .349 .053 .003 .007 .113 .035 .058 .266 .382 .023 .010 .301 .315 .132 .002 .491 .328 .498 .071 .148 .357 .345 .061 .143 .221 .342 .411 .356 .310 .243 .211 .250 .372 .415 .276 .267 .118 .340 .208 .015 .221 .179 .092 .482 .016 .219 .397 .190 .014 .018 .344 .054 .147 . .022 .471 .093 .316 .102 .099 .171 .063 .326 .337 .325 .018 .035 .052 .022 . .183 .066 .476 .094 .132 .054 .301 .125 .346 .458 .364 .063 .092 Page 64 .114 .174 .149
- 65. Make Tea .013 .119 .411 .221 .471 .183 . .028 .077 .425 .089 .401 .454 .232 .361 .071 .403 .100 .231 per day consumpt ion .342 .182 .002 .356 .179 .093 .066 .028 . .374 .376 .235 .233 .153 .029 .448 .277 .286 .003 .089 Try Flavours .010 .007 .491 .310 .092 .316 .476 .077 .374 . .000 .052 .301 .298 .229 .465 .485 .310 .027 .161 preffered variety of Tea .009 .113 .328 .243 .482 .102 .094 .425 .376 .000 . .372 .320 .059 .324 .261 .384 .309 .417 .332 Vitality .002 .035 .498 .211 .016 .099 .132 .089 .235 .052 .372 . .000 .000 .218 .198 .172 .401 .491 .010 Quality .029 .058 .071 .250 .219 .171 .054 .401 .233 .301 .320 .000 . .015 .000 .481 .073 .359 .421 .004 Economic price Cleanline ss .053 .266 .148 .372 .397 .063 .301 .454 .153 .298 .059 .000 .015 . .154 .096 .107 .267 .128 .142 .010 .382 .357 .415 .190 .326 .125 .232 .029 .229 .324 .218 .000 .154 . .046 .480 .471 .406 .005 price half cup price of full cup .432 .023 .345 .276 .014 .337 .346 .361 .448 .465 .261 .198 .481 .096 .046 . .000 .239 .078 .273 .151 .010 .061 .267 .018 .325 .458 .071 .277 .485 .384 .172 .073 .107 .480 .000 . .027 .254 .149 Reason for drinking .349 .301 .143 .118 .344 .018 .364 .403 .286 .310 .309 .401 .359 .267 .471 .239 .027 . .123 .061 Location .053 .315 .221 .340 .054 .035 .063 .100 .003 .027 .417 .491 .421 .128 .406 .078 .254 .123 . .496 Ideal chay Kitli .003 .132 .342 .208 .147 .052 .092 .231 .089 .161 .332 .010 .004 .142 .005 .273 .149 .061 .496 . Neetly Dressed 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 Age 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 Sex 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 Like drink Tea Professio n N .218 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page 65
- 66. income 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 Flavours of Tea 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 Make Tea 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 per day consumpt ion Try Flavours 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 preffered variety of Tea 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 Vitality 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 Quality 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 Economic price 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 Cleanline ss 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 price half cup 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 price of full cup 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 Reason for drinking 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 Location 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 Ideal chay Kitli 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page 66
- 67. Findings Trying different flavours of Tea and Neatly Dressed ‘Chay Kitli Walas’ are 27 % correlated. Vitality of Tea and Neatly dresses ‘Chay Kitli Walas’ are 33% correlated. Age and Neatly dressed are 33% correlated. Age and trying different flavours of Tea are 33% correlated. Age and Make of Tea making is 26% correlated. Gender and per day consumption are 33 % correlated. Profession and knowing different flavours of Tea are25 % related. Trying different flavours of Tea and Location are 32 % correlated. Preferred variety of Tea and neatly dressed are 28 % correlated. Quality and Make of Tea of 30 % related. Quality and Vitality are 41% correlated. Quality and Cleanliness are 52% correlated. Quality and Location are 31 % correlated. Quality and Economic price of Tea are 25 % correlated. Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page 67
- 68. Quality and Neatly Dressed ‘Chay Kitli Walas’ are 22% correlated. Like drinking Tea and Economic price are 25 % correlated. Economic price and vitality are 40 % correlated. Price of half cup and price of full cup are 58 % correlated. Location and per day consumption of Tea are 32% correlated. Location and Trying different flavours are 22% correlated. Ideal ‘Chay Kitli’ and vitality are 27 % correlated. Ideal ‘Chay Kitli’ and cleanliness are 31% correlated. Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page 68
- 69. One Way Annova ANOVA Sum of Squares Age Mean Square 1.046 71.136 67 75.319 4 .140 7.314 67 .109 Total 7.875 71 Between Groups .011 4 .003 Within Groups .976 67 .015 Total .986 71 2.954 4 .739 98.323 67 1.468 101.278 71 7.562 4 1.890 Within Groups 127.938 67 1.910 Total 135.500 71 10.300 4 2.575 Within Groups 108.978 67 1.627 Total 119.278 71 .443 4 .111 Within Groups 21.416 66 .324 Total 21.859 70 9.196 4 2.299 Within Groups 70.123 67 1.047 Total 79.319 71 .911 4 .228 Within Groups 14.075 67 .210 Total 14.986 71 Between Groups 22.525 4 5.631 Within Groups 218.350 67 3.259 Total 240.875 71 Between Groups 16.702 4 4.175 Within Groups 68.397 66 1.036 Between Groups Between Groups Within Groups Total income Flavours of Tea Make Tea per day consumption Try Flavours preffered variety of Tea Vitality Sig. 71 .561 F 1.062 Within Groups Profession 4 Total Like drink Tea 4.183 Within Groups Gender Between Groups df Between Groups Between Groups Between Groups Between Groups Between Groups Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies .985 .422 1.285 .285 .180 .948 .503 .733 .990 .419 1.583 .189 .341 .849 2.197 .079 1.084 .371 1.728 .154 4.029 .006 Page 69
- 70. Total 70 Between Groups 10.959 4 2.740 Within Groups 98.360 67 1.468 109.319 71 Between Groups 32.000 4 8.000 Within Groups 56.444 67 .842 Total 88.444 71 Between Groups 16.118 4 4.030 Within Groups 123.882 67 1.849 Total 140.000 71 .493 4 .123 Within Groups 35.160 67 .525 Total 35.653 71 2.804 4 .701 Within Groups 41.182 67 .615 Total 43.986 71 5.916 4 1.479 Within Groups 139.361 67 2.080 Total 145.278 71 .695 4 .174 Within Groups 117.249 67 1.750 Total 117.944 71 17.401 4 4.350 Within Groups 101.474 67 1.515 Total Economic price 85.099 118.875 71 Total Cleanliness Neetly Dressed price half cup price of full cup Reason for drinking Location Ideal chay Kitli Between Groups Between Groups Between Groups Between Groups Between Groups 1.866 .127 9.496 .000 2.179 .081 .235 .918 1.140 .345 .711 .587 .099 .982 2.872 .029 Findings The Analaysis of Variable Test suggest that the Dependent Variable Quality is ‘Ideal Chay Kitli, Neatly dressed, Cleanliness, Vitality and Per day consumption of Tea which is more or less confirmation with the Correlation Matrix and the Regression Test. Som Lalit Institute of Management Studies Page 70

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