Screening for prostate cancer using PSA has several limitations. It It is an organ specific marker, however, pathology specificity is low (elevated in all, prostatitis, prostatomegaly, prostate cancer, prostate manipulation). Attempts have been made to improve specificity while retaining its sensitivity, e.g. PSA density, PSA % free, PSA velocity, prostate health index (which takes into account p2PSA as well).
after diagnosis of prostate cancer, PSA doubling time is used for assessment of indication of treatment for patients on active surveillance as well as that for indication of salvage treatment for patients with biochemical recurrence after initial treatment.