Cl2safehandling

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Cl2safehandling

  1. 1. Aditya Birla Chemicals (India) Limited SAFE HANDLING OF CHLORINE 1 1
  2. 2. Aditya Birla Chemicals (India) Limited CHLORINE 1 2
  3. 3. Aditya Birla Chemicals (India) Limited Safe Use of Chlorine CHLORINE 1 3
  4. 4. Aditya Birla Chemicals (India) Limited Use of Chlorine CHLORINE 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Water purification. Bleaching of textiles. Pulp & Paper Crop Protection (As pesticides & insecticides) Pharmaceuticals and medical equipments. PVC and plastics. Refrigerants (F11, F12, F21, F22). Industrial solvents : (CTC, MCB, and TCE) Treatment of Cooling Water. Rocket fuel (Chlorine Trifluride). Chlorine is involved in over 50% of all commercial chemistry 1 4
  5. 5. Aditya Birla Chemicals (India) Limited Unsafe use of Chlorine CHLORINE 1 1 Vol. Liquid Chlorine = 457.6 Volumes of5 Chlorine gas.
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  7. 7. Aditya Birla Chemicals (India) Limited Properties of Chlorine Physical state Colour : : Odour Taste Corrosivity Water solubility Stability during transportation Boiling point Melting point Specific gravity Threshold limit : : : : : : : : : 1 Gas or liquid Greenish Yellow (gas) Clear amber (Liquid) Pungent, suffocating. Bitter Corrosive. Slightly soluble Stable -34.5oC (1 atm) -100.98oC (1 atm) 1.4 at 20oC. 1PPM (3mg/m3) 7
  8. 8. Aditya Birla Chemicals (India) Limited What is Threshold Limit ? TLV is average concentration of the substance in ambient air for a normal 8 Hours working or 40 Hrs work week to which nearly all workers may be repeatedly exposed, day after day without adverse effects: Fatal dose 1 : 1000 ppm (1 ppm = 3 gm/m3) 8
  9. 9. Aditya Birla Chemicals (India) Limited Chlorine Hazard at atmospheric condition Sl. No. 1 2 Chlorine concentration in air (PPM) 3.5 15.10 3 30.20 Sl. No. 1 Chlorine concentration in air (PPM) 1 2 4.00 3 4 40 to 60 1000 1 Degree of hazards Least detectable odour. Least amount required imitation of throat Least amount required coughing. to cause to cause Degree of hazards TLV-Least amount which can be inhaled safely – shown workdays for a life time. Maximum amount that can be breathed for one hour without serious effect. Amount dangerous in ½-1 hour. Amount likely to be fatal after a few deep breathes. 9
  10. 10. Aditya Birla Chemicals (India) Limited Volume - Temperature relation in a container of Chlorine 110 100 70 90 60 80 50 70 40 60 30 50 20 40 10 30 0 20 -10 10 -20 0 V o l u m e % 80 -30 8.8 83 85 Temperature (oC) -25 -15 -5 Volume % T e m p e r a t u r e 87.2 89.3 90.3 92.2 95.5 97.8 99.8 101 5 15 25 35 45 55 65 70 With increase of temperature of container the volume of liquid increased rapidly and at 70oC it crosses the capacity of container and damage of container is possible causing SERIOUS HAZARDS. 1 10
  11. 11. Aditya Birla Chemicals (India) Limited Temperature – vapour pressure relationship of liquid chlorine 50 110 100 90 40 80 Vapour 70 30 60 Pressure 50 20 40 30 10 20 10 0 0 Vap. Pre Kg/cm2 Temperature (oC) 1 6.84 20 T e m p e r a t u r e 8.95 11.51 14.51 18.16 22.38 27.25 32.84 39.23 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Vapour pressure of Liquid Chlorine increases rapidly with increase of temperature and bursting of container is always possible at higher temp. creating SERIOUS HAZARDS. 11
  12. 12. Chlorine Cylinder Internals Gas Eduction Pipe Chlorine Gas Upper Valve (Gas) Lower Valve (Liquid) Liquid Chlorine Liquid Eduction Pipe Valve Bonnet 1 12
  13. 13. Aditya Birla Chemicals (India) Limited Detection of Chlorine Leakage Point Take a stick with a cloth bulb at one end. Soak the cloth bulb with aqua ammonia and hold it close to the area of suspected leak. A white cloud will indicate if there is any Chlorine leakage and the source thereof. Note : • Avoid contact of ammonia with brass parts. • Use commercial 26oC Baume aqua ammonia. 1 13
  14. 14. Aditya Birla Chemicals (India) Limited Detection of Chlorine Leakage Point 1 14
  15. 15. Aditya Birla Chemicals (India) Limited Detection of Chlorine Leakage Point 1 15
  16. 16. Aditya Birla Chemicals (India) Limited Procedure to be followed for safe handling of Chlorine Containers UNLOADING OF FILLED CONTAINERS: Safe procedure to be Precautions to be taken What can happen if precautions are followed not taken a) Unload chlorine a) Do not remove valve a) If valve hoods are not firmly kept containers with protection hoods before in position, any accidental impact mechanical or unloading. on valves may damage the valves. electrical hoist. Liquid Chlorine will start coming out which cannot be controlled. b) If the above is not b) Do not drop containers b) Container wall will get dented available unload on to hard ground and become weak or may get containers manually where pebbles or any punctured. on to a slanted Ramp iron rods or beaks are from the truck. lying. c) After unloading check c) White fumes indicate c) Any Chlorine leakage will the container leakage of Chlorine gas. increase with time if it is not In case any such leakage corrected in time. is found, take suitable action. N.B. –DO NOT DROP CONTAINERS ON HARD SURFACE. DO NOT REMOVE 1 VALVE HOOD UNTIL CONTAINER IS TO BE DISCHARGED. 16
  17. 17. Aditya Birla Chemicals (India) Limited Procedure to be followed for safe handling of Chlorine Containers UNLOADING OF FILLED CONTAINERS: 1 17
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  19. 19. Aditya Birla Chemicals (India) Limited Procedure to be followed for safe handling of Chlorine Containers STORAGE: 1 Safe procedure to be Precautions to be taken What can happen if precautions followed are not taken a) Store the containers in a) Keep containers away from a) Excessive heating may a covered shed only. heat or sun or any other tremendously increase the source of heat like hot Chlorine pressure inside the water, steam, direct flame container resulting in its and furnace. bursting. 1) Do not load or store Chlorine container with explosives, acids and articles of inflammable nature. 2) Do not store containers It will spoil the container paint in wet and muddy areas. and start corrosion of container wall. b) Use of containers b) Use containers in the order of their receipt i.e. FIFO (First In First Out) C) Chlorine Cylinders a) Above two layers there will should not be stored danger of falling of cylinders. above two layers b) If leakage is found, then it will be difficult to attend 19
  20. 20. Aditya Birla Chemicals (India) Limited Procedure to be followed for safe handling of Chlorine Containers STORAGE: 1 20
  21. 21. Aditya Birla Chemicals (India) Limited Procedure to be followed for safe handling of Chlorine Containers WHILE CONNECTING CONTAINER TO LIVE SYSTEM Safe procedure to be followed Precautions to be taken a) Connect Chlorine container a) It is very much only to a process piping essential to avoid where an appropriate back flow of any inverted U-type barometric liquid from the leg is provided. The height process into the of barometric leg should be container by h=34÷d ft. where d is the siphoning, when the density of process liquid in latter is emptied out. gm/cu cm (lowest in case of change during process) What can happen if precautions are not taken a) There is every possibility of an explosion taking place inside the container. A Unwanted corrosion of the container will take place. b) Remove valve protection b) In this way Chlorine b) If this is not followed, hood. Keep container on gas can be taken out only liquid Chlorine will horizontal place in such a from upper valve come out from both the way that the two valves are in and liquid chlorine valves. a vertical plane. from lower valve. 1 21
  22. 22. Chlorine Cylinder Internals Gas Eduction Pipe Chlorine Gas Upper Valve (Gas) Lower Valve (Liquid) Liquid Chlorine Liquid Eduction Pipe Valve Bonnet 1 22
  23. 23. Pressure Gauge 1 23
  24. 24. Aditya Birla Chemicals (India) Limited Procedure to be followed for safe handling of Chlorine Containers WHILE CONNECTING CONTAINER TO LIVE SYSTEM Safe procedure to be followed C) For proper and leak proof connection, use: - seamless copper tube OD-12mm, 10mm or 6mm. - OS Nipple - CS Clamp - Lead washer. Precautions to be taken Tighten the clamp properly on the container valve and the connecting nipple to make a leak proof joint. 1) Use lead washers. Do not use rubber washers or steam gasket washers. 2) Do not use rubber hose for Chlorine gas transfer. Use seamless copper tube and C.S. Piping. D) Check the connection Open the container valve and with dilute ammonia close it immediately for checking solution for any leakage. If leakage is observed leakage. tighten the clamp and leakage will stop. Note : 1 What can happen if precautions are not taken Any leakage of Chlorine will corrode the valve outlet which may be damaged the valve outlet and become uncontrollable. 1) Rubber or other washers get damaged easily causing Chlorine leakage. 2) Rubber hose in cold Chlorine gas gets hardened and cracks. It may burst any time resulting in an accident. If leakage is not checked before hand, then after opening the valve fully, there will be a lot of gas nuisance from the joint, if the same is leaking. 1) DO NOT USE RUBBER HOSE FOR LIQUID CHLORINE SERVICE. 2) USE SEAMLESS COPPER TUBE OR C.S. PIPING ONLY. 24 3) USE LEAD WASHERS.
  25. 25. Aditya Birla Chemicals (India) Limited Procedure to be followed for safe handling of Chlorine Containers CHLORINE GAS TRANSFER Safe procedure to be followed Precautions to be taken What can happen if precautions are not taken a) Use Chlorine container as a) Do not keep container valve a) In such a case due to high velocity a storage vessel. Operate in slightly open position for of Chlorine gas, the valve seat container valve to full Chlorine gas flow control. may get damaged by erosion. open or full closed Valve will leak even in closed position. position. b) Use proper size of valve b) Do not use loose spanner or spindle spanner. pipe wrench. 1. Do not apply too much force while operating the valve. 2. Keep one spindle spanner always fitted on the valve on which connection has been given. c) Provide regulating valve Appropriate control valves for Chlorine gas flow should be fitted to the control process pipe lines. 1 Spindle head may get rounded causing inconvenience while operating, specially when there is some leakage. 1. It may twist and damage the spindle. 2. It is quite helpful to close the valve immediately in case a sudden leakage develops. Uncontrolled quantity of Chlorine will enter your process which may create problems. 25
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  27. 27. Aditya Birla Chemicals (India) Limited Procedure to be followed for safe handling of Chlorine Containers CHLORINE GAS TRANSFER Safe procedure to be followed Precautions to be taken d) Provide a pressure gauge of It should be provided between range 0 to 25.0 Kg/cm2 with the Chlorine container valve one isolation valve. and the regulating valve. It is necessary to establish that the container is being emptied properly when pressure comes down to zero. A Chlorine gas pressure of 0-0.5 Kg/cm2 should be left inside the container before disconnecting. e) Do not heat Chlorine container with hot water, steam or direct flame, to take out Chlorine gas. Chlorine will come out automatically under the normal atmospheric temperature in gaseous form. What can happen if precautions are not taken If the container is emptied out completely but still remains connected to a system, a temporary vacuum is created inside the container due to lowering of atmospheric temperature and liquid from the process may get sucked into the container if a barometric leg is not provided. Due to excessive heating pressure of Chlorine gas inside the container will increase tremendously which may become very dangerous. Container paint will get spoiled and cylinder wall will get corroded. Note 1. 2. 1 DO NOT USE CHLORINE CONTAINER VALVE FOR FLOW CONTROL. DO NOT HEAT CHLORINE CONTAINER FOR TAKING OUT CHLORINE GAS. 27
  28. 28. Aditya Birla Chemicals (India) Limited Procedure to be followed for safe handling of Chlorine Containers DISCONNECTION AND RETURN OF EMPTY CONTAINERS Safe procedure to be Precautions to be taken What can happen if followed precautions are not taken. a) As soon as Chlorine a) See that pressure in the gauge has a) Any other liquid coming has been consumed, reduced to 0.0.5 Kg/cm2. It shows that inside the container may disconnect the Chlorine has been consumed. cause explosion or chocking 2 container from the a1) Leave pressure of 0-0.5 Kg/cm of of the container. process. Chlorine gas in the cylinder to avoid back flow of any liquid from the system. a2) Close the container valve fully. Then close the flow regulating valve. Loosen the clamp to release Chlorine gas pressure inside the connecting tube. b) Fix the valve outlet b) Valve outlet nuts and protection hoods b) Due to loose fittings these nuts and the valve are to be fitted firmly. Make a check parts may fall apart during protection hood and chart of material for each container transportation and valves remove the and fill it up while returning. will be unprotected and container. under unsafe condition. c) Make proper c) Give correct serial number of c) If correct serial numbers are challan of the empty containers being returned. not mentioned it becomes containers being c1) Mention that valve outlet nuts and difficult to maintain proper hoods are fitted on the containers. records. 1returned. 28
  29. 29. Aditya Birla Chemicals (India) Limited Procedure to be followed for safe handling of Chlorine Containers NOTE : 1. LEAVE A PRESSURE OF 0-0.5 Kg/CM2 OF CHLORINE GAS INSIDE THE CONTAINER WHEN IT HAS BEEN CONSUMED. • 1 VALVE HOODS SHOULD ALWAYS REMAIN IN POSITION EXCEPT WHEN CONTAINER IS BEING USED. 29
  30. 30. Aditya Birla Chemicals (India) Limited Procedure to be followed for safe handling of Chlorine Containers LOADING OF TONNERS ON TRUCKS Safe procedure to be followed Precautions to be taken What can happen if precautions are not taken. a) Load chlorine container on truck with mechanical or electrical hoist. b) If above is not available People loading containers Containers may slip causing load manually through manually should use safety accident and injury to people slanted ramp. shoes. Loading should be handing containers. done carefully. 1 30
  31. 31. Aditya Birla Chemicals (India) Limited Chlorine Leakage As soon as there is any indication of the presence of chlorine in the air immediate action should be taken to locate the leak. This is best done with the help of acqua ammonia. Tie a cloth to the end of a stick, soak the cloth with aqua ammonia and hold it close to the suspected area. A dense white smoke of Ammonium Chloride develops which will reveal the point from which the Chlorine is escaping. 1 31
  32. 32. Aditya Birla Chemicals (India) Limited Chlorine Leakage Management • • 1 Take immediate steps to mitigate the situation as soon as there is any indication of presence of Chlorine in the air. Chlorine leaks always get worse, if not attended promptly. If the leak is major one, all persons in the path of the gas must be warned to leave the area and asked to keep on the wind ward side of the leak and higher than the leak. Since gaseous Chlorine is 2½ times heavier than air, it tends to lie close to the ground. 32
  33. 33. Aditya Birla Chemicals (India) Limited Chlorine Leakage Management • WATER SHOULD NEVER BE SPRAYED ON A CHLORINE LEAK. If it is done, will make the leak worse because of corrosive action of wet chlorine. Moreover heat from water increases evaporation rate of Chlorine. • If a container is leaking in such a position that chlorine is escaping as a liquid, the container should be turned so that Chlorine gas escapes. This reduces the hazards tremendously due to the following reasons: • The quantity of the gas escaping from a gas leak is about 1/15th of the amount that escapes a liquid leak through the same size hole. 11 Vol. Liquid Chlorine = 457.6 Volumes of 33 Chlorine gas.
  34. 34. Aditya Birla Chemicals (India) Limited Chlorine Leakage Management • The severity of a Chlorine leak may be mitigated by reducing the pressure of the leaking container. This may be done by absorbing Chlorine gas (not the liquid) in a solution of caustic soda or soda ash or Hydrated lime slurry. Caustic soda is recommended as it absorbs chlorine more readily. If Hydrated lime is used, the slurry must be continuously agitated for chlorine absorption. • Availability of Safety kit for tonner/cylinder at site is also very helpful. 1 34
  35. 35. Aditya Birla Chemicals (India) Limited Chlorine Leakage Management LEAKAGE FROM CHLORINE CYLINDER VALVE Valve gland: Leakage around valve stem can generally be stopped by turning the packing nut clockwise about half turn. If once repeated, this does not help, or if the leak is of really serious nature, the container should be removed outside. It is desirable that the chlorine leaves the cylinder in gaseous rather than liquid form, since the natural chilling by evaporation will soon substantially reduce the escape of chlorine. Therefore cylinders should be stood up right and the tonne container be scrolled that the valves are in a vertical plane with the leaking valve upward. . Valve seat : Fix valve cap. If this is not possible due to excessive pressure then apply valve clamp. .Valve inlet threads .Valve seat 1 : Use Valve cover and tie rod assembly from tonner safety kit. : Use chain and yoke assembly from tonner safety kit. 35
  36. 36. Aditya Birla Chemicals (India) Limited Chlorine Leakage Management 1 36
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  39. 39. Aditya Birla Chemicals (India) Limited First Aid Contact with liquid chlorine or with a strong concentration of gaseous chlorine can cause injury to eyes, skin and mucous membranes. Liquid chlorine causes severe irritation and blistering of the skin. Clothing contaminated with liquid chlorine continues to give off chlorine gas and irritate the body until all the liquid has evaporated. Therefore, contaminated clothing should be removed immediately and the exposed parts of the body washed with a large amount of water. Inhalation of gaseous Chlorine can cause respiratory injury ranging from irritation to death. 1 39
  40. 40. Aditya Birla Chemicals (India) Limited First Aid Treatment: In all cases, Immediately remove the patient from the contaminated area, immediately begin appropriate treatment. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious patient. Inhalation: If the patient is breathing, place him in comfortable position, keep him warm and at rest until a physician arrives. It breathing is difficult, administer oxygen if equipment and trained personnel are available. Automatic artificial respiration is considered preferable to manual, but only when administered by an experienced operator. 1 40
  41. 41. Aditya Birla Chemicals (India) Limited First Aid Eyes: If even small quantities of Chlorine have entered in the eyes, flush eyes immediately with copious amounts of lukewarm running water for atleast 15 minutes. Hold the eyelids apart forcibly to insure complete irritation of all eye and lid tissues. Never attempt chemical neutralization. Do not give any medication except under specific intimation from a physician. Skin: Get patient under a shower immediately remove clothes while the shower is running wash the skin with large quantities of soap and water. Do not attempt to neutralize Chlorine with chemicals. Do not apply salves or ointment except as directed by a physician. 1 41
  42. 42. Aditya Birla Chemicals (India) Limited First Aid Throat Irritation: Drinking milk may help relieve the discomforts of throat irritation from Chlorine exposure. Coughing: A mild stimulant such a hot coffee or hot tea is often used for relief. 1 42
  43. 43. Aditya Birla Chemicals (India) Limited First Aid 1 43
  44. 44. Aditya Birla Chemicals (India) Limited TIPS FOR TRUCK DRIVERS • Do not park the vehicle in the sun. • Avoid driving the vehicle through thickly populated areas. • Chlorine tonners transported in vehicle shall be blocked or braced and be so secured to prevent movement, striking each other or falling down. • Do not carry any other article of highly flammable or corrosive nature with Chlorine Tonners. • In case of any emergency, inform the Police/Fire Brigade/Chlorine supplier. • If the emergency cannot be tackled then drive the vehicle to an isolated open place so that damage to life and property will be minimum. 1 44
  45. 45. Aditya Birla Chemicals (India) Limited TIPS FOR PUBLIC • Do not panic. Chlorine does not burn or explodes. • Avoid deep breathing when Chlorine is present in the atmosphere. • Go indoors and close the doors and windows of the house and switch off the ventilation system. • Move to the upper floor if in a multi storey building. • Cover the face with a wet towel for additional protection. 1 45
  46. 46. Aditya Birla Chemicals (India) Limited TIPS FOR CHLORINE CONSUMERS • Use tonners on “first come first used” basis. • Do not heat the Chlorine Containers. This may lead to serious accidents and even rupture of containers. • Use tonner key for operating the tonner valves. • Never use plastic tubing for Chlorine service. Use copper tubing with stand fittings. • Install a BAROMETRIC LEG in the system. • Keep a solution of Caustic Soda/Soda Ash/Hydrated Lime Slurry in a tank ready for neutralization of Chlorine in emergency, • Keep a tonner/cylinder safety kit always handy. • Pressure in a Chlorine Container is not a measure of quantity in the container. At a given temperature, the pressure in a container will be the same whether the quantity is 1 Kg. Or 900 Kgs. 1 • Send your operators for training at your supplier’s works.46
  47. 47. Aditya Birla Chemicals (India) Limited TIPS FOR CHLORINE CONSUMERS Chlorine Caustic Water Soda Water container Soda Volume Ash Volume capacity (Kg) Weight Ltr Weight Ltr (Kg) (Kg) 45 58 182 136 450 Hydrated Lime Weight (Kg) 58 Water Volume Ltr 566 68 90 270 220 680 82 815 900 1160 3680 2720 9050 1160 11350 • A suitable tank to hold the solution should be provided in a convenient location. • Chlorine should be passed into the solution through a suitable piping with a perforated distributer at the end and appropritely weighted to hold it submerged under the surface. • The container should not be immersed in the tank. 1 47
  48. 48. Aditya Birla Chemicals (India) Limited EDUCATE ON CHLORINE SAFETY 1 48
  49. 49. Thank You 1 49

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