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Embedded Systems
Theory and Design

1
Course overview (contd)
Tentative contents:
1. Introduction to Embedded Computing
2. Embedded System Hardware
3. Embedded ...
Course Overview
• Evaluation criteria:
• Term papers / Seminars/ Projects : 40% (20%
will be clubbed with end term marks a...
What is an Embedded System
An Embedded System is a microprocessor based
system that is embedded as a subsystem, in a
large...
Application areas
• Automotive electronics
• Aircraft electronics
• Trains
• Telecommunication
Cell- +91-7500347448 , +917...
Application areas
•• Medical systems
Medical systems

•• Military applications
Military applications

•• Authentication
Au...
Application areas
• Consumer
electronics
•• Fabrication equipment
Fabrication equipment

•• Smart buildings
Smart building...
Essential Components
•
•
•
•
•
•

Microprocessor / DSP
Sensors
Converters (A-D and D-A)
Actuators
Memory (On-chip and Off ...
Embedded System Structure
(Generic)

Sensor

AD

Processor &
ASICs

DA

Actuator

Memory

Cell- +91-7500347448 , +91753394...
Essential Considerations
•
•
•
•
•

Response Time -- Real Time Systems
Area
Cost
Portability
Low Power (Battery Life)

 F...
Design Issues
(Hardware-Software Co-design)
• System Specification
– Functions, Real Time Constraints, Cost and
Power Cons...
ES, MS and RTS
• All embedded systems are microprocessor based systems,
but all microprocessor based systems may not be am...
General Characteristics of Embedded
Systems
• Perform a single task
– Usually not general purpose
• Increasingly high perf...
General Characteristics of Embedded
Systems (contd.)

ASIC s
Processor
Cores

Mem

Analog
IO
Digital

ASIPs and ASICs form...
Classification of Embedded
Systems
• Distributed and Non distributed
• Reactive and Transformational
• Control dominated a...
Application Specific
Characteristics
• Application is known before the system is designed
• System is however made program...
DSP Characteristics
•
•
•

Signals are increasingly being represented digitally as a sequence of
samples
ADCs are moving c...
Distributed Characteristics
• Components may be physically distributed
• Communicating processes on multiple processors
• ...
Design Metrics
• Unit cost – the $ cost for each unit excluding development
cost
• NRE cost: $ cost for design and develop...
Design Metrics (contd.)
• Time to market = Time to prototype + Time to refine +
Time to produce in bulk
• Correctness: Tes...
Major Subtasks of Embedded System
Design
•

•
•

•
•
•
•

Modeling the system to be designed and constraints
– Experimenti...
What is Co-design?
• Traditional design
– SW and HW partitioning done at an early stage and
development henceforth proceed...
CAD for Embedded Systems
• Co-design: Joint optimization of hw and sw to optimize
design metrics
• Co-synthesis: Synthesiz...
A Mix of Disciplines
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Application Domain (Signal processing, control …)
Software Engg. ( Design Process play...
Importance of Embedded Software
and Embedded Processors
“... the New York Times has
estimated that the average
American co...
Views on embedded System
• It is estimated that each year embedded software is
written five times as much as 'regular' sof...
Thank You
Techogroovy Systems India Pvt Ltd ,,
Techogroovy Systems India Pvt Ltd
www.technogroovy.com, Mail ::
www.technog...
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  • This lecture is intended to introduce the basic concept of embedded systems.
    At the end of this lecture the student will be able to
    define embedded systems
    identify embedded systems
    differentiate embedded systems with non-embedded systems and non-embedded real time systems
  • Highlight the interaction with the environment
    Input output communications require proper transduction and actuation
    So A/D conversion requirements can also be mentioned here
    A very important aspect that should be mentioned is that the design of the hardware and software of the ES derives its specifications from the environment with which it will interact
  • B tech Projects,Final Year Projects,Engineering Projects

    1. 1. Cell- +91-7500347448 , +917533940322 Embedded Systems Theory and Design 1
    2. 2. Course overview (contd) Tentative contents: 1. Introduction to Embedded Computing 2. Embedded System Hardware 3. Embedded Computing Platform 4. Programming Embedded Systems 5. Embedded System Development 6. Case Study and Assignments for Designing a Complete System Cell- +91-7500347448 , +917533940322 2
    3. 3. Course Overview • Evaluation criteria: • Term papers / Seminars/ Projects : 40% (20% will be clubbed with end term marks and 20% will contribute as Teacher's Assessment) • Mid Term (written): 20% • End Term (written): 40% Cell- +91-7500347448 , +917533940322 3
    4. 4. What is an Embedded System An Embedded System is a microprocessor based system that is embedded as a subsystem, in a larger system (which may or may not be a computer system). I O Cell- +91-7500347448 , +917533940322 4
    5. 5. Application areas • Automotive electronics • Aircraft electronics • Trains • Telecommunication Cell- +91-7500347448 , +917533940322 5
    6. 6. Application areas •• Medical systems Medical systems •• Military applications Military applications •• Authentication Authentication Cell- +91-7500347448 , +917533940322 6
    7. 7. Application areas • Consumer electronics •• Fabrication equipment Fabrication equipment •• Smart buildings Smart buildings Cell- +91-7500347448 , +917533940322 7
    8. 8. Essential Components • • • • • • Microprocessor / DSP Sensors Converters (A-D and D-A) Actuators Memory (On-chip and Off chip) Communication path with the interacting environment Cell- +91-7500347448 , +917533940322 8
    9. 9. Embedded System Structure (Generic) Sensor AD Processor & ASICs DA Actuator Memory Cell- +91-7500347448 , +917533940322 9
    10. 10. Essential Considerations • • • • • Response Time -- Real Time Systems Area Cost Portability Low Power (Battery Life)  Fault Tolerance Cell- +91-7500347448 , +917533940322 10
    11. 11. Design Issues (Hardware-Software Co-design) • System Specification – Functions, Real Time Constraints, Cost and Power Constraints • • • • • Hardware Software Partitioning Hardware Synthesis Software Synthesis and Code Generation Simulation Implementation Cell- +91-7500347448 , +917533940322 11
    12. 12. ES, MS and RTS • All embedded systems are microprocessor based systems, but all microprocessor based systems may not be amenable to embedding (Area, Power, Cost, Payload parameters). • Most of the embedded systems have real time constraints, but there may be ES which are not hard RTS (for example off line Palm tops) • There may be RTS which are not embedded (e.g. Separate Process Control Computers in a network) • Embedded Systems are not GPS; they are designed for dedicated applications with specific interfaces with the sphere of control Cell- +91-7500347448 , +917533940322 12
    13. 13. General Characteristics of Embedded Systems • Perform a single task – Usually not general purpose • Increasingly high performance and real time constrained • Power, cost and reliability are important considerations • HW-SW systems – Software is used for more features and flexibility – Hardware (processors, ASICs, memory etc. are used for performance and security Cell- +91-7500347448 , +917533940322 13
    14. 14. General Characteristics of Embedded Systems (contd.) ASIC s Processor Cores Mem Analog IO Digital ASIPs and ASICs form a significant component – Adv: customization  lower power, cost and enhanced performance – Disadv: higher development effort (debuggers, compilers etc.) and Cell- +91-7500347448 , +9114 larger time to market 7533940322
    15. 15. Classification of Embedded Systems • Distributed and Non distributed • Reactive and Transformational • Control dominated and Data dominated Cell- +91-7500347448 , +917533940322 15
    16. 16. Application Specific Characteristics • Application is known before the system is designed • System is however made programmable for – Feature upgrades – Product differentiation • Often application development occurs in parallel to system development – Hw-Sw partitioning should be as delayed as possible • For upgrades design reuse is an important criterion – IP reuse, object oriented development Cell- +91-7500347448 , +917533940322 16
    17. 17. DSP Characteristics • • • Signals are increasingly being represented digitally as a sequence of samples ADCs are moving closer to signals; RFs are also treated digitally Typical DSP processing includes: – Filtering, DFT, DCT etc. – Speech and image: Compression, decompression, encryption, decryption etc. – Modems: Equalization, noise and echo cancellation, better SNR – Communication channel: encoding, decoding, equalization etc. Cell- +91-7500347448 , +917533940322 17
    18. 18. Distributed Characteristics • Components may be physically distributed • Communicating processes on multiple processors • Dedicated hw connected through communicating channels • Often economical – 4 x 8 Bit controllers may be cheaper than a 32 bit microcontroller – Multiple processors can perform multiple time critical tasks – Better logistics – devices being controlled may be Cell- +91-7500347448 , +9118 physically distributed 7533940322
    19. 19. Design Metrics • Unit cost – the $ cost for each unit excluding development cost • NRE cost: $ cost for design and development • Size: The physical space reqd. – determined by bytes of sw, number of gates and transistors in hw • Performance: execution time or throughput of the system • Power: lifetime of battery, cooling provisions • Flexibility: ability to change functionality without heavy NRE cost Cell- +91-7500347448 , +917533940322 19
    20. 20. Design Metrics (contd.) • Time to market = Time to prototype + Time to refine + Time to produce in bulk • Correctness: Test and Validation • Safety: • Often these metrics are contradictory – hence calls for optimization • Processor choice, partitioning decisions, compilation knowledge • Requires expertise in hw and sw both Cell- +91-7500347448 , +917533940322 20
    21. 21. Major Subtasks of Embedded System Design • • • • • • • Modeling the system to be designed and constraints – Experimenting with different algorithms and their preliminary evaluation – Factoring the task into smaller subtasks and modeling their interaction Refinement HW-SW partitioning – Allocating the tasks into hw, sw running on custom hw or general purpose hw Scheduling – allocation of time steps for several modules sharing the same resource Implementation: Actual hw binding and sw code generation Simulation and Validation Iterate if necessary Cell- +91-7500347448 , +917533940322 21
    22. 22. What is Co-design? • Traditional design – SW and HW partitioning done at an early stage and development henceforth proceeds independently • CAD tools are focussed towards hardware synthesis • For embedded systems we need several components – DSPs, microprocessors, network and bus interface etc. • HW-SW codesign allow hw and sw design to proceed in parallel with interactions and feedback between the two processes • Evaluation of trade offs and performance yields ultimate result Cell- +91-7500347448 , +917533940322 22
    23. 23. CAD for Embedded Systems • Co-design: Joint optimization of hw and sw to optimize design metrics • Co-synthesis: Synthesizes designs from formal specifications • Rapid prototyping and design space exploration • Many of the tasks are interrelated • Intermediate evaluation is not easy as a later decision in one path affects the other Cell- +91-7500347448 , +917533940322 23
    24. 24. A Mix of Disciplines • • • • • • • Application Domain (Signal processing, control …) Software Engg. ( Design Process plays an important role) Programming Language Compilers and Operating System Architecture – Processor and IO techniques Parallel and Distributed Computing Real Time Systems Cell- +91-7500347448 , +917533940322 24
    25. 25. Importance of Embedded Software and Embedded Processors “... the New York Times has estimated that the average American comes into contact with about 60 microprocessors every day....” [Camposano, 1996] Latest top-level BMWs contain over 100 microprocessors [Personal communication] Cell- +91-7500347448 , +917533940322 Most of the functionality of embedded systems will be implemented in software! 25
    26. 26. Views on embedded System • It is estimated that each year embedded software is written five times as much as 'regular' software • The vast majority of CPU-chips produced world-wide today are used in the embedded market ... ; only a small portion of CPU's is applied in PC's • ... the number of software-constructors of Embedded Systems will rise from 2 million in 1994 to 10 million in 2010; ... the number of constructors employed by softwareproducers 'merely' rises from 0.6 million to 1.1 million. [Department of Trade and Industry/ IDC Benelux BV: Embedded software research in the Netherlands. Analysis and results, 1997 (according+91-7500347448 , +91Cell- to: www.scintilla.utwente.nl/shintabi/engels/thema_text.html)] 7533940322 26
    27. 27. Thank You Techogroovy Systems India Pvt Ltd ,, Techogroovy Systems India Pvt Ltd www.technogroovy.com, Mail :: www.technogroovy.com, Mail technogroovy@gmail.com, Celltechnogroovy@gmail.com, Cell+91-7500347448 ,, +91-7533940322 +91-7500347448 +91-7533940322 Cell- +91-7500347448 , +917533940322 27

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