Session 4 4 ps_nnc ncr


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  • Filipinos continue to suffer from hunger as well as undernutrition particularly protein-energy malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies. We also see an increase in overnutrition. The problem is further complicated with the increase in the incidence of diet-related non-communicable diseases.
  • In summary, we have a problem of both undernutrition and overnutrition and diet-related non-communicable diseases. The government can not solve the problem alone. We call on the NGOs, private sector, civil society and you to help.
  • Why is there a need to ensure adequate nutrition? Nutrition is not only a basic human need which if not met can lead to serious consequences, even death. Malnutrition is also a violation of the human right to adequate food and water.
  • What is a healthy diet? A healthy diet consists of: Fruits and vegetable, whole grains, root crops and fat-free or low fat milk. Lean meats, poultry, fish, beans, egg and nuts Low in saturated, trans-fat, cholesterol, salt and sugar
  • In the Philippines, breastfeeding rates are less than optimal. Only 36% of infants 0-5 months are exclusively breastfed. After 6 months, only 39% continue to breastfeed while given complementary foods. After one year, only 21% continue to breastfeed.
  • When mothers were asked why they do not practice breastfeeding, the number one reason is because they think there is no adequate milk flow. Mothers also stop breastfeeding because they have to return to work or are too busy. They also stop because of another pregnancy and when they get sick.
  • NCDs are leading causes of morbidity among Filipinos, particularly diseases of the heart and the vascular system.
  • Disease burden in the Philippines is gradually shifting from communicable to non-communicable diseases. NCDs are the leading causes of mortality particularly diseases of the heart and vascular system, malignant neoplasms and diabetes mellitus. The increasing trend in mortality caused by NCDs has been observed in the last three decades.
  • The healthy lifestyle campaign was relaunched and repackaged in February 2009 as “HK to the MAX” to promote seven major and vital health practices: No smoking (Huwag Manigarilyo) Don’t drink alcohol (Iwas Alak) No to illegal drugs (Talo Ka sa Droga) Prevent hypertension (Bantay Presyon) Do physical activity (Katawang Aktibo) Manage Stress (Bawas Stress) Eat low-fat, low-salt, high-fiber diet (Wastong Pagkain)
  • The WHO golden rules 1-9 help address the issues on microbial contamination of food.
  • The WHO golden rules 1-9 help address the issues on microbial contamination of food.
  • The biological contaminants in food are bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites. The common disease-causing organisms include Shigella, Salmonella, Hepatitis A, Cholera, and parasitic worms like ascaris, hookworm, and tapeworm. Shigella can be found only in human feces. Salmonellae microorganisms can be found in the intestines of humans and animals. These microorganisms contaminate food when feces of these animals come in contact with uncovered food or when an infected person prepares or serves food without washing his hands. Milk, meat and poultry products may also contain Salmonellae. The Hepatitis A virus is present in the feces and urine of infected humans. Through improper sewage disposal, the virus may gain access to bodies of water where shellfish are grown. Food contamination may also be due to lack of proper sanitation during food preparation. Parasites like tapeworm and hookworms, on the other hand, may infect humans as a result of improperly cooked meat and poultry products.
  • Chemical contaminants in food may either occur naturally or as a result of human activities. The common sources of naturally-occurring chemical substances are fungi, fish, cassava and mushrooms. In some instances, chemical substances such as fertilizers, pesticides, antibiotics, growth hormones, and food additives are added to improve crop yield. Heavy metals such as lead and mercury, as well as industrial wastes which all come from industrial activities can also contaminate food.
  • Examples of physical contaminants in food are glass, metal, wood, plastic, bone, stone, hair, and other foreign matter that should not be present in food. Sometimes we even see droppings as well as body parts of insects like cockroaches in food.
  • Let us now look into chemical contamination of food by naturally-occurring toxins. As I mentioned earlier, some mushrooms, nuts, and fish may naturally contain toxins that can cause severe illness or even death when eaten. Examples are aflatoxin , produced by naturally-occurring fungus in nuts, grains, or peanuts; poisonous alkaloid contained in mushroom – Amanita, which resembles non-poisonous mushrooms. can cause death after one or two bites of the plant. Of growing public health concern is the unusual increase in the number of dinoflagellates , producing a reddish discoloration of water bodies known as “red tide”. This phenomenon generally occurs after a sudden downpour following the dry season, resulting in surface water run-off towards the sea.
  • Chemical pesticides have played a major role in crop protection for many decades. However, concerns about pesticide residues in and on food, and about their environmental impact, continue to grow. Pesticides are widely used in producing food and feed. While pesticides may be good to improve the quality and quantity of agricultural products, these could also pose health risks. Their residues may remain in small amounts in or on agricultural produce and processed foods. To ensure the safety of food, the government regulates the maximum residue level of each permitted pesticide. However, many pesticides, even when they are properly applied in accordance with label directions, may leave residues in or on treated fruits, vegetables, grains, and other commodities. Pesticide residues could be decreased by washing, processing, storage and proper preparation.
  • Food additives are chemical substances used to enhance the appearance and improve the nutritive value, taste, color, or shelf life of food products. However, some food additives are known to be toxic to carcinogenic, or both. Example is sodium nitrite, used on meat products like tocino to give them a reddish color and prevent spoilage.
  • The quality of some meat and dairy products is also threatened by the use of drugs to prevent animal diseases or to enhance milk production. Most of the antibiotics used are broad spectrum such as penicillin and tetracycline. Persons who consume these meat and dairy products, and are allergic to such antibiotics, may experience allergic reactions. This unscrupulous practice may also favor the development of antibiotic-resistance on strains of infectious microorganisms.
  • The contamination of agricultural land with heavy metal is a widely recognized problem. In the soil, these metals can cause stress that damages the soil by decreasing its ability to support plant growth. These heavy metals can accumulate in food crops which can cause public health risks. Mercury is one of the most harmful heavy metal contaminants. Its toxicity, ease of dispersion, volatility, and tendency to bio-accumulate makes it a unique environmental pollutant. Once released in the environment, mercury is readily transformed into methyl-mercury which increases its toxicity. In this form, mercury is easily taken up by living organisms. Both man and nature contribute to the environmental contamination of mercury. The mining industry is a major source of mercury pollution. The influx of informal gold mining operations in Labo, Camarines Norte is accountable for the elevated levels of mercury in both weeds and soil samples from the area (Regis, 1999). Regis (1999) also reported that mercury accumulation induces pollen grain abortion in four weed species collected from the site. Since the area is predominantly agricultural, possible contamination of food crops and other long-term risks cannot be ruled out.
  • The addition of hazardous substances to food products to make them look fresh is another threat to food quality. Application of formalin on vegetables, or shoe/cloth dye, commonly known as jobos on fish sold in markets is allegedly practiced by some food dealers and vendors to enhance food appearance and increase their profits. These unlawful practices can also pose serious risks to human health. Fresh fruits, vegetables and herbs can also become contaminated if they are fertilized with animal manure or come into contact with impure water.
  • Given these food safety concerns, let us now find out which foods pose the greatest risk to human health. Foods of animal origin are the primary source of many food poisoning microbes, such as Salmonella, Listeria, Campylobacter, E. coli and L monocytogenes. These may occur on the live animal, and remain in the meat after slaughter. Without appropriate treatment to kill the microbes, or if conditions of hygiene or temperature control are poor, microbes may still be present in the final food product.
  • Foods which pose a relatively high risk of food-borne illness include: Poultry meat & eggs - The incidence of contamination is probably highest in poultry. Eggs can carry bacteria such as Salmonella enteritidis on their shells or within the egg. An important precaution in preventing food-borne illness from poultry and eggs is thorough cooking. According to the World Health Organization, raw egg is a potentially hazardous ingredient which should not be used in foods which will receive no further heat treatment.
  • Red meats - These can also be contaminated with pathogenic microbes, although probably to a lesser extent than poultry. The process of grinding meat to make mince and burgers may spread the microbes from one source into many products. Like poultry products, red meats should be thoroughly cooked before serving.
  • Dairy products - Raw milk can contain various pathogens from the dairy animal or its environment. Pasteurization destroys all pathogens, and sterilization ensures that the product is free from all microbes. While pathogens are inactivated by many of the methods used to produce dairy products, certain types may sometimes survive. Hard cheeses, yoghurt and butter are regarded as safe because of their acidity or lack of moisture.
  • Shellfish get their diets from large volumes of water and they can concentrate pathogens in their bodies. Inadequately heat-treated shellfish can cause a range of infections due to bacteria (such as Vibrio and Shigella), various parasites or viruses.
  • Having identified some ways on how food can be contaminated, let us now look at some ways on preventing contamination. At the farm level, there are critical control points at every stage in animal rearing and crop production where contamination of produce can be minimized by following good practices. After slaughtering, for example, inspection should be carried out to separate diseased meat from healthy meat. We often hear of cases where “double dead” meat are being sold in public markets by unscrupulous vendors. While we want our farmers to also increase their yield or produce to increase their income, the judicious use of fertilizers and pesticides should be considered. Educating the farmers as well as animal raisers is therefore important,
  • At the food manufacturer level, many companies have in-house quality assurance systems to ensure the safe production of food. Some measures that could help prevent contaminated food from reaching the consumer include: Using good quality raw materials from assured suppliers. Ensure that these products passed through a quality assurance test and is given or stamped with the seal of quality by authorized agencies Following Good Manufacturing Practices – using management systems which allow the identification, monitoring and control of hazards during production, processing and sale of food. Providing training programs for all food industry personnel and carrying out research on pathogens and how best to control them. Exchanging information on food safety so that everyone is aware of the hazards posed by unsafe foods.
  • At the consumer level, it is our responsibility to practice personal hygiene especially when preparing food. Keeping the environment clean is also important to prevent the proliferation of disease-causing bacterial such as proper food storage, proper waste disposal, keeping garbage covered, boiling water, and other sanitation practices.
  • Very quickly, the NGF emphasizes the mother nutrition message of eating a variety of foods, the importance of breastfeeding, proper complementary feeding, growth monitoring of children. It also emphasizes the increased consumption of key food items like animal products, vegetables, fruits and root crops,
  • Cooking oil, milk and milk products, and iodized salt. It also includes a reminder on eating only safe foods and practicing a healthy lifestyle.
  • Session 4 4 ps_nnc ncr

    1. 1. Part I. Wastong Nutrisyon para sa Pamilya
    2. 2. Pag-uusapin natin… 1. Kalagayang pang-nutrisyon ng bansa 2. Epekto ng malnutrisyon 3. Basic Nutrition 4. Pag-plano ng pagkain sa pamilya 5. Gabay sa Wastong Nutrisyon
    3. 3. 1. Hunger 2. Protein-energy malnutrition 3. Micronutrient deficiencies 4. Overnutrition 5. Diet-related noncommunicable or lifestyle-related diseases (e.g. diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cancers and cardiovascular diseases) Mga problema sa nutrisyon
    4. 4. Underweight children : 26% adults : 12% Iodine deficiency disorders children : 11% Iron deficiency anemia infants : 56% pregnant : 43% Vitamin A deficiency children : 15% Increase in diet-related non- communicable diseases Kalagayang pang-nutrisyon
    5. 5. Violation of human rights Malnourished children Inability to concentrate in school School drop-out Lack skill/ low literacy Under/unemployed malnourished adults Low productivity Poverty Weak resistance Infections Early death Epekto ng malnutrisyon
    6. 6. Activity 1 1. Ilista ang mga karaniwang pagkain na inihahanda sa almusal, tanghalian at hapunan (10 minuto). Almusal Tanghalian Hapunan
    7. 7. Basic Nutrition a. GO, GROW, GLOW food groups b. How to meet nutritional requirements
    9. 9. • Rich in carbohydrates, main source of energy • Sources are: rice & rice products, corn & corn products, cereals, bread & other bakery products, starchy roots & tubers, rice flour and other noodles Rice GO foods
    10. 10. GO foods Lack of carbohydrates may result in: • Underweight and/or loss of weight • General weakness • Poor physical performance • Fainting or collapse, in severe deficiency
    11. 11. • Fats are also included in this food group • It is a concentrated source of energy and helps absorb, transport and store fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, K • Fats provides essential fatty acids which have important functions in the body GO foods
    12. 12. Lack of fat in daily meals results in: • Underweight • Sluggishness • Skin irritations similar to eczema • Signs and symptoms of fat-soluble vitamin deficiencies, esp. vitamin A GO foods
    13. 13. Rice Substitutes • Camote • Cassava (kamoteng kahoy) • Gabi • Saging Saba
    14. 14. • Rich in protein needed for building and repairing body tissues for growth and maintenance GROW foods MILKMILK • Builds resistance to infection • Supplies additional energy
    15. 15. GROW foods MILKMILK • Sources are: meat, internal organs, chicken, eggs, fish, shellfish, milk, milk products, munggo and other dried beans, nuts
    16. 16. GROW foods Lack of protein results in: • Retarded growth in children • Low resistance to infection at any age • Slow recovery from illness • Low birth weight • Anemia • Loss of weight • Edema, skin lesions, mental sluggishness
    17. 17. GLOW foodsGLOW foods • Rich in vitamins and minerals, these are essential for body functions; also important for growth and normal functioning of the body • Rich source of fiber
    18. 18. What is a healthy diet? • Emphasizes fruits, vegetables, whole grains, root crops & fat-free or low fat milk • Includes lean meats, poultry, fish, beans, egg & nuts • Is low in saturated, trans fats, cholesterol, salt (sodium) & added sugars
    19. 19. How do we meet these requirements? Use the Food Pyramid as guide
    20. 20. Requirements of various age groups Food group Recommended Amounts 1-3 y/o 4-6 y/o 7-9 y/o 10/12 y/o Green and leafy vegetables ¼ cup cooked 1/3 cup cooked 1/3 cup cooked ½ cup cooked Other vegetables 2 Tbsp. cooked ¼ cup cooked ½ cup cooked ½ cup cooked Vitamin C rich fruits ½ medium size or 1 slice of a big fruit ½-1 medium size or 1 slice of a big fruit 1 medium size or 1 slice of a big fruit 1 medium size or 1 slice of a big fruit Other fruits ½ medium size or 1 slice ½-1 medium size or 1 slice 1 medium size or 1 slice 1 medium size or 1 slice
    21. 21. Requirements of various age groups Food group Recommended Amounts 1-3 y/o 4-6 y/o 7-9 y/o 10/12 y/o Fats and Oils 6 teaspoons 6 teaspoons 6 teaspoons 6-8 teaspoons Sugar 4 teaspoons 5 teaspoons 5 teaspoons 5-6 teaspoons Water and Beverages 4-6 glasses (240 mL) 5-7 glasses 6-8 glasses 6-8 glasses
    22. 22. Requirements of various age groups Food group Recommended Amounts 13-15y/o 16-19 y/o Adult, 20-39 y/o Rice and alterna- tives 6-7 cups, cooked 6½-8 cups cooked 5½-8 cups, cooked 1 serving of rice or alternatives = 1 cup rice, cooked, or 4 pcs. pandesal, or 4 slices of loaf bread, or 1 cup macaroni, spaghetti, cooked or 1 pack instant noodles, or 1 small size root crop
    23. 23. Requirements of various age groups Food group Recommended Amounts 13-15y/o 16-19 y/o Adult, 20-39 y/o Meat and alterna- tives 2½ servings 2½ servings 2¾-3 servings Fish/Meat/Poultry/Dried Beans/Nuts 1 serving of fish = 2 pieces (16 cm long); 1 serving of meat/poultry = 30 g lean meat, cooked, or 1½ cups cooked dried beans
    24. 24. Requirements of various age groups Food group Recommended Amounts 13-15y/o 16-19 y/o Adult, 20-39 y/o Egg 1 piece, medium size (3-4x a week) 1 piece, medium size (3-4x a week) 1 piece, medium size (3-4x a week) Whole Milk 1 glass 1 glass 1 glass 1 glass = 240 ml (1 glass whole milk is equivalent to 4 Tbsp powdered whole milk or ½ cup evaporated milk diluted in 1 glass of water)
    25. 25. Requirements of various age groups Food group Recommended Amounts 13-15y/o 16-19 y/o Adult, 20-39 y/o Green and leafy vegetables ¾ cup cooked ¾ cup cooked ¾ cup cooked Other vegetables ¾ cup cooked ¾ cup cooked ¾ cup cooked Vitamin C rich fruits 2 servings 2 servings 1 medium size or 1 slice of a big fruit Other fruits 1 serving 1 serving 1 medium size or 1 slice of a big fruit
    26. 26. Requirements of various age groups Food group Recommended Amounts 13-15y/o 16-19 y/o Adult, 20-39 y/o Fats and Oils 6-8 teaspoons 6-8 teaspoons 6-8 teaspoons Sugar 5-6 teaspoons 5-6 teaspoons 5-8 teaspoons Water and Beverages 6-8 glasses (240 mL each) 6-8 glasses 6-8 glasses
    27. 27. How do we meet these requirements? Proper meal planning – think VARIETY of foods!
    28. 28. How do we meet these requirements?  Proper meal planning • Preparation of low-cost menus • All food groups present when planning for meals GO,GROW, GLOW!
    29. 29. Considerations in Meal Planning 1. Adequacy and availability of foods 2. Traditions and customs 3. Economic resources/considerations 4. Personal likes and dislikes 5. Suitable combinations of foods
    30. 30. Considerations in Meal Planning 6. Seasonality 7. Staying quality of food 8. Ease of food preparation 9. Meal patterns
    31. 31. Guides for planning meals 1. Select food that meets the nutritional needs of those who will eat. 2. Consider food for each meal in relation to food plans for the day. 3. Keep the food value of any given meal essentially the same, day after day.
    32. 32. 4. Select food suitable for the meal. 5. Consider the personal likes and dislikes of the group. 6. Select foods that combine pleasingly. 7. Have contrast in the food in color, texture, form and temperature. Guides for planning meals
    33. 33. 8. Have daily variety. 9. Select foods in season when possible. 10.Avoid serving more than two dishes of concentrated food in any one meal. 11.Select food that is easily prepared. Guides for planning meals
    34. 34. 12. Select food that is easily served. 13. Select foods after due consideration of the equipment on hand. 14. Consider the cost in relation to the food allowance for the day. Guides for planning meals
    35. 35. Low-cost menus • Use of available resources • Use of indigenous fruits and vegetables • Example of a low-cost menu: Breakfast Hard cooked egg Rice Fresh fruit Lunch Nilagang Manok Rice Fresh fruit Dinner Fried galunggong Pinakbet Rice Fresh fruit
    36. 36. Activity 2 1. Gumawa ng isang plano ng pagkain para sa isang linggo para sa pamilyang may apat na miyembro. (15 minuto) M T W Th F S S B L D
    37. 37. . . . fosters an adequate and balanced diet as well as desirable food and nutrition practices and healthy habits
    38. 38. . . . are primary recommendations to promote good health through proper nutrition.
    39. 39. Kumain ngKumain ng iba’t ibangiba’t ibang uri nguri ng pagkainpagkain araw-arawaraw-araw
    40. 40. Eat a variety of foods everyday • The human body needs more than 40 different nutrients for good health. • No single food can provide all the nutrients in the amounts needed.
    41. 41. Balanced Diet • Contains all the nutrients and other substances found naturally in food, in proper amounts and proportions needed by the body to function well
    42. 42. Benefits of eating a balanced diet • Full mental development • Better concentration • Feel better • More pleasant
    43. 43. Mean one–day per capita food consumption, in grams, Philippines, 1978 - 2003 Food group and subgroup Consumption (gram), raw as purchased 1978 1982 1987 1993 2003 Cereals and cereal product 367 356 345 340 364 Starch roots and tubers 37 42 22 17 19 Sugars and syrups 19 22 24 19 24 Fats and oils 13 14 14 12 18 Fish, meat and poultry 133 154 157 147 185 Eggs 8 9 10 12 13 Milk and milk products 42 44 43 44 49 Dried beans, nuts and seeds 8 10 10 10 10 Vegetables 145 130 111 106 111 Green, leafy, yellow 34 37 29 30 31 Other vegetables 111 93 82 76 80 Fruits 104 102 107 77 54 Vitamin C-rich 30 18 24 21 12 Other fruits 74 84 83 56 42 Miscellaneous 21 32 26 19 39 Total 897 915 869 803 886 Source: National Nutrition Surveys: 1978-2003, FNRI
    44. 44. Pasusuhin angPasusuhin ang sanggol ng gatas ni inasanggol ng gatas ni ina lamang mulalamang mula pagkasilang hanggangpagkasilang hanggang 6 na buwan at saka6 na buwan at saka bigyan ng mga angkopbigyan ng mga angkop na pagkain habangna pagkain habang pinapasuso pa.pinapasuso pa.
    45. 45. BreastfeedingBreastfeeding • One of the most effective strategies to improve child survival • Nutritional requirements of an infant can be obtained solely from breastmilk for the first 6 months of life • Decision to breastfeed is made by the mother with the support and encouragement from husband, family and the community
    46. 46. ExclusiveExclusive breastfeedingbreastfeeding • Means nothing (except medicines and water by dropper, spoon or cup) is fed to the infant other than breastmilk
    47. 47. 35.9 36.8 27.3 0.0 0.5 39.4 59.8 0.3 0.6 21.6 65.7 12.2 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 0-5 months 12-23 months6-11 months Percentage Breastfeeding and ComplementaryBreastfeeding and Complementary Feeding, 2008Feeding, 2008 Exclusive breastfeeding Breastfeeding + Complementary Fdg. Other milk or other milk + other foods Other foods Source: 7th National Nutrition Survey, FNRI-DOST, 2008
    48. 48. Reason why BF stopped, 2008 Source: 7th National Nutrition Survey, FNRI-DOST, 2008
    49. 49. Complementary foodsComplementary foods • Foods provided IN ADDITION to breastmilk at 6 completed months and when baby is physically ready: – Doubled birth weight – Can hold head straight when sitting up – Opens mouth when food approaches
    50. 50. Complementary foodsComplementary foods • Foods provided IN ADDITION to breastmilk at 6 completed months and when baby is physically ready: – Interested in foods when others eat – Able to transfer food from the front of the tongue to the back – Able to swallow
    51. 51. Panatilihin ang tamangPanatilihin ang tamang paglaki ng bata sapaglaki ng bata sa pamamagitan ng palagiangpamamagitan ng palagiang pagsubaybay sa kanyangpagsubaybay sa kanyang timbangtimbang
    52. 52. Growth monitoringGrowth monitoring • Growth can be tracked by regularly taking the weight and measuring the height of a child • Can be assessed with the use of reference tables such as: – Weigh-for-age – Height-for-age – Weight-for-length – Weight-for-height
    53. 53. Growth chartGrowth chart • Used to assess growth rate, detect growth abnormalities, monitor health and nutritional status, and evaluate the effects of nutrition intervention
    54. 54. Well-nourished childWell-nourished child • Healthy • Strong • Alert • Has good disposition • Grows at normal rate
    55. 55. Poor nourished childPoor nourished child • Exhibit sluggishness • May have delay in physical and mental development • Lethargic • Frequently ill
    56. 56. Overnourished childOvernourished child • Obese • May cause physical and emotional problems in childhood and later in life – Predisposed to non- communicable diseases
    57. 57. Provide adequate diet to an active child that will promote good health and normal growth
    58. 58. Kumain ngKumain ng isda, karne,isda, karne, manok omanok o tuyongtuyong butongbutong gulaygulay
    59. 59. Kumain ng maramingKumain ng maraming gulay, prutas atgulay, prutas at lamang-ugat.lamang-ugat.
    60. 60. KumainKumain araw-arawaraw-araw ng mgang mga pagkaingpagkaing niluto saniluto sa mantika omantika o edible oiledible oil
    61. 61. Uminom ng gatasUminom ng gatas araw-araw ataraw-araw at kumain ng mgakumain ng mga produkto nito, mgaprodukto nito, mga pagkaing mayamanpagkaing mayaman sa kalsiyum gayasa kalsiyum gaya ng maliliit na isdang maliliit na isda (tulad ng dilis) at(tulad ng dilis) at madahong berdengmadahong berdeng gulay.gulay.
    62. 62. Gumamit ngGumamit ng iodized saltiodized salt (asin na may(asin na may yodo) subali’tyodo) subali’t iwasan angiwasan ang masyadongmasyadong maalat namaalat na pagkain.pagkain.
    63. 63. Preventing goiter and IDDPreventing goiter and IDD 1. Consume foods grown in iodine-rich soils 2. Eat iodine-rich foods such as seafood and seaweed 3. Regular consumption of foods fortified with iodine or prepared with iodized salt
    64. 64. Salt and hypertensionSalt and hypertension High sodium intake High blood pressure Increases risk of heart disease, stroke and other diseases Linked to
    65. 65. Kumain ngKumain ng malinis atmalinis at ligtas naligtas na pagkainpagkain
    66. 66. Food safetyFood safety “All conditions and measures that are necessary during the production, processing, storage, distribution and preparation of food to ensure that food is safe, sound, wholesome and fit for human consumption.” - WHO-FAO
    67. 67. • Buy foods that are safe – Purchase from reliable sources • Foods should be kept clean at all stages – from production to consumption • Practice food safety Clean and safe foodsClean and safe foods
    68. 68. Preventing food-bornePreventing food-borne diseasesdiseases 1. Practice good personal hygiene. 2. Drink safe water. 3. Practice good housekeeping 4. Clean and sanitize environment. Practice pest control. 5. Handle food safely. 6. Read food labels.
    69. 69. Para sa malusogPara sa malusog na pamumuhayna pamumuhay at wastongat wastong nutrisyon, mag-nutrisyon, mag- ehersisyo nangehersisyo nang palagian, huwagpalagian, huwag manigarilyo, atmanigarilyo, at iwasan ang pag-iwasan ang pag- inom ng alak.inom ng alak.
    70. 70. Why prevent dreadedWhy prevent dreaded disease?disease? • Affects productivity – Absenteeism at school, work • Costly – Medicines – Medical care • Net effect on not only individual but also community and nation
    71. 71. Leading causes of morbidity CauseCause Rate per 100,000Rate per 100,000 PopulationPopulation 1. Acute lower RTI and pneumonia1. Acute lower RTI and pneumonia 828.8828.8 2. Acute watery diarrhea2. Acute watery diarrhea 707.7707.7 3. Brochitis/Bronchioltis3. Brochitis/Bronchioltis 689.9689.9 4. Hypertension4. Hypertension 522.8522.8 5. Influenza5. Influenza 435.0435.0 6. TB respiratory6. TB respiratory 169.9169.9 7. Diseases of the heart7. Diseases of the heart 49.349.3 8. Acute febrile illness8. Acute febrile illness 32.532.5 9. Malaria9. Malaria 27.627.6 10. Dengue fever10. Dengue fever 19.619.6 Source: 2006 Morbdity Data from DOH website (
    72. 72. Leading causes of mortality, 2005 Cause Rate per 100,000 Population 1. Heart diseases1. Heart diseases 90.490.4 2. Vascular system diseases2. Vascular system diseases 63.863.8 3. Malignant neoplasm3. Malignant neoplasm 48.948.9 4. Pneumonia4. Pneumonia 42.842.8 5. Accidents5. Accidents 39.139.1 6. Tuberculosis, all forms6. Tuberculosis, all forms 31.231.2 7. Chronic lower respiratory diseases7. Chronic lower respiratory diseases 24.624.6 8. Diabetes Mellitus8. Diabetes Mellitus 21.621.6 9. Certain conditions originating in perinatal period9. Certain conditions originating in perinatal period 14.514.5 10.10. Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosisNephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis 3.63.6 Source: 2005 Mortality Data from DOH website ( accessed on 23 June 2010
    73. 73. What is healthy lifestyle? • Way of life that promotes and protects health and well-being — Department of Health
    74. 74. HL to the MAXHL to the MAX 1. No smoking (Huwag manigarilyo) 2. Don’t drink (Iwas alak) 3. No to illegal drugs (Talo ka sa droga) 4. Prevent hypertension (Bantay presyon) 5. Do physical activity (Katawang aktibo) 6. Manage stress (Bawas stress) 7. Eat low-fat, low-salt, high-fiber diet (Wastong pagkain)
    75. 75. Why is a healthy lifestyleWhy is a healthy lifestyle important?important? • Prevent dreaded chronic diseases – Heart disease – Diabetes – Cancers – Respiratory ailments • Prevent early death
    76. 76. Part II. Proper Handling and Preparation of Foods
    77. 77. Mga Ginintuang Alituntunin ng World Health Organization Para sa Ligtas na Paghahanda ng Pagkain 1. Piliin ang pagkain na pinoproseso para matiyak na ito ay ligtas. 2. Lutuing mabuti ang pagkain. 3. Kainin kaagad ang mga nilutong pagkain. 4. Iimbak nang mabuti ang nilutong pagkain. 5. Muling initin nang lubos ang mga nilutong pagkain.
    78. 78. Mga Ginintuang Alituntunin ng World Health Organization Para sa Ligtas na Paghahanda ng Pagkain 6. Iwasang masagi ng hilaw na pagkain ang mga nilutong pagkain. 7. Maghugas ng kamay nang madalas. 8. Panatilihing malinis ang mga lugar na pinaghahandaan ng pagkain. 9. Pangalagaan ang mga pagkain laban sa mga insekto, daga at iba pang hayop. 10. Gumamit ng malinis na tubig.
    79. 79. Kumain ng iba’t ibang uri ng pagkain araw-araw. Pasusuhin ang sanggol ng gatas ng ina lamang mula pagkasilang hanggang 6 na buwan at saka bigyan ng mga angkop na pagkain habang pinapasuso pa. Panatilihin ang tamang paglaki ng bata sa pamamagitan ng palagiang pagsubaybay sa kanyang timbang. Kumain ng isda, karne, manok, o tuyong butong-gulay. Kumain ng maraming gulay, prutas at lamang-ugat.
    80. 80. Para sa malusog na pamumuhay at wastong nutrisyon, mag-ehersisyo nang palagian, huwag manigarilyo, at iwasan ang pag-inom ng alak. Kumain araw-araw ng mga pagkaing niluto sa mantika o edible oil. Uminom ng gatas araw-araw at kumain ng produkto nito, mga pagkaing mayaman sa kalsiyum gaya ng maliliit na isda (tulad ng dilis) at madahong berdeng gulay. Gumamit ng iodized salt (asin na may yodo) subali’t iwasan ang masyadong maalat na pagkain. Kumain ng malinis at ligtas na pagkain.
    81. 81. National Nutrition Council National Capital Region Rooms 113 & 114, Bldg 2, Center for Health Development-MM, Welfareville Compound, Mandaluyong City For additonal information: 533-2713; Website:
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    84. 84. Makinig at matuto! “ Radyo Mo sa Nutrisyon” Tuwing Sabado 12:30 -1:00 pm Anchored by: A/Sec.and NNC ED Maria Bernardita T. Flores at Mr. Rey Mercaral
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