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Part I. Wastong Nutrisyon
para sa Pamilya
Marilou R. Enteria
Nutrition Officer II
National Nutrition Council
Pag-uusapin natin…
1. Kalagayang pang-nutrisyon ng bansa
2. Epekto ng malnutrisyon
3. Basic Nutrition
4. Pag-plano ng pagk...
1. Hunger
2. Protein-energy malnutrition
3. Micronutrient deficiencies
4. Overnutrition
5. Diet-related noncommunicable or...
Underweight
children : 26%
adults : 12%
Iodine deficiency disorders
children : 11%
Iron deficiency anemia
infants : 56%
pr...
Area and Families
Affected
2009 2010 2011
1st
Qtr 2nd
Qtr 3rd
Qtr 4th
Qtr 1st
Qtr 2nd
Qtr 3rd
Qtr 4th
Qtr 1st
Qtr 2nd
Qtr
...
Violation of
human
rights
Malnourished
children
Inability to concentrate
in school
School
drop-out
Lack skill/
low literac...
Activity 1
1. Ilista ang mga karaniwang pagkain na
inihahanda sa almusal, tanghalian at
hapunan (10 minuto).
Almusal Tangh...
Basic Nutrition
a. GO, GROW, GLOW food groups
b. How to meet nutritional requirements
GROWGROW
Rice
GOGO
GLOWGLOW
MILKMILK
• Rich in carbohydrates, main source
of energy
• Sources are: rice & rice products, corn
& corn products, cereals, bread &...
GO foods
Lack of carbohydrates may result in:
• Underweight and/or loss of weight
• General weakness
• Poor physical perfo...
• Fats are also included in this food group
• It is a concentrated source of energy and
helps absorb, transport and store ...
Lack of fat in daily meals results in:
• Underweight
• Sluggishness
• Skin irritations similar to eczema
• Signs and sympt...
Rice Substitutes
• Camote
• Cassava (kamoteng kahoy)
• Gabi
• Saging Saba
• Rich in protein needed for building and
repairing body tissues for growth and
maintenance
GROW
foods
MILKMILK
• Builds r...
GROW
foods
MILKMILK
• Sources are: meat,
internal organs,
chicken, eggs, fish,
shellfish, milk, milk
products, munggo
and ...
GROW foods
Lack of protein results in:
• Retarded growth in children
• Low resistance to infection at any age
• Slow recov...
GLOW foodsGLOW foods
• Rich in vitamins and
minerals, these are
essential for body
functions; also
important for growth
an...
What is a healthy diet?
• Emphasizes fruits, vegetables, whole
grains, root crops & fat-free or low fat milk
• Includes le...
How do we meet these
requirements?
Use the Food Pyramid as guide
Requirements of various age
groups
Food
group
Recommended Amounts
1-3 y/o 4-6 y/o 7-9 y/o 10/12 y/o
Rice and
alterna-
tive...
Requirements of various age
groups
Food
group
Recommended Amounts
1-3 y/o 4-6 y/o 7-9 y/o 10/12 y/o
Meat and
alterna-
tive...
Requirements of various age
groups
Food
group
Recommended Amounts
1-3 y/o 4-6 y/o 7-9 y/o 10/12 y/o
Egg ½ piece ½ piece ½ ...
Requirements of various age
groups
Food
group
Recommended Amounts
1-3 y/o 4-6 y/o 7-9 y/o 10/12 y/o
Green and
leafy
vegeta...
Requirements of various age
groups
Food
group
Recommended Amounts
1-3 y/o 4-6 y/o 7-9 y/o 10/12 y/o
Fats and
Oils
6
teaspo...
Requirements of various age
groups
Food
group
Recommended Amounts
13-15y/o 16-19 y/o Adult, 20-39 y/o
Rice and
alterna-
ti...
Requirements of various age
groups
Food
group
Recommended Amounts
13-15y/o 16-19 y/o Adult, 20-39 y/o
Meat and
alterna-
ti...
Requirements of various age
groups
Food
group
Recommended Amounts
13-15y/o 16-19 y/o Adult, 20-39 y/o
Egg 1 piece,
medium
...
Requirements of various age
groups
Food
group
Recommended Amounts
13-15y/o 16-19 y/o Adult, 20-39 y/o
Green and
leafy
vege...
Requirements of various age
groups
Food
group
Recommended Amounts
13-15y/o 16-19 y/o Adult, 20-39 y/o
Fats and
Oils
6-8
te...
How do we meet these
requirements?
Proper meal planning
– think VARIETY of foods!
How do we meet these
requirements?
 Proper meal
planning
• Preparation of low-cost
menus
• All food groups present
when p...
Considerations in Meal Planning
1. Adequacy and availability of foods
2. Traditions and customs
3. Economic resources/cons...
Considerations in Meal Planning
6. Seasonality
7. Staying quality of food
8. Ease of food preparation
9. Meal patterns
Guides for planning meals
1. Select food that meets the nutritional
needs of those who will eat.
2. Consider food for each...
4. Select food suitable for the meal.
5. Consider the personal likes and dislikes
of the group.
6. Select foods that combi...
8. Have daily variety.
9. Select foods in season when possible.
10.Avoid serving more than two dishes of
concentrated food...
12. Select food that is easily served.
13. Select foods after due consideration of
the equipment on hand.
14. Consider the...
Low-cost menus
• Use of available resources
• Use of indigenous fruits and vegetables
• Example of a low-cost menu:
Breakf...
Activity 2
1. Gumawa ng isang plano ng pagkain para
sa isang linggo para sa pamilyang may
apat na miyembro. (15 minuto)
M ...
. . . fosters an adequate
and balanced diet as well
as desirable food and
nutrition practices and
healthy habits
. . . are primary
recommendations to
promote good health
through proper nutrition.
Kumain ngKumain ng
iba’t ibangiba’t ibang
uri nguri ng
pagkainpagkain
araw-arawaraw-araw
Eat a variety of foods
everyday
• The human body needs more than 40
different nutrients for good health.
• No single food ...
Balanced Diet
• Contains all the
nutrients and other
substances found
naturally in food, in
proper amounts and
proportions...
Benefits of eating a
balanced diet
• Full mental development
• Better concentration
• Feel better
• More pleasant
Mean one–day per capita food consumption, in grams,
Philippines, 1978 - 2003
Food group and subgroup Consumption (gram), r...
Pasusuhin angPasusuhin ang
sanggol ng gatas ni inasanggol ng gatas ni ina
lamang mulalamang mula
pagkasilang hanggangpagka...
BreastfeedingBreastfeeding
• One of the most effective strategies to improve
child survival
• Nutritional requirements of ...
ExclusiveExclusive
breastfeedingbreastfeeding
• Means nothing (except
medicines and water by
dropper, spoon or cup) is
fed...
35.9 36.8
27.3
0.0 0.5
39.4
59.8
0.3 0.6
21.6
65.7
12.2
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
0-5 months 12-23 months6-11 months
Perce...
Reason why BF stopped, 2008
Source: 7th
National Nutrition Survey, FNRI-DOST, 2008
Complementary foodsComplementary foods
• Foods provided IN ADDITION to
breastmilk at 6 completed months and
when baby is p...
Complementary foodsComplementary foods
• Foods provided IN ADDITION to
breastmilk at 6 completed months
and when baby is p...
Panatilihin ang tamangPanatilihin ang tamang
paglaki ng bata sapaglaki ng bata sa
pamamagitan ng palagiangpamamagitan ng p...
Growth monitoringGrowth monitoring
• Growth can be tracked by regularly taking
the weight and measuring the height of a
ch...
Growth chartGrowth chart
• Used to assess growth rate, detect
growth abnormalities, monitor health
and nutritional status,...
Well-nourished childWell-nourished child
• Healthy
• Strong
• Alert
• Has good disposition
• Grows at normal rate
Poor nourished childPoor nourished child
• Exhibit sluggishness
• May have delay in physical
and mental development
• Leth...
Overnourished childOvernourished child
• Obese
• May cause physical and
emotional problems in
childhood and later in life
...
Provide adequate diet to an active
child that will promote good
health and normal growth
Kumain ngKumain ng
isda, karne,isda, karne,
manok omanok o
tuyongtuyong
butongbutong
gulaygulay
Improving the Filipino dietImproving the Filipino diet
• Not only total quantity of food but
quality of food should be imp...
Improving the Filipino dietImproving the Filipino diet
• Fish, lean meat, poultry without skin,
and dried beans are low in...
Kumain ng maramingKumain ng maraming
gulay, prutas atgulay, prutas at
lamang-ugat.lamang-ugat.
Fruit, vegetable and root cropFruit, vegetable and root crop
consumptionconsumption
• Food consumption surveys conducted
b...
Value of vegetables in theValue of vegetables in the
dietdiet
• Green leafy and yellow vegetables
– Rich in beta-carotene;...
Value of vegetables in theValue of vegetables in the
dietdiet
• Green leafy vegetables
– Good sources of vitamin C, iron, ...
Importance of fruitsImportance of fruits
• Rich sources of vitamin C
–Help prevent scurvy
–Increase resistance to infectio...
Importance of fruitsImportance of fruits
• Yellow fruits are good sources of
vitamin A
• Source of dietary fiber
–Regulate...
RecommendationRecommendation
• Eat 4-5 servings of fruits and
vegetables every day
• Example of a serving:
– 1 med-sized b...
Value of roots and tubersValue of roots and tubers
• Add dietary energy to meals
• Provide dietary fiber and vitamins
• Ye...
KumainKumain
araw-arawaraw-araw
ng mgang mga
pagkaingpagkaing
niluto saniluto sa
mantika omantika o
edible oiledible oil
Fat and oil consumptionFat and oil consumption
• Filipinos use very little oil in cooking
• Total consumption of fats and ...
Fats and oilsFats and oils
• Concentrated sources of energy
• Increases energy content of food
without increasing its quan...
Fats and oilsFats and oils
• Source of essential fatty acids
• Help prevent chronic energy deficiency
(CED)
• Lower risk o...
RecommendationsRecommendations
• Filipinos are encouraged to
stir-fry foods in vegetable oil or
add fats and oils if possi...
Uminom ng gatasUminom ng gatas
araw-araw ataraw-araw at
kumain ng mgakumain ng mga
produkto nito, mgaprodukto nito, mga
pa...
Calcium consumptionCalcium consumption
• Nutrition surveys indicate that Filipinos
fail to meet dietary recommendation for...
Role of CalciumRole of Calcium
• Makes skeleton dense and
strong
• Essential for normal growth of
skeleton and teeth
• Reg...
Milk and milk productsMilk and milk products
• Good sources of highly
absorbable calcium,
protein, vitamin A
• Rich in rib...
Other sources ofOther sources of
calciumcalcium
• Fish
– Small ones eaten with bones like dilis,
sardines
• Soy bean curd ...
Gumamit ngGumamit ng
iodized saltiodized salt
(asin na may(asin na may
yodo) subali’tyodo) subali’t
iwasan angiwasan ang
m...
Preventing goiter and IDDPreventing goiter and IDD
1. Consume foods grown in iodine-rich soils
2. Eat iodine-rich foods su...
Salt and hypertensionSalt and hypertension
High sodium
intake
High
blood
pressure
Increases risk
of heart
disease,
stroke ...
Kumain ngKumain ng
malinis atmalinis at
ligtas naligtas na
pagkainpagkain
Food safetyFood safety
“All conditions and measures that are
necessary during the production,
processing, storage, distrib...
• Buy foods that are safe
– Purchase from reliable sources
• Foods should be kept clean at all
stages – from production to...
Preventing food-bornePreventing food-borne
diseasesdiseases
1. Practice good personal hygiene.
2. Drink safe water.
3. Pra...
Para sa malusogPara sa malusog
na pamumuhayna pamumuhay
at wastongat wastong
nutrisyon, mag-nutrisyon, mag-
ehersisyo nang...
Why prevent dreadedWhy prevent dreaded
disease?disease?
• Affects productivity
– Absenteeism at school, work
• Costly
– Me...
Leading causes of morbidity
CauseCause Rate per 100,000Rate per 100,000
PopulationPopulation
1. Acute lower RTI and pneumo...
Leading causes of mortality, 2005
Cause Rate per 100,000
Population
1. Heart diseases1. Heart diseases 90.490.4
2. Vascula...
What is healthy lifestyle?
• Way of life that promotes and
protects health and well-being
— Department of Health
HL to the MAXHL to the MAX
1. No smoking (Huwag manigarilyo)
2. Don’t drink (Iwas alak)
3. No to illegal drugs (Talo ka sa...
Why is a healthy lifestyleWhy is a healthy lifestyle
important?important?
• Prevent dreaded chronic
diseases
– Heart disea...
Part II. Proper Handling
and Preparation of Foods
Mga Ginintuang Alituntunin ng World
Health Organization Para sa Ligtas na
Paghahanda ng Pagkain
1. Piliin ang pagkain na p...
Mga Ginintuang Alituntunin ng World
Health Organization Para sa Ligtas na
Paghahanda ng Pagkain
6. Iwasang masagi ng hilaw...
Biological contaminants
 Bacteria
 Fungi
 Viruses
 Parasites
Chemical contaminants
 Occur naturally or as result of human
activities
 Agricultural chemicals, food additives, drugs
...
Physical contaminants
 Glass
 Metal
 Wood
 Plastic
 Bones
 Stone
 Hair
How foods are contaminated
Chemical contamination
 Naturally-occurring toxins
 Aflatoxin
 Amanita
 Dinoflagellates – “...
How foods are contaminated
Chemical contamination
 Agricultural chemicals
 Maximum residue level (MRL)
 Washing, proces...
How foods are contaminated
Chemical contamination
 Food additives
 Used to enhance appearance &
improve nutritive value,...
How foods are contaminated
Chemical contamination
 Drugs for animal growth
 Penicillin
 Tetracycline
How foods are contaminated
Chemical contamination
 Mercury
 Most harmful heavy metal contaminant
 Highly toxic, easily ...
How foods are contaminated
Chemical contamination
 Other chemicals in food
 Formalin
 Shoe/cloth dye – jobos
Which foods pose the greatest
risk to human health?
 Foods of animal origin primary source of
microbes
 May occur in liv...
Poultry meat and eggs
 Incidence of contamination highest in
poultry
 Eggs carry salmonella
 Important precaution is th...
Red meats
 Can be contaminated with pathogenic
microbes
 Grinding meat may spread the microbes
 Thoroughly cooked befor...
Dairy products
 Raw milk can contain various pathogens
from the dairy animal or environment
 Pathogens destroyed by past...
Shellfish
 Inadequately heat-treated shellfish can
cause a range of infections due to
bacteria e.g. Vibrio and Shigella
Avoiding contamination
 At farm level
 Critical control points at every stage in
animal rearing & crop production
 Fres...
Avoiding contamination
 At food manufacturer level
 Use good quality raw materials
 Follow Good Manufacturing
Practices...
Avoiding contamination
 At consumer level
 Personal hygiene
 Environmental sanitation – proper
waste disposal, keep gar...
Kumain ng iba’t ibang uri ng pagkain
araw-araw.
Pasusuhin ang sanggol ng gatas ng ina
lamang mula pagkasilang hanggang 6 n...
Para sa malusog na pamumuhay at
wastong nutrisyon, mag-ehersisyo nang
palagian, huwag manigarilyo, at iwasan ang
pag-inom ...
For more information:
• www.nnc.gov.ph
• Like us on Facebook
– WASTONG NUTRISYON
– Radyo Mo sa Nutrisyon
– Why Not?
• www....
Thank you!Thank you!
Modyul 2 sub modyul 2.4 paksa 1 sesyon 4 good nutrition for families
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Modyul 2 sub modyul 2.4 paksa 1 sesyon 4 good nutrition for families

  1. 1. Part I. Wastong Nutrisyon para sa Pamilya Marilou R. Enteria Nutrition Officer II National Nutrition Council
  2. 2. Pag-uusapin natin… 1. Kalagayang pang-nutrisyon ng bansa 2. Epekto ng malnutrisyon 3. Basic Nutrition 4. Pag-plano ng pagkain sa pamilya 5. Gabay sa Wastong Nutrisyon
  3. 3. 1. Hunger 2. Protein-energy malnutrition 3. Micronutrient deficiencies 4. Overnutrition 5. Diet-related noncommunicable or lifestyle-related diseases (e.g. diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cancers and cardiovascular diseases) Mga problema sa nutrisyon
  4. 4. Underweight children : 26% adults : 12% Iodine deficiency disorders children : 11% Iron deficiency anemia infants : 56% pregnant : 43% Vitamin A deficiency children : 15% Increase in diet-related non- communicable diseases Kalagayang pang-nutrisyon
  5. 5. Area and Families Affected 2009 2010 2011 1st Qtr 2nd Qtr 3rd Qtr 4th Qtr 1st Qtr 2nd Qtr 3rd Qtr 4th Qtr 1st Qtr 2nd Qtr Severe Hunger 4.4 4.3 3.0 4.7 2.8 4.2 3.1 3.1 4.7 2.0 Number of Families (‘000) 811 790 550 867 526* 789 583 583 900 403 Moderate Hunger 11.1 16.0 14.5 19.3 18.4 16.9 12.9 15.0 15.7 13.1 Number of Families (‘000) 2,050 2,950 2,670 3,560 3,460* 3,178 2,425 2,820 3,006 2,600 Total Hunger Incidence 15.5 20.3 17.5 24.0 21.2 21.1 15.9 18.1 20.5 15.5 Number of Families (‘000) 2,860 3,740 3,230 4,427 3,986* 3,967 2,990 3,403 3,925 3,000 National Capital Region 17.3 22.3 24.7 27.0 17.3 22.0 20.3 21.7 20.7 13.0 Balance Luzon 15.0 14.3 13.5 21.2 20.9 18.3 14.7 18.3 25 9.7 Visayas 19.7 21.0 19.0 27.9 21.2 21.0 15.3 15.3 14.7 21.0 Mindanao 11.7 30.0 19.7 24.5 24.0 26.0 16.3 18.0 16.7 21.7 Hunger Incidence TANONG: “Nitong nakaraang 3 buwan, nangyari po ba kahit minsan na ang inyong pamilya ay nakaranas ng gutom at wala kayong makain? Kung oo, nangyari po ba yan ng minsan lamang, ilan beses, madalas o palagi?” Source: Social Weather Stations * Estimated number of hungry families in 2010 computed based on 2010 projected population (medium assumption)
  6. 6. Violation of human rights Malnourished children Inability to concentrate in school School drop-out Lack skill/ low literacy Under/unemployed malnourished adults Low productivity Poverty Weak resistance Infections Early death Epekto ng malnutrisyon
  7. 7. Activity 1 1. Ilista ang mga karaniwang pagkain na inihahanda sa almusal, tanghalian at hapunan (10 minuto). Almusal Tanghalian Hapunan
  8. 8. Basic Nutrition a. GO, GROW, GLOW food groups b. How to meet nutritional requirements
  9. 9. GROWGROW Rice GOGO GLOWGLOW MILKMILK
  10. 10. • Rich in carbohydrates, main source of energy • Sources are: rice & rice products, corn & corn products, cereals, bread & other bakery products, starchy roots & tubers, rice flour and other noodles Rice GO foods
  11. 11. GO foods Lack of carbohydrates may result in: • Underweight and/or loss of weight • General weakness • Poor physical performance • Fainting or collapse, in severe deficiency
  12. 12. • Fats are also included in this food group • It is a concentrated source of energy and helps absorb, transport and store fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, K • Fats provides essential fatty acids which have important functions in the body GO foods
  13. 13. Lack of fat in daily meals results in: • Underweight • Sluggishness • Skin irritations similar to eczema • Signs and symptoms of fat-soluble vitamin deficiencies, esp. vitamin A GO foods
  14. 14. Rice Substitutes • Camote • Cassava (kamoteng kahoy) • Gabi • Saging Saba
  15. 15. • Rich in protein needed for building and repairing body tissues for growth and maintenance GROW foods MILKMILK • Builds resistance to infection • Supplies additional energy
  16. 16. GROW foods MILKMILK • Sources are: meat, internal organs, chicken, eggs, fish, shellfish, milk, milk products, munggo and other dried beans, nuts
  17. 17. GROW foods Lack of protein results in: • Retarded growth in children • Low resistance to infection at any age • Slow recovery from illness • Low birth weight • Anemia • Loss of weight • Edema, skin lesions, mental sluggishness
  18. 18. GLOW foodsGLOW foods • Rich in vitamins and minerals, these are essential for body functions; also important for growth and normal functioning of the body • Rich source of fiber
  19. 19. What is a healthy diet? • Emphasizes fruits, vegetables, whole grains, root crops & fat-free or low fat milk • Includes lean meats, poultry, fish, beans, egg & nuts • Is low in saturated, trans fats, cholesterol, salt (sodium) & added sugars
  20. 20. How do we meet these requirements? Use the Food Pyramid as guide
  21. 21. Requirements of various age groups Food group Recommended Amounts 1-3 y/o 4-6 y/o 7-9 y/o 10/12 y/o Rice and alterna- tives 2-3½ cups, cooked 3-4½ cups, cooked 4-5 cups, cooked 5½-6 cups, cooked 1 serving of rice or alternatives = 1 cup rice, cooked, or 4 pcs. pandesal, or 4 slices of loaf bread, or 1 cup macaroni, spaghetti, cooked, or 1 pack instant noodles, or 1 small size root crop
  22. 22. Requirements of various age groups Food group Recommended Amounts 1-3 y/o 4-6 y/o 7-9 y/o 10/12 y/o Meat and alterna- tives 1 serving 1 1/3 servings 2 1/3 servings 2 servings Fish/Meat/Poultry/Dried Beans/Nuts 1 serving of fish = 2 pieces (16 cm long); 1 serving of meat/poultry = 30 g lean meat, cooked, or 1½ cups cooked dried beans
  23. 23. Requirements of various age groups Food group Recommended Amounts 1-3 y/o 4-6 y/o 7-9 y/o 10/12 y/o Egg ½ piece ½ piece ½ piece ½ piece Whole Milk 1 glass 1 glass 1 glass 1 glass 1 glass = 240 ml (1 glass whole milk is equivalent to 4 Tbsp powdered whole milk or ½ cup evaporated milk diluted in 1 glass of water)
  24. 24. Requirements of various age groups Food group Recommended Amounts 1-3 y/o 4-6 y/o 7-9 y/o 10/12 y/o Green and leafy vegetables ¼ cup cooked 1/3 cup cooked 1/3 cup cooked ½ cup cooked Other vegetables 2 Tbsp. cooked ¼ cup cooked ½ cup cooked ½ cup cooked Vitamin C rich fruits ½ medium size or 1 slice of a big fruit ½-1 medium size or 1 slice of a big fruit 1 medium size or 1 slice of a big fruit 1 medium size or 1 slice of a big fruit Other fruits ½ medium size or 1 slice ½-1 medium size or 1 slice 1 medium size or 1 slice 1 medium size or 1 slice
  25. 25. Requirements of various age groups Food group Recommended Amounts 1-3 y/o 4-6 y/o 7-9 y/o 10/12 y/o Fats and Oils 6 teaspoons 6 teaspoons 6 teaspoons 6-8 teaspoons Sugar 4 teaspoons 5 teaspoons 5 teaspoons 5-6 teaspoons Water and Beverages 4-6 glasses (240 mL) 5-7 glasses 6-8 glasses 6-8 glasses
  26. 26. Requirements of various age groups Food group Recommended Amounts 13-15y/o 16-19 y/o Adult, 20-39 y/o Rice and alterna- tives 6-7 cups, cooked 6½-8 cups cooked 5½-8 cups, cooked 1 serving of rice or alternatives = 1 cup rice, cooked, or 4 pcs. pandesal, or 4 slices of loaf bread, or 1 cup macaroni, spaghetti, cooked or 1 pack instant noodles, or 1 small size root crop
  27. 27. Requirements of various age groups Food group Recommended Amounts 13-15y/o 16-19 y/o Adult, 20-39 y/o Meat and alterna- tives 2½ servings 2½ servings 2¾-3 servings Fish/Meat/Poultry/Dried Beans/Nuts 1 serving of fish = 2 pieces (16 cm long); 1 serving of meat/poultry = 30 g lean meat, cooked, or 1½ cups cooked dried beans
  28. 28. Requirements of various age groups Food group Recommended Amounts 13-15y/o 16-19 y/o Adult, 20-39 y/o Egg 1 piece, medium size (3-4x a week) 1 piece, medium size (3-4x a week) 1 piece, medium size (3-4x a week) Whole Milk 1 glass 1 glass 1 glass 1 glass = 240 ml (1 glass whole milk is equivalent to 4 Tbsp powdered whole milk or ½ cup evaporated milk diluted in 1 glass of water)
  29. 29. Requirements of various age groups Food group Recommended Amounts 13-15y/o 16-19 y/o Adult, 20-39 y/o Green and leafy vegetables ¾ cup cooked ¾ cup cooked ¾ cup cooked Other vegetables ¾ cup cooked ¾ cup cooked ¾ cup cooked Vitamin C rich fruits 2 servings 2 servings 1 medium size or 1 slice of a big fruit Other fruits 1 serving 1 serving 1 medium size or 1 slice of a big fruit
  30. 30. Requirements of various age groups Food group Recommended Amounts 13-15y/o 16-19 y/o Adult, 20-39 y/o Fats and Oils 6-8 teaspoons 6-8 teaspoons 6-8 teaspoons Sugar 5-6 teaspoons 5-6 teaspoons 5-8 teaspoons Water and Beverages 6-8 glasses (240 mL each) 6-8 glasses 6-8 glasses
  31. 31. How do we meet these requirements? Proper meal planning – think VARIETY of foods!
  32. 32. How do we meet these requirements?  Proper meal planning • Preparation of low-cost menus • All food groups present when planning for meals GO,GROW, GLOW!
  33. 33. Considerations in Meal Planning 1. Adequacy and availability of foods 2. Traditions and customs 3. Economic resources/considerations 4. Personal likes and dislikes 5. Suitable combinations of foods
  34. 34. Considerations in Meal Planning 6. Seasonality 7. Staying quality of food 8. Ease of food preparation 9. Meal patterns
  35. 35. Guides for planning meals 1. Select food that meets the nutritional needs of those who will eat. 2. Consider food for each meal in relation to food plans for the day. 3. Keep the food value of any given meal essentially the same, day after day.
  36. 36. 4. Select food suitable for the meal. 5. Consider the personal likes and dislikes of the group. 6. Select foods that combine pleasingly. 7. Have contrast in the food in color, texture, form and temperature. Guides for planning meals
  37. 37. 8. Have daily variety. 9. Select foods in season when possible. 10.Avoid serving more than two dishes of concentrated food in any one meal. 11.Select food that is easily prepared. Guides for planning meals
  38. 38. 12. Select food that is easily served. 13. Select foods after due consideration of the equipment on hand. 14. Consider the cost in relation to the food allowance for the day. Guides for planning meals
  39. 39. Low-cost menus • Use of available resources • Use of indigenous fruits and vegetables • Example of a low-cost menu: Breakfast Hard cooked egg Rice Fresh fruit Lunch Nilagang Manok Rice Fresh fruit Dinner Fried galunggong Pinakbet Rice Fresh fruit
  40. 40. Activity 2 1. Gumawa ng isang plano ng pagkain para sa isang linggo para sa pamilyang may apat na miyembro. (15 minuto) M T W Th F S S B L D
  41. 41. . . . fosters an adequate and balanced diet as well as desirable food and nutrition practices and healthy habits
  42. 42. . . . are primary recommendations to promote good health through proper nutrition.
  43. 43. Kumain ngKumain ng iba’t ibangiba’t ibang uri nguri ng pagkainpagkain araw-arawaraw-araw
  44. 44. Eat a variety of foods everyday • The human body needs more than 40 different nutrients for good health. • No single food can provide all the nutrients in the amounts needed.
  45. 45. Balanced Diet • Contains all the nutrients and other substances found naturally in food, in proper amounts and proportions needed by the body to function well
  46. 46. Benefits of eating a balanced diet • Full mental development • Better concentration • Feel better • More pleasant
  47. 47. Mean one–day per capita food consumption, in grams, Philippines, 1978 - 2003 Food group and subgroup Consumption (gram), raw as purchased 1978 1982 1987 1993 2003 Cereals and cereal product 367 356 345 340 364 Starch roots and tubers 37 42 22 17 19 Sugars and syrups 19 22 24 19 24 Fats and oils 13 14 14 12 18 Fish, meat and poultry 133 154 157 147 185 Eggs 8 9 10 12 13 Milk and milk products 42 44 43 44 49 Dried beans, nuts and seeds 8 10 10 10 10 Vegetables 145 130 111 106 111 Green, leafy, yellow 34 37 29 30 31 Other vegetables 111 93 82 76 80 Fruits 104 102 107 77 54 Vitamin C-rich 30 18 24 21 12 Other fruits 74 84 83 56 42 Miscellaneous 21 32 26 19 39 Total 897 915 869 803 886 Source: National Nutrition Surveys: 1978-2003, FNRI
  48. 48. Pasusuhin angPasusuhin ang sanggol ng gatas ni inasanggol ng gatas ni ina lamang mulalamang mula pagkasilang hanggangpagkasilang hanggang 6 na buwan at saka6 na buwan at saka bigyan ng mga angkopbigyan ng mga angkop na pagkain habangna pagkain habang pinapasuso pa.pinapasuso pa.
  49. 49. BreastfeedingBreastfeeding • One of the most effective strategies to improve child survival • Nutritional requirements of an infant can be obtained solely from breastmilk for the first 6 months of life • Decision to breastfeed is made by the mother with the support and encouragement from husband, family and the community
  50. 50. ExclusiveExclusive breastfeedingbreastfeeding • Means nothing (except medicines and water by dropper, spoon or cup) is fed to the infant other than breastmilk
  51. 51. 35.9 36.8 27.3 0.0 0.5 39.4 59.8 0.3 0.6 21.6 65.7 12.2 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 0-5 months 12-23 months6-11 months Percentage Breastfeeding and ComplementaryBreastfeeding and Complementary Feeding, 2008Feeding, 2008 Exclusive breastfeeding Breastfeeding + Complementary Fdg. Other milk or other milk + other foods Other foods Source: 7th National Nutrition Survey, FNRI-DOST, 2008
  52. 52. Reason why BF stopped, 2008 Source: 7th National Nutrition Survey, FNRI-DOST, 2008
  53. 53. Complementary foodsComplementary foods • Foods provided IN ADDITION to breastmilk at 6 completed months and when baby is physically ready: – Doubled birth weight – Can hold head straight when sitting up – Opens mouth when food approaches
  54. 54. Complementary foodsComplementary foods • Foods provided IN ADDITION to breastmilk at 6 completed months and when baby is physically ready: – Interested in foods when others eat – Able to transfer food from the front of the tongue to the back – Able to swallow
  55. 55. Panatilihin ang tamangPanatilihin ang tamang paglaki ng bata sapaglaki ng bata sa pamamagitan ng palagiangpamamagitan ng palagiang pagsubaybay sa kanyangpagsubaybay sa kanyang timbangtimbang
  56. 56. Growth monitoringGrowth monitoring • Growth can be tracked by regularly taking the weight and measuring the height of a child • Can be assessed with the use of reference tables such as: – Weigh-for-age – Height-for-age – Weight-for-length – Weight-for-height
  57. 57. Growth chartGrowth chart • Used to assess growth rate, detect growth abnormalities, monitor health and nutritional status, and evaluate the effects of nutrition intervention
  58. 58. Well-nourished childWell-nourished child • Healthy • Strong • Alert • Has good disposition • Grows at normal rate
  59. 59. Poor nourished childPoor nourished child • Exhibit sluggishness • May have delay in physical and mental development • Lethargic • Frequently ill
  60. 60. Overnourished childOvernourished child • Obese • May cause physical and emotional problems in childhood and later in life – Predisposed to non- communicable diseases
  61. 61. Provide adequate diet to an active child that will promote good health and normal growth
  62. 62. Kumain ngKumain ng isda, karne,isda, karne, manok omanok o tuyongtuyong butongbutong gulaygulay
  63. 63. Improving the Filipino dietImproving the Filipino diet • Not only total quantity of food but quality of food should be improved • Inclusion of fish, lean meat, poultry, or dried beans will enhance quality of diet – Supplies highly absorbable iron, preformed vitamin A and zinc
  64. 64. Improving the Filipino dietImproving the Filipino diet • Fish, lean meat, poultry without skin, and dried beans are low in saturated fats, which are linked to heart disease
  65. 65. Kumain ng maramingKumain ng maraming gulay, prutas atgulay, prutas at lamang-ugat.lamang-ugat.
  66. 66. Fruit, vegetable and root cropFruit, vegetable and root crop consumptionconsumption • Food consumption surveys conducted by FNRI show that the average consumption of green leafy and yellow vegetables, vitamin C-rich fruits and root crops are low in the Filipino diet • Most Filipinos eat fewer servings of fruits and vegetables than recommended amount
  67. 67. Value of vegetables in theValue of vegetables in the dietdiet • Green leafy and yellow vegetables – Rich in beta-carotene; source of vitamin A in the diet – Widely available and low cost source of vitamin A compared to animal sources – Examples are malunggay, saluyot, kangkong and kamote tops
  68. 68. Value of vegetables in theValue of vegetables in the dietdiet • Green leafy vegetables – Good sources of vitamin C, iron, calcium, dietary fiber, folic acid, vitamin E and other phytochemicals • Non-leafy vegetables (eggplant, string beans, sayote, upo, ampalaya, etc.) – Source of dietary fiber, iron and B-complex vitamins; give variety to meals
  69. 69. Importance of fruitsImportance of fruits • Rich sources of vitamin C –Help prevent scurvy –Increase resistance to infection –Facilitate absorption of non-heme iron • Contribute to additional vitamins and minerals
  70. 70. Importance of fruitsImportance of fruits • Yellow fruits are good sources of vitamin A • Source of dietary fiber –Regulates bowel movement –Prevents constipation
  71. 71. RecommendationRecommendation • Eat 4-5 servings of fruits and vegetables every day • Example of a serving: – 1 med-sized banana – 1 slice of papaya – ½ cup cooked leafy vegetable
  72. 72. Value of roots and tubersValue of roots and tubers • Add dietary energy to meals • Provide dietary fiber and vitamins • Yellow kamote – beta-carotene • Potato – vitamin C • Recommended to consume roots and tubers at least 3x a week
  73. 73. KumainKumain araw-arawaraw-araw ng mgang mga pagkaingpagkaing niluto saniluto sa mantika omantika o edible oiledible oil
  74. 74. Fat and oil consumptionFat and oil consumption • Filipinos use very little oil in cooking • Total consumption of fats and oils in Filipino diet is low • Low fat and oil consumption may: – Result to chronic energy deficiency – Contribute to VADD among Filipinos
  75. 75. Fats and oilsFats and oils • Concentrated sources of energy • Increases energy content of food without increasing its quantity • Enhances flavor of meals • Facilitates absorption and utilization of fat soluble vitamins such as vitamin A
  76. 76. Fats and oilsFats and oils • Source of essential fatty acids • Help prevent chronic energy deficiency (CED) • Lower risk of VADD • Excessive consumption of saturated fats and oils may increase risk of heart disease
  77. 77. RecommendationsRecommendations • Filipinos are encouraged to stir-fry foods in vegetable oil or add fats and oils if possible in food preparation • Choose the right fats and oils to prevent heart disease, e.g. poly/monounsaturated fats
  78. 78. Uminom ng gatasUminom ng gatas araw-araw ataraw-araw at kumain ng mgakumain ng mga produkto nito, mgaprodukto nito, mga pagkaing mayamanpagkaing mayaman sa kalsiyum gayasa kalsiyum gaya ng maliliit na isdang maliliit na isda (tulad ng dilis) at(tulad ng dilis) at madahong berdengmadahong berdeng gulay.gulay.
  79. 79. Calcium consumptionCalcium consumption • Nutrition surveys indicate that Filipinos fail to meet dietary recommendation for calcium • Adequate consumption of calcium prevents osteoporosis
  80. 80. Role of CalciumRole of Calcium • Makes skeleton dense and strong • Essential for normal growth of skeleton and teeth • Regulates heartbeat and muscle contraction
  81. 81. Milk and milk productsMilk and milk products • Good sources of highly absorbable calcium, protein, vitamin A • Rich in riboflavin, vitamin B12 and phosphorus
  82. 82. Other sources ofOther sources of calciumcalcium • Fish – Small ones eaten with bones like dilis, sardines • Soy bean curd (tokwa or tofu) • Small shrimps (alamang) • Green leafy vegetables – Malunggay leaves, saluyot, alugbati, mustasa
  83. 83. Gumamit ngGumamit ng iodized saltiodized salt (asin na may(asin na may yodo) subali’tyodo) subali’t iwasan angiwasan ang masyadongmasyadong maalat namaalat na pagkain.pagkain.
  84. 84. Preventing goiter and IDDPreventing goiter and IDD 1. Consume foods grown in iodine-rich soils 2. Eat iodine-rich foods such as seafood and seaweed 3. Regular consumption of foods fortified with iodine or prepared with iodized salt
  85. 85. Salt and hypertensionSalt and hypertension High sodium intake High blood pressure Increases risk of heart disease, stroke and other diseases Linked to
  86. 86. Kumain ngKumain ng malinis atmalinis at ligtas naligtas na pagkainpagkain
  87. 87. Food safetyFood safety “All conditions and measures that are necessary during the production, processing, storage, distribution and preparation of food to ensure that food is safe, sound, wholesome and fit for human consumption.” - WHO-FAO
  88. 88. • Buy foods that are safe – Purchase from reliable sources • Foods should be kept clean at all stages – from production to consumption • Practice food safety Clean and safe foodsClean and safe foods
  89. 89. Preventing food-bornePreventing food-borne diseasesdiseases 1. Practice good personal hygiene. 2. Drink safe water. 3. Practice good housekeeping 4. Clean and sanitize environment. Practice pest control. 5. Handle food safely. 6. Read food labels.
  90. 90. Para sa malusogPara sa malusog na pamumuhayna pamumuhay at wastongat wastong nutrisyon, mag-nutrisyon, mag- ehersisyo nangehersisyo nang palagian, huwagpalagian, huwag manigarilyo, atmanigarilyo, at iwasan ang pag-iwasan ang pag- inom ng alak.inom ng alak.
  91. 91. Why prevent dreadedWhy prevent dreaded disease?disease? • Affects productivity – Absenteeism at school, work • Costly – Medicines – Medical care • Net effect on not only individual but also community and nation
  92. 92. Leading causes of morbidity CauseCause Rate per 100,000Rate per 100,000 PopulationPopulation 1. Acute lower RTI and pneumonia1. Acute lower RTI and pneumonia 828.8828.8 2. Acute watery diarrhea2. Acute watery diarrhea 707.7707.7 3. Brochitis/Bronchioltis3. Brochitis/Bronchioltis 689.9689.9 4. Hypertension4. Hypertension 522.8522.8 5. Influenza5. Influenza 435.0435.0 6. TB respiratory6. TB respiratory 169.9169.9 7. Diseases of the heart7. Diseases of the heart 49.349.3 8. Acute febrile illness8. Acute febrile illness 32.532.5 9. Malaria9. Malaria 27.627.6 10. Dengue fever10. Dengue fever 19.619.6 Source: 2006 Morbdity Data from DOH website (www.doh.gov.ph/kp/statistics/morbidity)
  93. 93. Leading causes of mortality, 2005 Cause Rate per 100,000 Population 1. Heart diseases1. Heart diseases 90.490.4 2. Vascular system diseases2. Vascular system diseases 63.863.8 3. Malignant neoplasm3. Malignant neoplasm 48.948.9 4. Pneumonia4. Pneumonia 42.842.8 5. Accidents5. Accidents 39.139.1 6. Tuberculosis, all forms6. Tuberculosis, all forms 31.231.2 7. Chronic lower respiratory diseases7. Chronic lower respiratory diseases 24.624.6 8. Diabetes Mellitus8. Diabetes Mellitus 21.621.6 9. Certain conditions originating in perinatal period9. Certain conditions originating in perinatal period 14.514.5 10.10. Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosisNephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis 3.63.6 Source: 2005 Mortality Data from DOH website (www.doh.gov.ph/kp/statistics/mortality) accessed on 23 June 2010
  94. 94. What is healthy lifestyle? • Way of life that promotes and protects health and well-being — Department of Health
  95. 95. HL to the MAXHL to the MAX 1. No smoking (Huwag manigarilyo) 2. Don’t drink (Iwas alak) 3. No to illegal drugs (Talo ka sa droga) 4. Prevent hypertension (Bantay presyon) 5. Do physical activity (Katawang aktibo) 6. Manage stress (Bawas stress) 7. Eat low-fat, low-salt, high-fiber diet (Wastong pagkain)
  96. 96. Why is a healthy lifestyleWhy is a healthy lifestyle important?important? • Prevent dreaded chronic diseases – Heart disease – Diabetes – Cancers – Respiratory ailments • Prevent early death
  97. 97. Part II. Proper Handling and Preparation of Foods
  98. 98. Mga Ginintuang Alituntunin ng World Health Organization Para sa Ligtas na Paghahanda ng Pagkain 1. Piliin ang pagkain na pinoproseso para matiyak na ito ay ligtas. 2. Lutuing mabuti ang pagkain. 3. Kainin kaagad ang mga nilutong pagkain. 4. Iimbak nang mabuti ang nilutong pagkain. 5. Muling initin nang lubos ang mga nilutong pagkain.
  99. 99. Mga Ginintuang Alituntunin ng World Health Organization Para sa Ligtas na Paghahanda ng Pagkain 6. Iwasang masagi ng hilaw na pagkain ang mga nilutong pagkain. 7. Maghugas ng kamay nang madalas. 8. Panatilihing malinis ang mga lugar na pinaghahandaan ng pagkain. 9. Pangalagaan ang mga pagkain laban sa mga insekto, daga at iba pang hayop. 10. Gumamit ng malinis na tubig.
  100. 100. Biological contaminants  Bacteria  Fungi  Viruses  Parasites
  101. 101. Chemical contaminants  Occur naturally or as result of human activities  Agricultural chemicals, food additives, drugs  Environmental pollutants  Mercury, lead  Industrial wastes
  102. 102. Physical contaminants  Glass  Metal  Wood  Plastic  Bones  Stone  Hair
  103. 103. How foods are contaminated Chemical contamination  Naturally-occurring toxins  Aflatoxin  Amanita  Dinoflagellates – “red tide”
  104. 104. How foods are contaminated Chemical contamination  Agricultural chemicals  Maximum residue level (MRL)  Washing, processing, preparation could reduce pesticide residues
  105. 105. How foods are contaminated Chemical contamination  Food additives  Used to enhance appearance & improve nutritive value, taste, color, shelf-life  Some are toxic and/or carcinogenic
  106. 106. How foods are contaminated Chemical contamination  Drugs for animal growth  Penicillin  Tetracycline
  107. 107. How foods are contaminated Chemical contamination  Mercury  Most harmful heavy metal contaminant  Highly toxic, easily dispersed, volatile, tendency to bio-accumulate
  108. 108. How foods are contaminated Chemical contamination  Other chemicals in food  Formalin  Shoe/cloth dye – jobos
  109. 109. Which foods pose the greatest risk to human health?  Foods of animal origin primary source of microbes  May occur in live animal & remain after slaughter
  110. 110. Poultry meat and eggs  Incidence of contamination highest in poultry  Eggs carry salmonella  Important precaution is thorough cooking
  111. 111. Red meats  Can be contaminated with pathogenic microbes  Grinding meat may spread the microbes  Thoroughly cooked before serving
  112. 112. Dairy products  Raw milk can contain various pathogens from the dairy animal or environment  Pathogens destroyed by pasteurization & sterilization
  113. 113. Shellfish  Inadequately heat-treated shellfish can cause a range of infections due to bacteria e.g. Vibrio and Shigella
  114. 114. Avoiding contamination  At farm level  Critical control points at every stage in animal rearing & crop production  Fresh fruits & vegetables can be contaminated if fertilized with animal manure
  115. 115. Avoiding contamination  At food manufacturer level  Use good quality raw materials  Follow Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP)  Provide training programs for personnel  Exchange information on food safety
  116. 116. Avoiding contamination  At consumer level  Personal hygiene  Environmental sanitation – proper waste disposal, keep garbage cans covered, keep pets away from food supply
  117. 117. Kumain ng iba’t ibang uri ng pagkain araw-araw. Pasusuhin ang sanggol ng gatas ng ina lamang mula pagkasilang hanggang 6 na buwan at saka bigyan ng mga angkop na pagkain habang pinapasuso pa. Panatilihin ang tamang paglaki ng bata sa pamamagitan ng palagiang pagsubaybay sa kanyang timbang. Kumain ng isda, karne, manok, o tuyong butong-gulay. Kumain ng maraming gulay, prutas at lamang-ugat.
  118. 118. Para sa malusog na pamumuhay at wastong nutrisyon, mag-ehersisyo nang palagian, huwag manigarilyo, at iwasan ang pag-inom ng alak. Kumain araw-araw ng mga pagkaing niluto sa mantika o edible oil. Uminom ng gatas araw-araw at kumain ng produkto nito, mga pagkaing mayaman sa kalsiyum gaya ng maliliit na isda (tulad ng dilis) at madahong berdeng gulay. Gumamit ng iodized salt (asin na may yodo) subali’t iwasan ang masyadong maalat na pagkain. Kumain ng malinis at ligtas na pagkain.
  119. 119. For more information: • www.nnc.gov.ph • Like us on Facebook – WASTONG NUTRISYON – Radyo Mo sa Nutrisyon – Why Not? • www.philcommunityradio.com – One Nutrition, One Nation • www.nnc.gov.ph • Like us on Facebook – WASTONG NUTRISYON – Radyo Mo sa Nutrisyon – Why Not? • www.philcommunityradio.com – One Nutrition, One Nation • www.nnc.gov.ph • Like us on Facebook – WASTONG NUTRISYON – Radyo Mo sa Nutrisyon – Why Not? • www.philcommunityradio.com – One Nutrition, One Nation • www.nnc.gov.ph • Like us on Facebook – WASTONG NUTRISYON – Radyo Mo sa Nutrisyon – Why Not? • www.philcommunityradio.com – One Nutrition, One Nation
  120. 120. Thank you!Thank you!

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