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Modyul 2 sub modyul 2.2 paksa 4 sesyon 3 pwds presentationrevised


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Modyul 2 sub modyul 2.2 paksa 4 sesyon 3 pwds presentationrevised

  1. 1. DISABILITYDISABILITY In the Philippine scenario Social Technology Bureau Department of Social Welfare and Development
  2. 2. The face of disabilityThe face of disability in the Philippinesin the Philippines •Pegged at 10% of the total populationPegged at 10% of the total population (should be 8.86M based on August 2007(should be 8.86M based on August 2007 population census 88.6 million Filipinos )population census 88.6 million Filipinos ) •There could be more if we take the WHOThere could be more if we take the WHO projection for Asia-Pacific (10% - 15%)projection for Asia-Pacific (10% - 15%) •PWD population is expected to grow byPWD population is expected to grow by 4% annually4% annually •Recent violence in Mindanao has renderedRecent violence in Mindanao has rendered more people physically, emotionally,more people physically, emotionally, and psychologically disabled latelyand psychologically disabled lately •80% live in the rural areas80% live in the rural areas •80% are impoverished80% are impoverished •98% of children with disabilities do not98% of children with disabilities do not go to schoolgo to school •97% of PWD population do not get97% of PWD population do not get appropriate servicesappropriate services
  3. 3. Understanding the Cycle of Poverty & DisabilityUnderstanding the Cycle of Poverty & Disability Source: There is a vicious circle between poverty and disability. Poor people are more at risk of acquiring a disability because of lack of access to good nutrition, health care, sanitation, and living conditions. Disability creates barriers to education, employment, and public services that could help an exit from poverty. It is estimated that 100 million people in the world acquired a disability due to malnutrition.
  4. 4. Basic premisesBasic premises Disability is the result of the interaction between people withDisability is the result of the interaction between people with different levels of functioning and an environment that doesdifferent levels of functioning and an environment that does not take these differences into account.not take these differences into account. What is Disability?What is Disability? Disability = functional limitation x environmentDisability = functional limitation x environment Disability is part of everybody’s life-cycle. Everyone is likelyDisability is part of everybody’s life-cycle. Everyone is likely to experience disability at some point during his/her lifetimeto experience disability at some point during his/her lifetime because of illness, accident or ageing.because of illness, accident or ageing. Disability resides in society, not in the person (UN CRPDDisability resides in society, not in the person (UN CRPD Handbook for ParliamentariansHandbook for Parliamentarians An accessible physical environment benefits everyone, notAn accessible physical environment benefits everyone, not just persons with disabilities. (Universal design)just persons with disabilities. (Universal design)
  5. 5. IMPAIRMENT any loss or abnormality of psychological, physiological or anatomical structure or function. An impairment may be missing or defective body part, an amputated limb, paralysis after polio, a facial disfigurement etc. DISABILITY any restriction or lack ( resulting from an impairment) of ability to perform an activity in the manner or within the range considered normal for a human being. Disabilities as a result of an impairment may involve difficulties in walking, seeing, speaking, hearing, reading, writing among others.
  6. 6. HANDICAP a disadvantage for a given individual resulting from an impairment or a disability that limits or prevents the fulfillment of a role that is normal for that individual. A disability becomes a handicap when it interferes with one’s ability to do what is expected at a particular time in one’s life. Children with disabilities may become handicapped in caring for themselves, engaging in social interactions with other children and adults, communicating their thoughts and concerns, learning in and out of school and developing a capacity for independent economic activity.
  8. 8. INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY can be described as the presence of a below average general intellectual functioning associated with or resulting in difficulties in behaviours such as communication, self care, social skills, safety, work and leisure. This was formerly known as mental retardation
  9. 9. CAUSES infections before, during or after birth chromosomal and genetic abnormalities e.g. down syndrome head injury birth injuries e.g. poor oxygen supply to baby’s brain low birth weight growth or nutritional problems of the child premature babie poor diet and health care by the mother during pregnancy substance abuse during pregnancy, including drug consumption, excessive alcohol intake and smoking. Side effects of drugs consumed during pregnancy which may be non-prescribed or used for critical illness.
  10. 10. MEASURES THAT MAY PREVENT INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY good health care during pregnancy, labour and after birth early detection of “high risk” pregnancies screening tests for newborn babies early detection of sensory disabilities identifying special educational needs of children
  11. 11. FUNCTIONAL IMPLICATIONS inability to process information and effectively communicate with others this could affect an individual’s personal, social, educational, leisure and employment opportunities.
  12. 12. PHYSICAL DISABILITY A disorder that limits physical mobility and dexterity. It can be generalized into three groups: limited or no control of some or all voluntary muscles under developed skeletal structure dysfunctional joints
  13. 13. CAUSES accidents which could result to spinal cord injury, amputations and head injury. Congenital conditions such as cerebral palsy, spina bifida and muscular dystrophy Drug or alcohol abuse by pregnant women. Inherited conditions.
  14. 14. FUNCTIONAL IMPLICATIONS limited mobility makes it difficult to access pubic transport and places of study, and pursue to leisure, shopping and other interests. Home settings has to be modified to enhance independence within the home in all activities of daily living, e.g. modified bathroom and toilet.
  15. 15. SENSORY DISABILITY VISUAL IMPAIRMENT can be defined as a limitation in one or more functions of the eye or visual system. the terms partially sighted, low vision, legally blind and totally blind are used to describe people with visual impairments. Partially sighted indicates that some type of visual problem has resulted in a need for special education . Low vision generally refers to severe visual impairment and applies to all individuals with sight who are unable to read the newspaper at a normal viewing distance, even with an aid of eyeglasses or contact lenses. Legally blind indicates that a person has less than 20/20 vision in the better eye, or a very limited field of vision. Totally blind refers to people who learn via Braille or other non visual media.
  16. 16. CAUSES congenital at birth inherited, that is transmitted genetically occurred while the baby is growing in the womb trauma at birth some eye disorders may be present at birth but do not show until the child is older. infectious diseases such as : rubella venereal disease toxoplasmosis tuberculosis trachoma SOME COMMON EYE DISORDERS cataract retinopathy of prematurity aniridia- congenital lack of the iris. This is genetically transmitted. Albinism- an inherited condition producing deficiency or total lack of pigment in the retina, iris, choroids, skin and hair.
  17. 17. FUNCTIONAL IMPLICATIONS due to visual impairment, a child has little reason to explore the environment and thus may miss opportunities to have experience and learn. The child cannot see parents or peers, he or she is not able to imitate social behaviors or understand non verbal cues. Children with visual impairment may need additional help with special equipment and modifications in the regular curriculum to emphasize listening skills, communication, orientation and mobility and daily living skills.
  18. 18. OTHER DISABILITIES attention deficit hyperactivity disorder learning disability autism speech/language/communication disorder.
  19. 19. WHAT IS ADHD? it is a developmental disorder characterized by three (3) predominant features: – inattentiveness – impulsivity – restlessness or hyperactivity ( in many but not all cases) CAUSES genetically transmitted chemical imbalance or deficiency in certain neurotransmitters
  20. 20. SIGNS OF ADHD inattention impulsiveness poor motor control hyperactivity lack of organizational skills poor social skills
  21. 21. LEARNING DISABILITY is a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological process involved in understanding or using spoken or written language. It may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write and spell or to do mathematical calculations.
  22. 22. CAUSES inherited or genetically transmitted brain injury prenatal exposure to drugs, alcohol, smoking and toxic substances OTHER SYMPTOMS short attention span poor memory difficulty with sequencing difficulty following instructions/directions Problems in telling the difference between letters, numbers and sounds. Poor eye hand coordination Difficulty in day to day performanceM
  23. 23. SPEECH/ LANGUAGE/COMMUNCATION DISORDER refers to problems in communication and related areas such as oromotor functions. These problems range from simple sound substitutions to inability to understand or use language or use the oromotor mechanism for functional speech and feeding. CAUSES hearing loss or impairment neurological disorders mental retardation brain injury drug abuse physical impairments such as cleft lip or palate Other medical conditions
  24. 24. COMMUNICATION DISORDER occurs mainly due to brain damage and can cause problems such as: difficulty with speech production, e.g. slow or slurred speech difficulty understanding speech and language. Difficulty reading and writing
  25. 25. FUNCTIONAL IMPLICATIONS affects a child’s confidence and self esteem child may become socially withdrawn.
  26. 26. AUTISM is a neurological disorder that affects an individual’s ability to think, feel and communicate with others. Is one of the most common developmental disability and its characteristics show themselves in the first three years of a child’s life. Children with austim do not look any different from other children. They are not physically disabled. The common factor that everyone with autim shares is a difficulty in understanding their world.
  27. 27. CAUSES the exact cause of autism is not known. However, doctors believe that it could be due to failure in the development of the section of the brain that processes stimuli. SYMPTOMS OF AUTISM delayed language skills plays alone and does not play with other children lacks feeling or interest towards other people’s attempts at communication. Short attention span Dislikes physical affection. Displays temper towards self or others Difficulty in learning Ability to learn one day but not the next Difficulty with changes in routine Lacks eye contact Repetitive and compulsive behavior which when interrupted may provoke temper tantrums In some, extraordinary talent or brilliance in specific skills
  28. 28. FUNCTIONAL IMPLICATION Social Interaction all children who have been diagnosed as autistic have problems in the area of social interaction, social communication and imagination. They cannot understand the meanings of gestures, facial expressions or tone of voice. Due to this, they may appear aloof and indifferent to other people. These children may find it difficult to develop friendship with other children as they have limited capability to understand others. Communication children with difficulty understanding the purpose and meaning of body language, and spoken and written words. Thus, they will have difficulty communicating with others and participating in school, playing and taking part in leisure activities. Behavior in infancy, these children appear unusually sensitive to sensory stimuli such as food of different texture, sound and light. The normal preoccupation with their own hand and finger movements persists and become self stimulatory. In the second and third years, this self stimulatory behaviors may become more obvious die to withdrawal from environmental stimulation. Changes in daily routine for these children may lead to tantrums as a way of expressing their extreme confusion and / or frustration.
  29. 29. HEARING IMPAIRMENT can be defined as the degree of hearing loss ranging from mild to profound. CAUSES before birth- maternal rubella, RH incompatibility, drugs, accidents, irth cry, exposure to radiation during birth- premature delivery, delivery complications, breach or instrumental delivery, delayed birth cry, trauma at birth after birth- meningitis, infantile jaundice, trauma after birth, measles, mumps
  30. 30. COMMUNICATION OPTIONS FOR CHILDREN WITH HEARING IMPAIRMENT Auditory-verbal therapy aims at early detection and identification of hearing impairment and integrates listening into the child’s total personality. Supports the concept of mainstreaming and integration of hearing impaired children into mainstream schools. Oral-Aural approach program adds visual skills to the auditory approach and teaches children to receive information through speech reading, amplification of sounds and listening. Total communication uses all possible means ( listening, speech, reading and sign language) simultaneously to give children the ideas and concepts of language. Sign Language uses gestures as symbols for words and concepts. Signing exact English is a sign system using separate sign for each word as well as other English language grammatical elements.
  32. 32. HOW TO TALK WITH A PWD? Always address the person first- not the disability Speak directly to someone who is hearing impaired or visually impaired rather than to an assistant or the guide. Be patient if the person needs extra time to do or say something If the person uses a wheelchair, sit down to talk so you’re at the same level. Listen carefully and patiently to a person with speech impairment.
  33. 33. MAKING CONTACT Don’t touch a guide dog or a wheelchair or crutches used by the person unless you’re asked to do so. WHEN AND HOW TO HELP? Offer help if asked or if the need seems obvious. The PWD do not want pity or special favors. WHAT IS THE BEST THING TO DO If unsure how to interact with a PWD, feel free to ask the questions. Always remember: Questions Don’t Hurt. Ignorance Does.
  35. 35. HOW TO TALK TO A BLIND PERSON Talk to me directly I just can’t see but I can hear clearly Address your questions directly at me Don’t ask me through my companion
  36. 36. HOW TO GUIDE A BLIND PERSON Making contact- when you are ready to walk with a blind person, lightly touch the back of his/her hand. Grip and Stance- the blind person holds the arm slightly above the elbow. The blind person should always be half step behind the guide. Changing sides- guide should stay where he is while the blind person moves to the other side. Narrow spaces- where its difficult to walk two abreast the guide should make a definite move with his arm backwards and over to the center of his back. Opening doors- the blind person must be on the hinge side of the door. If not, he changes sides. Going up and downstairs- the sighted should tell the blind that they are approaching the stairs and whether they are going up or down. Seating- when being seated in front of the dinner table, the guide takes the blind persons’ hand and places it on the back of the chair so that the blind has tactile contact and knows where the chair is. Sitting at the table- the blind person must pull the chair away from the table with one hand holding at the edge of the table. Dining- if menu is provided, it should be quietly read to the one who is blind
  37. 37. ETIQUETTE RULES WHEN INTERACTING WITH SOMEONE WHO HAS MOBILITY IMPAIRMENT When conversing with a person who uses a wheelchair or scooter, position yourself at eye level in front of the person. Be aware of what is and what is not accessible to a person who uses mobility devices. Rearrange furniture if there is something blocking the person’s path. Offer to tell where accessible rest rooms, telephones, and water fountains are located. There are different reasons that a person can have mobility impairment- spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy etc. People with mobility impairments can use a variety of assistive devices: scooters, crutches, canes, walkers, wheelchairs. Do not lean or hang on a person’s wheelchair or scooter. Do not hang a coat or bag on the person’s wheelchair unless the person says to do so.
  38. 38. These assistive devices are extensions of a person’s individual space. Act naturally. Do not be afraid to use phrases like “ I am going for a walk” or “ I have to run”. When giving directions, consider distance, weather conditions and physical obstacles. Ask before giving any assistance. Leave accessible parking places for those who need them. Do not park in the hatch marks of accessible spaces. Do not make assumptions about a person can or cannot do based on his disability. Do not feel sorry for a person who uses a scooter or wheelchair to get around.
  39. 39. Get the person’s attention before you start talking. You can wave to the person or tap him on the shoulder. Be sure that the light falls on your face. Avoid background noise to the extent that is possible If you are aware that the hard of hearing person has a better ear, stand or sit on that side. Speak as clearly as possible in a natural way and at a moderate pace. Don’t shout. If the person does not understand what you said, rephrase it. Do not obscure your mouth with your hands. Facial expression and body language are important clues. Use them properly. Do not become impatient. Stay positive and relaxed. Ask what you can do to facilitate communication.
  40. 40. Hearing impaired persons sometime find certain people easier to understand. If you have difficulty communicating . see if a co- worker can be understood more easily. Be courteous; Excuse yourself if you have to leave or interrupt a conversation. Do not ignore deaf people during conversations. Never talk about a hard of hearing person in his presence.
  41. 41. I have no legs,I have no legs, But I still have feelings,But I still have feelings, I cannot see,I cannot see, But I think all the timeBut I think all the time Although I’m deaf,Although I’m deaf, I still want to communicate,I still want to communicate, Why do people see me as useless, thoughtless,Why do people see me as useless, thoughtless, talkless,talkless, When I am as capable as any,When I am as capable as any, For thoughts about our world.For thoughts about our world. ——Coralie Severs, 14Coralie Severs, 14
  42. 42. Maraming Salamat Po….