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Boost your team performance

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Talk held in London, 17 May 2016, in Psychology of Agile Scrum group. Hosted by Consol Partners.
http://www.meetup.com/London-Scrum-Meetup/events/229458830/

Published in: Leadership & Management
  • Hi Max, great job ! I read a lot of important concepts. I hope to meet you soon. Marco
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Boost your team performance

  1. 1. BOOST YOUR TEAM PERFORMANCE MASSIMO SARTI - PMI-ACP - SCRUM MASTER - SCRUM PRODUCTOWNER - PMP - PRINCE2 - POST-IT® LOVER ♂ ♂ ♂ ♂♂♀ ♀ ♀ ♀ ♀ PSYCHOLOGY OF SCRUM AGILE - LONDON - 17 MAY 2016
  2. 2. BOOST YOUR TEAM PERFORMANCE ▸ When and how teams work best (or worst) ▸ How to create self-organising, empowered teams ▸ How to shield team from interruptions ▸ How to reach team consensus ▸ …. A tool set of techniques, knowledge and associated skills to achieve these results LEARNING OBJECTIVES
  3. 3. BOOST YOUR TEAM PERFORMANCE ▸ Individuals and interactions over processes and tools ▸ Working software over comprehensive documentation ▸ Customer collaboration over contract negotiation ▸ Responding to change over following a plan WHERE DO TEAMS FIT IN AGILE MANIFESTO? https://agilemanifesto.org “Agile is more humanistic than mechanistic” (Mike Griffiths)
  4. 4. PROCESSES AND TOOLS ARE SIMPLY EASIER TO DESCRIBE, CLASSIFY, AND PROVIDE GUIDANCE FOR THAN TRICKIER TOPICS RELATED TO INDIVIDUALS AND INTERACTIONS. INDIVIDUALS AND INTERACTIONS CANNOT READILY BE REFERRED TO IN GENERAL TERMS BECAUSE PEOPLE VARY SO MUCH, IN SKILL SETS, ATTITUDES, EXPERIENCES, PERSPECTIVES, CULTURE, ETC. Mike Griffiths - PMI-ACP Exam Prep
  5. 5. "NO MATTER HOW IT LOOKS AT FIRST, IT’S ALWAYS A PEOPLE PROBLEM." Gerald M. Weinberg - The Second Law Of Consulting BOOST YOUR TEAM PERFORMANCE
  6. 6. DEFINITION OF TEAM * THIS ALLOWS US TO ALL BE ON THE SAME PAGE FOR THE NEXT HUNDRED SLIDES
  7. 7. A GROUP OF PEOPLE WHO WORK TOGETHER AT A PARTICULAR JOB OXFORD DICTIONARY BOOST YOUR TEAM PERFORMANCE
  8. 8. A SET OF INDIVIDUALS WHO SUPPORT THE PROJECT MANAGER IN PERFORMING THE WORK OF THE PROJECT TO ACHIEVE ITS OBJECTIVES. PMBOK 5th edition BOOST YOUR TEAM PERFORMANCE
  9. 9. A TEAM IS A GROUP OF PEOPLE OR OTHER ANIMALS LINKED IN A COMMON PURPOSE. HUMAN TEAMS ARE ESPECIALLY APPROPRIATE FOR CONDUCTING TASKS THAT ARE HIGH IN COMPLEXITY AND HAVE MANY INTERDEPENDENT SUBTASKS. … A TEAM BECOMES MORE THAN JUST A COLLECTION OF PEOPLE WHEN A STRONG SENSE OF MUTUAL COMMITMENT CREATES SYNERGY, THUS GENERATING PERFORMANCE GREATER THAN THE SUM OF THE PERFORMANCE OF ITS INDIVIDUAL MEMBERS. BOOST YOUR TEAM PERFORMANCE
  10. 10. A SMALL NUMBER OF PEOPLE WITH COMPLIMENTARY SKILLS WHO ARE COMMITTED TO A COMMON PURPOSE, PERFORMANCE GOALS AND APPROACH FOR WHICH THEY HOLD THEMSELVES MUTUALLY ACCOUNTABLE. J. Katzenbach - D. Smith - Wisdom of Teams: Creating the High Performance Organisation
  11. 11. THERE IS ONE MISSING PIECE
  12. 12. A TEAM IS A TEMPORARY ORGANISATION * KINDLY TAKEN FROM PRINCE2 PROJECT DEFINITION
  13. 13. AND IF IT IS TEMPORARY, IT HAS A LIFECYCLE! * OH WELL, EVERYTHING IN THIS WORLD HAS A LIFECYCLE
  14. 14. THE MOST FAMOUS TEAM LIFECYCLE MODEL: TUCKMAN’S MODEL * AFTER 50 YEARS IT IS STILL THE MOST QUOTED
  15. 15. FORMING STORMING NORMING PERFORMING (ADJOURNING) Bruce W. Tuckman - Developmental Sequence in Small Groups
  16. 16. BOOST YOUR TEAM PERFORMANCE FORMING ▸ Description: orientation ▸ Patterns of interpersonal relationships: testing and dependence ▸ Task activity: orientation to the task ▸ It is only a working group
  17. 17. BOOST YOUR TEAM PERFORMANCE STORMING ▸ Description: resistance to group influence and task requirements ▸ Patterns of interpersonal relationships: intragroup conflict ▸ Task activity: emotional response to task demands ▸ It is a pseudo team
  18. 18. BOOST YOUR TEAM PERFORMANCE NORMING ▸ Description: openness to the other group members ▸ Patterns of interpersonal relationships: intragroup feeling and cohesiveness develop, new standards evolve and new roles are adopted ▸ Task activity: open exchange of relevant interpretations; intimate, personal opinions are expressed ▸ It is a potential team
  19. 19. BOOST YOUR TEAM PERFORMANCE PERFORMING ▸ Description: constructive action ▸ Patterns of interpersonal relationships: roles become flexible and functional; structural issues have been resolved; structure can support task performance ▸ Task activity: interpersonal structure becomes the tool of task activities; group energy is channeled into the task; solutions can emerge ▸ It is the real team
  20. 20. BOOST YOUR TEAM PERFORMANCE ADJOURNING (OR MOURNING) ▸ Description: disengagement ▸ Patterns of interpersonal relationships: anxiety about termination and separation; sadness; feelings toward leader and group members ▸ Task activity: self-evaluation ▸ It is a former team
  21. 21. BOOST YOUR TEAM PERFORMANCE JUST SIT AND WAIT?
  22. 22. BOOST YOUR TEAM PERFORMANCE A BETTER REPRESENTATION FORMING ADJOURNING STORMING NORMING PERFORMING
  23. 23. USE SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP * FROM ONE MINUTE MANAGER
  24. 24. EFFECTIVE TEAM LEADERS ADJUST THEIR STYLE TO PROVIDE WHAT THE GROUP CAN’T PROVIDE FOR ITSELF Kenneth Blanchard - Builds High Performing Teams
  25. 25. BOOST YOUR TEAM PERFORMANCE SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP (II MODEL - KENNETH BLANCHARD) S1 S2S3 S4 DIRECTING COACHINGSUPPORTING DELEGATING SUPPORTIVEBEHAVIOUR DIRECTIVE BEHAVIOUR D1D2D3D4 DEVELOPMENT LEVEL HIGH COMPETENCE HIGH COMMITMENT MODERATE TO HIGH COMPETENCE VARIABLE COMMITMENT LOW TO SOME COMPETENCE LOW COMMITMENT LOW COMPETENCE HIGH COMMITMENT
  26. 26. USE EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE * BUT BE AWARE: VALIDITY IS CONTROVERSIAL
  27. 27. BOOST YOUR TEAM PERFORMANCE EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE (DANIEL GOLEMAN) SELF AWARENESS - EMOTIONAL SELF AWARENESS - SELF CONFIDENCE - ACCURATE SELF ASSESSMENT RECOGNIZE OTHERS SOCIAL AWARENESS SELF MANAGEMENT RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT SELF REGULATE - EMPATHY - SERVICE ORIENTATION - ORGANISATIONAL AWARENESS - INSPIRATIONAL LEADERSHIP - INFLUENCE - CHANGE CATALYST - CONFLICT MANAGEMENT - TEAMWORK - SELF CONTROL - TRANSPARENCY - ADAPTIBILITY - INITIATIVE - DRIVE AND MOTIVATION
  28. 28. BOOST YOUR TEAM PERFORMANCE PUTTING THE 3 MODELS TOGETHER STAGE TEAM LEADERSHIP MEMBERS’ EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE FORMING DIRECTING SELF AWARENESS STORMING COACHING SELF MANAGEMENT NORMING SUPPORTING SOCIAL AWARENESS PERFORMING DELEGATING RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT
  29. 29. BOOST YOUR TEAM PERFORMANCE WHAT IS NEEDED? FORMING STORMING NORMING PERFORMING ADJOURNING Minimise duration Keep team's members here Don’t forget this
  30. 30. HOW MANY TIMES HAVE YOU CHOSEN OTHER TEAM MEMBERS? * WE LEARN THIS FROM FIRST DAY IN THIS WORLD BECAUSE WE DON’T CHOOSE OUR PARENTS
  31. 31. IN AN IDEAL WORLD, PRODUCT OWNER SHOULD CHOOSE TEAM MEMBERS AND THEN TEAM MEMBERS SHOULD CHOOSE THEIR SCRUM MASTER Lyssa Adkins BOOST YOUR TEAM PERFORMANCE
  32. 32. COMPRESS FORMING DURATION
  33. 33. KEEP YOUR TEAM SMALL
  34. 34. TEAMS SHOULD BE NO LARGER THAN TWO PIZZAS CAN FEED. Jeff Bezos BOOST YOUR TEAM PERFORMANCE
  35. 35. SOCIAL LOAFING IS A RATIONAL BEHAVIOUR: WHY INVEST ALL OF YOUR ENERGY WHEN HALF WILL DO - ESPECIALLY WHEN THIS LITTLE SHORT-CUT GOES UNNOTICED? … WHEN PEOPLE WORK TOGETHER, INDIVIDUAL PERFORMANCES DECREASE. Rolf Dobelli- The art of thinking clearly
  36. 36. IN THE WEST, TEAMS FUNCTION BETTER IF AND ONLY IF THEY ARE SMALL AND CONSIST OF DIVERSE, SPECIALISED PEOPLE. THIS MAKES SENSE, BECAUSE INDIVIDUAL PERFORMANCES CAN BE TRACED BACK TO EACH SPECIALIST. Rolf Dobelli BOOST YOUR TEAM PERFORMANCE
  37. 37. EVERY STEEP JUMP IN LINKS ALSO PRODUCES A STEEP JUMP IN THE POTENTIAL FOR MISMANAGEMENT, MISINTERPRETATION, AND MISCOMMUNICATION. Janet Choi BOOST YOUR TEAM PERFORMANCE
  38. 38. BOOST YOUR TEAM PERFORMANCE NUMBER OF LINKS THAT NEEDS TO BE MANAGED AMONG MEMBERS 1 3 6 10 N(N-1) / 2
  39. 39. BOOST YOUR TEAM PERFORMANCE HOW SMALL IS SMALL? ▸ The magical maximum team size was heralded at 7±2 ▸ Someone now says it is 5±2 ▸ Team should have an odd number of members. This prevents ties and improves the odds of making a correct decision. Even- numbered groups can make decisions, but the decision-making can take more time http://sheilamargolis.com/2011/01/24/what-is-the-optimal-group-size-for-decision-making/ https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/how-harness-science-best-team-size-georg-fasching
  40. 40. FORM YOUR TEAM ASAP
  41. 41. BOOST YOUR TEAM PERFORMANCE REDUCE DISTANCES BETWEEN MEMBERS ▸ Before starting: Boot camp ▸ Build from day 1 personal relationships ▸ Personal histories exercise: life stories and interesting backgrounds ▸ Experiential team exercises: ▸ outdoor activities ▸ escape rooms ▸ “Working agreements” ▸ On the way: ▸ 360-degree feedback ▸ Personality and behavioural profiles (MBTI?)
  42. 42. BOOST YOUR TEAM PERFORMANCE ESTABLISH WORKING AGREEMENTS ASAP (TEAM NORMS) ▸ Guidelines developed by the team as to how they must work together to create a positive, productive process ▸ Working agreements describe positive behaviours that often are not automatically demonstrated in team process ▸ Working agreements should be: ▸ limited in number ▸ important to the team ▸ fully supported by each member ▸ reminded to members when they are broken ▸ Working agreements should be posted on a board for easy reference through the team process https://www.scrumalliance.org/community/articles/2015/march/how-to-create-agile-team-working-agreements
  43. 43. EXIT FROM THE STORM
  44. 44. BOOST YOUR TEAM PERFORMANCE WHAT TO OBSERVE IN GROUPS ▸ Communication and participation ▸ Decision making ▸ Conflicts ▸ Leadership ▸ Goals ▸ Roles and behaviours ▸ Group norms ▸ Problem solving ▸ Climate / Tone Kenneth Blanchard
  45. 45. OBSERVE ROLES / BEHAVIOURS
  46. 46. NO SHARP DISTINCTION CAN BE MADE BETWEEN LEADERSHIP AND MEMBERSHIP FUNCTIONS, BETWEEN LEADER AND MEMBER ROLES. GROUPS MAY OPERATE WITH VARIOUS DEGREES OF DIFFUSION OF “LEADERSHIP” FUNCTIONS AMONG GROUP MEMBERS OR OF CONCENTRATION OF SUCH FUNCTIONS IN ONE MEMBER OR A FEW MEMBERS. Kenneth Benne - Paul Sheats - Functional Roles of Group Members
  47. 47. BOOST YOUR TEAM PERFORMANCE 26 ROLES/BEHAVIOURS (KENNETH BENNE - PAUL SHEATS) TASK ROLESSOCIAL ROLES SELF-ORIENTED ROLES AGGRESSOR BLOCKER RECOGNITION SEEKER DOMINATOR DESERTER PLAYBOY ENCOURAGER HARMONISER GATEKEEPER TENSION RELIEVER CONCILIATOR FEELING EXPRESSER FOLLOWER INITIATOR INFORMATION SEEKER INFORMATION GIVER ORIENTERER OPINION SEEKER OPINION GIVER ELABORATOR COORDINATOR DIAGNOSTICIAN ENERGIZER PROCEDURE DEVELOPER SECRETARY EVALUATOR
  48. 48. BOOST YOUR TEAM PERFORMANCE 6 (+1) SELF-ORIENTED (DESTRUCTIVE) ROLES/BEHAVIOURS AGGRESSOR The aggressor criticizes everything said within the team environment. This individual has the ability to block the introduction of new ideas and concepts by minimizing and deflating the status of other team members and creating a sense of intimidation. BLOCKER The blocker is a dominant personality who automatically rejects the views and perspectives of others out of hand. This individual blocks the team’s ability to brainstorm and discuss the merits of new concepts and ideas raise. DESERTER The deserter holds back his or her personal participation and refuses to become active within the team environment. This individual focuses the team on his or her immature behavior and attempts to resolve the conflict and unrest it creates, which effectively limits the team’s ability to make progress on problems and assigned projects. RECOGNITION SEEKER The recognition seeker looks for personal attention and in so doing monopolizes the discussion by continually asserting his or her personal ideas, suggestions and viewpoints. The recognition seeker is also attempting to win the team over to his or her ideas and opinions. PLAYBOY The playboy displays a lack of involvement in the group through inappropriate humor, horseplay, or cynicism. DOMINATOR The dominator displays threatening and bullying behavior within the team setting. This individual uses intimidating and minimizing behavior in an attempt to take over the team and control all discussions. DEVIL’S ADVOCATE While the devil’s advocate in the sense of introducing different viewpoints into the team discussion is a positive team function, it can become a negative role when used to block team progress or consensus. In this regard, the devil’s advocate is simply a naysayer that refuses to allow the team to move forward.
  49. 49. BOOST YOUR TEAM PERFORMANCE MYERS-BRIGGS TYPE INDICATORS (MBTI) Question Type 1. Are you outwardly or inwardly focused? I Intraversion E Extraversion 2. How do you prefer to take in information? N Intuitive S Sensing 3. How do you prefer to make decisions? T Thinking F Feeling 4. How do you prefer to live your outer life? J Judging P Perceiving * BE AWARE: QUESTIONABLE VALIDITY 16 different MBTI: i.e. INTJ, ESFP, etc.
  50. 50. BOOST YOUR TEAM PERFORMANCE BIG FIVE FACTOR MODEL (FFM - MCCRAE AND COSTA) Factor Characteristics Openness Inventive/curious vs. consistent/cautious Conscientiousness Efficient/organized vs. easy-going/careless Extraversion Outgoing/energetic vs. solitary/reserved Agreeableness Friendly/compassionate vs. analytical/ detached Neuroticism Sensitive/nervous vs. secure/confident * AT LEAST! HIGH VALIDITY
  51. 51. MANAGE CONFLICTS
  52. 52. BOOST YOUR TEAM PERFORMANCE CONFLICTS ARE INEVITABLE ▸ Conflict between team members is a fact of life ▸ Conflicts occur at all levels of interaction ▸ Conflict is a critical event in the course of a relationship ▸ Whether a relationship is healthy or unhealthy depends not so much on the number of conflicts between members, but on how the conflicts are managed and resolved ▸ We should recognise which is the level of conflicts in our team
  53. 53. BOOST YOUR TEAM PERFORMANCE TEAM CONFLICT LEVELS (SPEED LEAS’S FRAMEWORK) Level/Name Characteristics Language used Atmosphere/Attitude 1 Problem to solve ‣ Team members engage openly and constructively ‣ Open, fact based ‣ Persons have different opinion ‣ Goals can conflict 2 Disagreement ‣ Conversation changes to make room for self- protection ‣ Open to interpretation, guarded ‣ People aren’t hostile, just wary ‣ Self protection becomes important 3 Contest ‣ Distorted language, over generalisations, real issues lost ‣ Include personal attacks ‣ “I am always the one to compromise for the good of the team” ‣ Discussion becomes either/or and blaming flourishes 4 Crusade ‣ Becomes more ideological ‣ Ideological ‣ The overall attitude is righteous and punitive. 5 World War ‣ Features full-on combat ‣ Little, non existent ‣ “Destroy!” ‣ Persons must be separated
  54. 54. BOOST YOUR TEAM PERFORMANCE TEAM CONFLICT LEVELS (SPEED LEAS’S FRAMEWORK) Level/Name How to (try to) resolve the conflict 1 Problem to solve ‣ Don’t take any immediate action to resolve the conflict ‣ Construct a collaborative scenario and help to build consensus around a decision that everyone can support 2 Disagreement ‣ Don’t take any immediate action to resolve the conflict ‣ Empower the relevant team’s member to solve the problem ‣ Restore a sense of safety to the team 3 Contest ‣ Don’t take any immediate action to resolve the conflict ‣ Accommodate people’s different views ‣ Compromise work, but don’t compromise team’s values 4 Crusade ‣ Use diplomacy ‣ De-escalate conflict ‣ Use a facilitator / negotiator to convey messages between different parties 5 World War ‣ It’s unresolvable ‣ Give people ways to exit from team ‣ Separate opposing individuals to prevent further harm each other
  55. 55. BOOST YOUR TEAM PERFORMANCE SIX CONFLICT MANAGEMENT STYLES (SPEED LEAS) Style Behaviour Persuading ‣ Present both side ‣ Present your favoured viewpoint last ‣ Be for, not against ‣ Do not interrupt, do not hurry to make your points Compelling / Forcing ‣ Increase your authority, both tacit and explicit ‣ Use clear statements to get a clear response ‣ Be able to bring sanctions to bear immediately upon non-compliance with your demands Avoiding / Ignoring / Accomodating / Fleeing ‣ Procrastinate! ‣ Use when the cost of working a problem through is greater than the value of having worked it through ‣ Use when the conflict is on many fronts‣ Use when people need time or space to cool down Collaborating ‣ Win-win: involve the others ‣ Jointly acknowledge there is a problem ‣ Jointly agree on how deal with the problem ‣ Jointly invent options for mutual gain and then jointly choose an option Negotiating / Bargaining ‣ Sorta-win-sorta-lose: try to obtain as much you can ‣ Parties involved must share some information ‣ Stress the desirability of agreement ‣ Present positive points before the other does Supporting ‣ The other owns the problem ‣ Make short and neutral statements ‣ Reflect the feeling content of a person’s words or actions ‣ Help the other to feel strong and confident that he can deal with the conflict
  56. 56. ANOTHER WAY TO OBSERVE MEMBERS' BEHAVIOUR IN CONFLICTS
  57. 57. BOOST YOUR TEAM PERFORMANCE CONFLICT MANAGEMENT (THOMAS - KILMANN INSTRUMENT OR TKI) COMPETING COLLABORATING COMPROMISING AVOIDING ACCOMODATING ASSERTIVENESSFocusonmyneeds Impersonal complier Tough Battler Friendly Helper Problem Solver Manoeuvring Conciliator I’m OK, you are not OK I’m OK, you are OK I’m not OK, you are not OK I’m not OK, you are OK COOPERATIVENESS Focus on others’ needs www.slideshare.net/bhaskardiwakar/conflict-management-11475906 * Similar tool: Blake and Mouton’s Conflict Grid
  58. 58. IS “STORMING” ALWAYS A SYNONYM OF CONFLICTS?
  59. 59. DYSFUNCTIONAL TEAM MANAGEMENT
  60. 60. TRUST LIES AT THE HEART OF A FUNCTIONING, COHESIVE TEAM. WITHOUT IT, TEAMWORK IS ALL BUT IMPOSSIBLE. Patrick Lencioni - The five dysfunctions of a team
  61. 61. WHAT IS TRUST?
  62. 62. BOOST YOUR TEAM PERFORMANCE TRUST IS…
  63. 63. BOOST YOUR TEAM PERFORMANCE TEN FACTORS THAT ALL CONTRIBUTE TO THE PRESENCE (OR LACK) OF TRUST (Robert Hurley, adapted by Jurgen Appelo) https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/20140923185236-9187631-the-tricky-business-of-developing-trust Risk Tolerance some people are risk takers others are cautious Adjustment some people are optimists others are pessimists Power some people have authority others suffer from it Security sometimes the stakes are high sometimes they’re low Similarities some people are similar to each other others aren’t Interests sometimes interests are aligned sometimes they aren’t Benevolent concern some are nice to us others… not so much Capability some know what they’re doing others… not really Integrity some people deliver on commitment others… forget it Communication some can communicate well some… —uhm
  64. 64. ABSENCE OF TRUST BOOST YOUR TEAM PERFORMANCE THE FIVE DYSFUNCTIONS OF A TEAM FEAR OF CONFLICT LACK OF COMMITMENT AVOIDANCE OF ACCOUNTABILITY INATTENTION TO RESULTS Patrick Lencioni
  65. 65. BOOST YOUR TEAM PERFORMANCE 5 DYSFUNCTIONS… Dysfunction Characteristics Absence of trust ‣ Hesitate to ask for help or provide constructive feedback ‣ Hesitate to offer help outside their own areas of responsibility ‣ Waste time and energy managing their behaviors for effect ‣ Dread meetings and find reasons o avoid spending time together Fear of conflict ‣ Have boring meetings ‣ Create environments where back-channel politics and personal attacks thrive ‣ Ignore controversial topics that are critical to team success ‣ Waste time and energy with posturing and interpersonal his management Lack of commitment ‣ Creates ambiguity among the team about direction and priorities ‣ Watches windows of opportunity close due to excessive analysis and unnecessary delay ‣ Revisits discussions and decisions again and again ‣ Encourages second-guessing among team members Avoidance of accountability ‣ Creates resentment among team members who have different standards of performance ‣ Encourages mediocrity ‣ Misses deadlines and key deliverables ‣ Places an undue burden on the team leader as the sole source of discipline Inattention to results ‣ Stagnates/fails to grow ‣ Rarely defeats competitors ‣ Loses achievement-oriented employees ‣ Encourages team members to focus on their own careers and individual goals Patrick Lencioni, The Five Dysfunctions of a Team
  66. 66. BOOST YOUR TEAM PERFORMANCE …AND HOW TO OVERCOME THEM… Dysfunction How to deal with Absence of trust ‣ Personal Histories Exercise ‣ Personality and Behavioral Preference Profiles ‣ 360-Degree Feedback ‣ Experiential Team Exercises ‣ Demonstration of vulnerability first by leader Fear of conflict ‣ Mining for conflict ‣ Real-Time Permission ‣ Personality style and Behavioral Preference tools ‣ Demonstration of restraint by leader when people engage in conflict Lack of commitment ‣ Cascading Messaging ‣ Deadlines ‣ Contingency and Worst-case scenario analysis ‣ Low-risk exposure therapy ‣ Ability of leader to not place too high of a premium on consensus or certainty Avoidance of accountability ‣ Publication of goals and standards ‣ Simple and regular progress reviews ‣ Team rewards ‣ Ability of leader to allow the team to serve as the first and primary accountability mechanism Inattention to results ‣ Public declaration of results ‣ Results-Based rewards ‣ Setting the tone for a focus on results from the leader Patrick Lencioni, The Five Dysfunctions of a Team
  67. 67. BOOST YOUR TEAM PERFORMANCE …AND WHEN TEAM WORKS WELL Dysfunction Team’s members Absence of trust ‣ Admit weaknesses and mistakes ‣ Ask for help ‣ Accept questions and input about their areas of responsibility ‣ Give one another the benefit of the doubt before arriving at a negative conclusion. ‣ Take risks in offering feedback and assistance ‣ Appreciate and tap into one another’s skills and experiences ‣ Focus time and energy on important issues, not politics ‣ Offer and accept apologies without hesitation Fear of conflict ‣ Have lively, interesting meetings ‣ Extract and exploit the ideas of all team members ‣ Solve real problems quickly ‣ Minimize politics ‣ Put critical topics on the table for discussion Lack of commitment ‣ Creates clarity around direction and priorities ‣ Aligns the entire team around common objectives ‣ Develops an ability to learn from mistakes ‣ Takes advantage of opportunities before competitors do ‣ Moves forward without hesitation ‣ • Changes direction without hesitation or guilt Avoidance of accountability ‣ Ensures that poor performers feel pressure to improve ‣ Identifies potential problems quickly by questioning one another’s approaches without hesitation ‣ Establishes respect among team members who are held to the same high standards ‣ Avoids excessive bureaucracy around performance management and corrective action Inattention to results ‣ Retains achievement-oriented employees ‣ Minimizes individualistic behavior ‣ Enjoys success and suffers failure acutely ‣ Benefits from individuals who subjugate their own goals/interests for the good of the team ‣ Avoids distractions Patrick Lencioni, The Five Dysfunctions of a Team
  68. 68. FROM NORMING TO PERFORMING
  69. 69. SELF DIRECTED TEAMS
  70. 70. YOU WILL NEVER, NEVER, NEVER HAVE AN EMPOWERED SELF-DIRECTED TEAM UNLESS THE MANAGER IS WILLING TO SHARE CONTROL Kenneth Blanchard BOOST YOUR TEAM PERFORMANCE
  71. 71. TIME-BOX EVERY ACTIVITY
  72. 72. WORK EXPANDS SO AS TO FILL THE TIME AVAILABLE FOR ITS COMPLETION Parkinson’s Law BOOST YOUR TEAM PERFORMANCE http://www.economist.com/node/14116121
  73. 73. BOOST YOUR TEAM PERFORMANCE PUT THE “POMODORO TECHNIQUE” IN YOUR WORK AGREEMENTS ▸ The traditional Pomodoro ("chunk of work) is 30 minutes long: 25 minutes of work plus a 5-minute break. ▸ A Pomodoro can’t be interrupted; it marks 25 minutes of pure work. A Pomodoro can’t be split up; there is no such thing as half of a Pomodoro or a quarter of a Pomodoro. The atomic unit of time is a Pomodoro. (Rule: A Pomodoro Is Indivisible.) ▸ Every four Pomodoros, stop the activity you’re working on and take a longer break, from 15 to 30 minutes. ▸ The length of a Pomodoro, 25 minutes, seems short enough to make it possible to resist being distracted by various kinds of interruptions. Interruptions can become a real problem. You need minimising unhandled interruptions and progressively increasing the number of Pomodoros that can be accomplished consistently without interruptions. http://caps.ucsd.edu/Downloads/tx_forms/koch/pomodoro_handouts/ThePomodoroTechnique_v1-3.pdf (Francesco Cirillo)
  74. 74. IT’S ALL ABOUT DECISIONS
  75. 75. [HIGH PERFORMANCE TEAMS] ARE CONSENSUS-DRIVEN, WITH FULL DIVERGENCE AND THEN CONVERGENCE. AND THEY LIVE IN A WORLD OF CONSTANT CONSTRUCTIVE DISAGREEMENT. Lyssa Adkins BOOST YOUR TEAM PERFORMANCE
  76. 76. CREATE FULL DIVERGENCE…
  77. 77. …USING BRAINSTORMS?
  78. 78. BOOST YOUR TEAM PERFORMANCE SOME BRAINSTORMING TECHNIQUES ▸ Quiet writing (Brain writing) ▸ Round Robin ▸ Free-for-all ▸ Role-storming ▸ Stepladder technique ▸ Crawford's Slip Writing Method
  79. 79. ..THEN QUICKLY CONVERGE..
  80. 80. …USING SOME TECHNIQUE FOR BETTER DECISIONS
  81. 81. BOOST YOUR TEAM PERFORMANCE BE AWARE OF… ▸ Group-thinking ▸ HiPPO (Highest Paid Person’s Opinion) ▸ Halo effect ▸ Band wagon effect
  82. 82. BOOST YOUR TEAM PERFORMANCE .. BUT TRY TO USE PARTICIPATORY DECISION MODELS ▸ Simple voting ▸ Thumbs up/down/sideways ▸ Fist-of-Five voting (one finger: I totally support this decision; five fingers: stop!) ▸ Jim Highsmith's Decision Gradient
  83. 83. IN CASE OF DOUBT: USE SPIKES
  84. 84. BOOST YOUR TEAM PERFORMANCE WHAT IS A SPIKE? ▸ It is a time-boxed experimental activity ▸ Two types of spikes: ▸ Technical spikes ▸ Functional spikes ▸ The purpose is to gain the knowledge necessary to reduce the risk of a technical approach, better understand a requirement, or increase the reliability of an estimate ▸ The output is demonstrable. This helps build collective ownership and shared responsibility for the key decisions that are being taken http://www.scaledagileframework.com/spikes/
  85. 85. KEEP YOUR TEAM STABLE
  86. 86. ADDING MANPOWER TO A LATE SOFTWARE PROJECT MAKES IT LATER. Fred Brooks - The Mythical Man-Month
  87. 87. BOOST YOUR TEAM PERFORMANCE CHANGING TEAM’S MEMBERS IMPACTS SCOPE Scope Scope Cost Time Cost Waterfall Agile Time Fixed Variableplan driven value & vision driven
  88. 88. CREATE THE RIGHT TEAM SPACE
  89. 89. BOOST YOUR TEAM PERFORMANCE THE DREAM ▸ Co-location ▸ Face-to-face communications ▸ Caves and common ▸ Insulated space ▸ Osmotic communication ▸ Tacit knowledge ▸ Low-tech, high-touch information radiators
  90. 90. BOOST YOUR TEAM PERFORMANCE THE REALITY ▸ Teams are distributed "More than 82% of the respondents had at least some distributed teams practicing agile within their organisations, up from 35% just three years earlier“ (VersionOne, 10 Annual State of Agile Report) ▸ Large rooms accomodate multiple teams ▸ High-tech digital tools
  91. 91. A DEVELOPMENT PROJECT DOESN’T OPERATE IN A VACUUM; IT OPERATES WITHIN A LARGER ORGANISATIONAL ENVIRONMENT. WHEN THE WIDER ORGANISATION WITHHOLDS RECOGNITION, RESOURCES, OR SUPPORT, DEVELOPMENT TEAM WILL FEEL ISOLATED AND ABANDONED - NOT AN ATMOSPHERE THAT MAKES FOR EFFECTIVE WORK. Jim Highsmith - Agile Project Management
  92. 92. ADJOURNING IS IMPORTANT!
  93. 93. BOOST YOUR TEAM PERFORMANCE ADJOURNING ▸ Many teams will reach this stage eventually. For example, project teams exist for only a fixed period, and even permanent teams may be disbanded through organisational restructuring. ▸ Team members who like routine, or who have developed close working relationships with colleagues, may find this stage difficult, particularly if their future now looks uncertain.
  94. 94. IT’S TIME FOR ADJOURNING. THANKS FOR YOUR ATTENTION! Massimo Sarti BOOST YOUR TEAM PERFORMANCE https://uk.linkedin.com/in/sartimassimo

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