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Boredom Busters
Environmental Enrichment Essentials
Phoenix Landing Foundation, May 2014
Raleigh Durham Caged Bird Society...
Agenda
What is environmental enrichment?
Types of enrichment
Enrichment plans and schedules
“Name that enrichment” gal...
What is environmental enrichment?
Environmental enrichment is the process of manipulating an
animal's environment to incre...
RioGrandeZooParrotExhibitAlbuquerque,NewMexico
ImagefromWaymarking.com
Zoo environment
“Naturalistic approach”
Home environment
“Behavioral engineering”
#1 risk of providing environmental
enrichment
An animal can harm themselves
with enrichment items.
The solution – know yo...
#1 risk of not providing environmental
enrichment
An animal can harm themselves or
suffer because no enrichment is
provid...
Types of enrichment
Social
Occupational
Physical
Sensory
Nutritional
They overlap one another.
Social enrichment
Contact
Same species
Different species
Non-contact
Visual, auditory, co-operative device
Social enrichment
Group composition can be important.
Domestic raising and environment may suppress
the development of “...
Occupational enrichment
Jobs
Psychological- things to think about (puzzles,
control of environment)
Exercise – Places t...
Occupational enrichment
 Psychological
• Have some items that
present a challenge.
• Have others that are
below their abi...
Occupational enrichment
Training
Bird chooses to participate.
Can be as little as 10 minutes per day, or could be
many ...
Occupational enrichment
Foraging (also
nutritional
enrichment)
Chewing,
shredding, etc.
Occupational enrichment: Exercise
•Does the item itself move? Does it promote balance and stability?
•Does it allow birds ...
Most “hanging”
enrichment items
encourage movement
and balance:
Swings
Bungies/Boings
“Atoms/Orbits”
Climbing nets
Hanging...
Benefits of climbing nets
•May be used to connect different areas/play areas, in addition to being a
play area in itself. ...
Running stairs, Dancing…
Physical enrichment
Enclosure
Cage, house, etc.
Accessories – Internal & External
Permanent (bars, walls, ceiling,
etc...
Sensory enrichment
Appeals to different senses
Visual
Auditory (& vocalizations)
Taste
Touch, tactile
Sensory enrichment
Visual and Auditory Stimuli
Radio/Music (toys that make noise)
Television
Field trips outside
Fiel...
Sensory enrichment
Smell, touch, taste
Food
Plants, perches
Keep sensitive respiratory systems in mind.
Nutritional enrichment
Food
Different types of food
Different forms of delivery (ie foraging,
etc.)
Herbs, edible flow...
Foraging
 Parrots in the wild spend many of their waking hours
foraging for food.
A “must see” for all companion
humans!
Importance of foraging for birds has been better
brought to light throughout the pe...
If your bird spends a lot of waking
hours in a cage, consider viewing
his/her cage as an “enclosed
foraging tree”.
•Start ...
My favorite easy, inexpensive
foraging toys:
•3 oz bath size Dixie cups
•Unbleached coffee filters
•Unbleached paper towel...
This rope perch that is wrapped in
leather has leather strands hanging
off it.
Threading a coffee filter through the
openi...
Once they are accustomed to having to work to retrieve food
from foraging toys, make them work to get to the foraging
toys...
What do parrots need
in an enrichment area?
 CHOICES
 Places to:
 Sleep & rest
 Forage/eat & drink
 Exercise
 Groom ...
What do WE need in enrichment
areas for our parrots?
It needs to be manageable
Routine cleaning
Regular safety checks (...
Enrichment Plans – For when you want
to encourage specific behaviors, etc.
 Disney’s Animal Programs use a model they dev...
Enrichment Plans - Let’s talk through an
example
Setting goals
Planning (includes evaluating the risk involved)
Impleme...
Enrichment Schedules
 Perhaps you want to focus on particular types of
enrichment on different days
 Example:
Mondays, T...
Name that enrichment!
Gallery
Social?
Occupational?
Physical?
Sensory?
Nutritional?
Social?
Occupational?
Physical?
Sensory?
Nutritional?
Social?
Occupational?
Physical?
Sensory?
Nutritional?
Social?
Occupational?
Physical?
Sensory?
Nutritional?
Social?
Occupational?
Physical?
Sensory?
Nutritional?
Social?
Occupational?
Physical?
Sensory?
Nutritional?
Social?
Occupational?
Physical?
Sensory?
Nutritional?
Social?
Occupational?
Physical?
Sensory?
Nutritional?
Social?
Occupational?
Physical?
Sensory?
Nutritional?
Social?
Occupational?
Physical?
Sensory?
Nutritional?
Photos & play gym by Donna Dicksson.
Posted from Flickr with permission.
Social?
Occupational?
Physical?
Sensory?
Nutritio...
Social?
Occupational?
Physical?
Sensory?
Nutritional?
Nyla Copp, mybirdiebuddy.com
Social?
Occupational?
Physical?
Sensory?
Nutritional?
Social?
Occupational?
Physical?
Sensory?
Nutritional?
Social?
Occupational?
Physical?
Sensory?
Nutritional?
Social?
Occupational?
Physical?
Sensory?
Nutritional?
Social?
Occupational?
Physical?
Sensory?
Nutritional?
Social?
Occupational?
Physical?
Sensory?
Nutritional?
Social?
Occupational?
Physical?
Sensory?
Nutritional?
Social?
Occupational?
Physical?
Sensory?
Nutritional?
Social?
Occupational?
Physical?
Sensory?
Nutritional?
Social?
Occupational?
Physical?
Sensory?
Nutritional?
Social?
Occupational?
Physical?
Sensory?
Nutritional?
Social?
Occupational?
Physical?
Sensory?
Nutritional?
Resources and credits
 Kris Porter’s Parrot Enrichment site: http://parrotenrichment.com/
Includes The Parrot Enrichment ...
Questions? Ideas to share?
Michelle Underhill
michelle@phoenixlanding.org
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Boredom busters: Environmental enrichment essentials (for parrot owners)

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Companion parrot owners can incorporate ideas included in modern environmental enrichment programs in zoos to ensure their feathered friends lead active, engaging lives in captivity.

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Boredom busters: Environmental enrichment essentials (for parrot owners)

  1. 1. Boredom Busters Environmental Enrichment Essentials Phoenix Landing Foundation, May 2014 Raleigh Durham Caged Bird Society, July 2014 Michelle Czaikowski Underhill
  2. 2. Agenda What is environmental enrichment? Types of enrichment Enrichment plans and schedules “Name that enrichment” gallery
  3. 3. What is environmental enrichment? Environmental enrichment is the process of manipulating an animal's environment to increase physical activity & normal species typical behavior that satisfies the animal's physical and psychological needs. It reduces stress and therefore promotes overall health by increasing an animal's perception of control over their environment and by occupying their time. Ohio State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Indoor Pet Initiative.http://indoorpet.osu.edu/dogs/environmental_enrichment_dogs/index.cfm
  4. 4. RioGrandeZooParrotExhibitAlbuquerque,NewMexico ImagefromWaymarking.com
  5. 5. Zoo environment “Naturalistic approach” Home environment “Behavioral engineering”
  6. 6. #1 risk of providing environmental enrichment An animal can harm themselves with enrichment items. The solution – know your bird and be as careful as possible. Nothing is 100% bird safe for every bird.
  7. 7. #1 risk of not providing environmental enrichment An animal can harm themselves or suffer because no enrichment is provided. The benefits of enrichment far outweigh the risks.
  8. 8. Types of enrichment Social Occupational Physical Sensory Nutritional They overlap one another.
  9. 9. Social enrichment Contact Same species Different species Non-contact Visual, auditory, co-operative device
  10. 10. Social enrichment Group composition can be important. Domestic raising and environment may suppress the development of “natural” interactions between members of the same species. Training may help develop positive interactions between human-bird or even bird-bird.
  11. 11. Occupational enrichment Jobs Psychological- things to think about (puzzles, control of environment) Exercise – Places to go, flying, flapping, climbing, jumping, etc. Remodeling projects - Things to chew, etc.
  12. 12. Occupational enrichment  Psychological • Have some items that present a challenge. • Have others that are below their abilities, too. (Variety may prevent frustration.) • Training • Games
  13. 13. Occupational enrichment Training Bird chooses to participate. Can be as little as 10 minutes per day, or could be many little moments throughout the day. Opportunity to earn rewards.
  14. 14. Occupational enrichment Foraging (also nutritional enrichment) Chewing, shredding, etc.
  15. 15. Occupational enrichment: Exercise •Does the item itself move? Does it promote balance and stability? •Does it allow birds to easily access other items by flying, stretching, or climbing to them? •Does it permit cardiovascular activity?
  16. 16. Most “hanging” enrichment items encourage movement and balance: Swings Bungies/Boings “Atoms/Orbits” Climbing nets Hanging gyms Hanging Toys
  17. 17. Benefits of climbing nets •May be used to connect different areas/play areas, in addition to being a play area in itself. Provides choice. •Choice it can provide is especially wonderful for birds with clipped wings •Encourages movement Note: Just as with all rope toys, strands should be trimmed regularly.
  18. 18. Running stairs, Dancing…
  19. 19. Physical enrichment Enclosure Cage, house, etc. Accessories – Internal & External Permanent (bars, walls, ceiling, etc.) Temporary (Toys, perches, etc.) Play areas/gyms, etc.
  20. 20. Sensory enrichment Appeals to different senses Visual Auditory (& vocalizations) Taste Touch, tactile
  21. 21. Sensory enrichment Visual and Auditory Stimuli Radio/Music (toys that make noise) Television Field trips outside Field trips inside Other animals (also social) Verbal games, contact calls (also social)
  22. 22. Sensory enrichment Smell, touch, taste Food Plants, perches Keep sensitive respiratory systems in mind.
  23. 23. Nutritional enrichment Food Different types of food Different forms of delivery (ie foraging, etc.) Herbs, edible flowers, spices Water Occasional tea, juice, etc.
  24. 24. Foraging  Parrots in the wild spend many of their waking hours foraging for food.
  25. 25. A “must see” for all companion humans! Importance of foraging for birds has been better brought to light throughout the pet care industry after the release of Dr. Echols’ Captive Foraging.
  26. 26. If your bird spends a lot of waking hours in a cage, consider viewing his/her cage as an “enclosed foraging tree”. •Start slow. Add foraging options gradually. •Goal: Minimum of six bowls or accessible foraging toys and additional ones that are more challenging. •Allow your bird a “foraging free” sleep area/zone/cage. Wild birds do not naturally forage where they sleep.
  27. 27. My favorite easy, inexpensive foraging toys: •3 oz bath size Dixie cups •Unbleached coffee filters •Unbleached paper towels •Predrilled toy parts
  28. 28. This rope perch that is wrapped in leather has leather strands hanging off it. Threading a coffee filter through the opening in some plastic chain forms another simple foraging toy.
  29. 29. Once they are accustomed to having to work to retrieve food from foraging toys, make them work to get to the foraging toys as well.
  30. 30. What do parrots need in an enrichment area?  CHOICES  Places to:  Sleep & rest  Forage/eat & drink  Exercise  Groom (preen, bathe)  Socialize  Privacy – Place to escape to when feeling threatened.
  31. 31. What do WE need in enrichment areas for our parrots? It needs to be manageable Routine cleaning Regular safety checks (threads, nuts, bolts, hooks, etc.) Replacement of destroyed parts Rotating new materials, foods, sounds, stimuli into the area.
  32. 32. Enrichment Plans – For when you want to encourage specific behaviors, etc.  Disney’s Animal Programs use a model they developed called S.P.I.D.E.R. http://www.animalenrichment.org/spider/spider_fra mework.html Setting Goals Planning (includes evaluating the risk involved) Implementing Documenting Evaluating Re-adjusting
  33. 33. Enrichment Plans - Let’s talk through an example Setting goals Planning (includes evaluating the risk involved) Implementing Documenting Evaluating Re-adjusting
  34. 34. Enrichment Schedules  Perhaps you want to focus on particular types of enrichment on different days  Example: Mondays, Thursdays: Foraging, new foods, decaffeinated, room-temperature, herbal tea (in addition to water) (Occupational & Nutritional) Tuesdays, Fridays: Training, new chewing projects (Occupational, physical, social, and sensory) Wednesdays, Saturdays: Music, dancing, time outside in an aviary/travel cage/harness (Sensory, Occupational, Social, Physical) Sundays: Showers/baths, thorough cleaning, general maintenance (Physical, Sensory, Occupational, Nutritional)
  35. 35. Name that enrichment! Gallery
  36. 36. Social? Occupational? Physical? Sensory? Nutritional?
  37. 37. Social? Occupational? Physical? Sensory? Nutritional?
  38. 38. Social? Occupational? Physical? Sensory? Nutritional?
  39. 39. Social? Occupational? Physical? Sensory? Nutritional?
  40. 40. Social? Occupational? Physical? Sensory? Nutritional?
  41. 41. Social? Occupational? Physical? Sensory? Nutritional?
  42. 42. Social? Occupational? Physical? Sensory? Nutritional?
  43. 43. Social? Occupational? Physical? Sensory? Nutritional?
  44. 44. Social? Occupational? Physical? Sensory? Nutritional?
  45. 45. Social? Occupational? Physical? Sensory? Nutritional?
  46. 46. Photos & play gym by Donna Dicksson. Posted from Flickr with permission. Social? Occupational? Physical? Sensory? Nutritional?
  47. 47. Social? Occupational? Physical? Sensory? Nutritional?
  48. 48. Nyla Copp, mybirdiebuddy.com Social? Occupational? Physical? Sensory? Nutritional?
  49. 49. Social? Occupational? Physical? Sensory? Nutritional?
  50. 50. Social? Occupational? Physical? Sensory? Nutritional?
  51. 51. Social? Occupational? Physical? Sensory? Nutritional?
  52. 52. Social? Occupational? Physical? Sensory? Nutritional?
  53. 53. Social? Occupational? Physical? Sensory? Nutritional?
  54. 54. Social? Occupational? Physical? Sensory? Nutritional?
  55. 55. Social? Occupational? Physical? Sensory? Nutritional?
  56. 56. Social? Occupational? Physical? Sensory? Nutritional?
  57. 57. Social? Occupational? Physical? Sensory? Nutritional?
  58. 58. Social? Occupational? Physical? Sensory? Nutritional?
  59. 59. Social? Occupational? Physical? Sensory? Nutritional?
  60. 60. Resources and credits  Kris Porter’s Parrot Enrichment site: http://parrotenrichment.com/ Includes The Parrot Enrichment Activity Book, Vol 1 & 2  Avianenrichment.com – Several articles  Disney’s Animal Enrichment website: http://www.animalenrichment.org/  In Your Flock magazine  On Facebook: The Parrot’s Workshop and The Parrot’s Pantry  Robert J. Young’s Environmental enrichment for Captive Animals. Blackwell Publishing, 2003.  Andrew U. Luescher’s Manual of Parrot Behavior. Blackwell Publishing, 2006.  Robin Skewokis's Enriching your parrot's life: A guide to creating a stimulating environment for your companion bird (DVD)
  61. 61. Questions? Ideas to share? Michelle Underhill michelle@phoenixlanding.org

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