Image from ePublicist on Flickr - used by permission via Creative Commons license.
When people ask what I do, and I say I’m an instructional designer, 99% of the time their faces turn blank. So what is an ID and what do they do? In a nutshell, I apply educational / curriculum theories to curriculum development and delivery.
An instructional designer “creates and delivers educational training materials (e.g., eLearning courses, videos, manuals, handouts, etc.) for businesses, higher educational institutions, and other organizations. Some may use the terms instructional designer, educational technologist, curriculum designer, and instructional technologist interchangeably. Instructional designers and instructional technologists have similar job roles, functions, and career paths. They also have similar instructional design higher education degrees and formal training. Instructional designers and instructional technologists are in high demand as organizations are turning towards instructional designers to solve business performance problems and to provide media-rich eLearning solutions. According to the website Instructional Design Central - See more at: http://www.instructionaldesigncentral.com/htm/IDC_instructionaldesigndefinitions.htm#sthash.6qtCURku.dpuf
Instructional Design: Instructional design models typically specify a method, that if followed will facilitate the transfer of knowledge, skills and attitude to the recipient or acquirer of the instruction. It is the entire process of analysis of learning needs and goals and the development of a delivery system to meet those needs. It includes development of instructional materials and activities; and tryout and evaluation of all instruction and learner activities.
I work mostly with our M1/M2 course directors and teaching faculty on various aspects including: Evaluating new technologies to discover new and better ways to enhance their instruction Help faculty to discover different ways to improve their instruction - with and without the use of technology Blackboard shell design TBL creation and delivery Creating short podcasts/vodcasts/tutorials Create other learning materials like images, websites (COMEBM website), etc. Faculty Development Series - conduct training sessions for faculty on how to use new technologies, as well as apply different educational theories into practice The occasional research study evaluating the use of technology or different learning theories and their impact on students’ learning outcomes A potential area of research is to determine how faculty development is impacting faculty satisfaction with their teaching.
The college of medicine did not have anyone in the ID role prior to when I was hired in December 2013. Content creation and delivery was sort of held together with string and there were no consequences for poor teachers. They did depend on the former librarian liaison to the medical school, but she could only do so much with very little time that she had available. I’ll get into the various tasks I go through on a regular basis, so you can get an idea of what I do and how I (hopefully) tie it back to the library of the health sciences on our campus. My design skills? I’m not a graphic designer. I can organize information though and that is where my library experience comes into play. It really helps having that solid background in organization to be able to help faculty members organize content for their classes. My teaching experience helps me to be able to observe faculty as they teach and give them tips on facilitation skills.
Something I read recently sticks with me: “Medical educators are often charged with creating educational experiences, without any formal training in education. Some assumptions: educational programs have aims and goals (even when they are not clearly explained). Medical educators have a professional and ethical obligation to meet the needs of their learners, patients and society. Medical educators should be held accountable for the outcomes of their interventions. A logical systematic approach to curriculum development can help achieve these ends.” This is certainly true at our institution. There is a Department of Medical Education, and I will get into more detail about them later.
So how did I get from libraries to instructional design? Most of the jobs I have had throughout my library career (FSU ’99) have been in the educational technology area. I wrote and delivered many distance education and face-to-face classes over the years on how to use various technologies.
Medicine is a complex, multifaceted, knowledge-rich domain encompassing a range of performance skills and knowledge domains. Clearly, it is not likely that any one pedagogical or learning theory will adequately account for all skills and knowledge involved in biomedical instruction. However, research on medical expertise is beginning to inform the development of medical competence in real-world settings. Although this research may be used to suggest changes to the structure of medical and biomedical informatics education, there needs to be a better understanding about the conditions of learning that lead to optimal levels of performance in our students. As I work *mostly* with the M1/M2 course directors and teaching faculty, this is a list of those courses the students take. This will all be dumped in about a year anyway as we blow up the curriculum and create a new one in the dust that settles. While many of the courses you see listed here are basic sciences in nature, we have made a concerted effort over the past couple of years to incorporate more clinical connections as possible. I have worked closely with our Associate Dean for Curriculum, Dr. Abbas Hyderi and the course directors to see where a clinical connection could be made in their courses. We recently started something new where we got the college to ‘buy out’ some time of three clinicians to be clinical consultants for a few of the courses where it made the most sense, especially as it is a pilot program. The clinical partners work with the course directors and teaching faculty to bring more of a clinical context to lectures and other activities.
In addition, much of the practice of medicine is collaborative in nature, and cognition in the workplace is shaped by the social context as well as the technological and other artifacts that are embedded in the physical setting. In medicine, the attainment of expert-level performance in the workplace is predicated on the subject’s ability to function smoothly in an environment in which the coordination of tasks, decisions, and information is essential. In complex dynamic decision-making environments, the situational and distributed aspects of expertise are emphasized—such as communication capabilities, the ability to convey plans and intentions, and the allocation of resources not only for one’s self, but for others. Learning in such circumstances necessitates the development of pattern recognition capabilities that lead to rapid, heuristically-guided decisions under conditions of uncertainty and incomplete information. It also necessitates a complex socio-cognitive coordination process in which information-gathering, decision-making and patient management are highly interactive and distributed activities.
So as I mentioned, instructional design and technology is the field where theories of educational psychology and communication cross paths with design principles to improve work performance through a systems approach, creating instruction based on research analysis whilst using the appropriate tools.
Project Management: I use insightly currently to keep track of the reorg of the 16 M1/M2 courses in Blackboard.
Adult Learning / Andragogy
With over 100 ID models described in the literature, which one do you choose? Look at how they differ in learning paradigms (e.g. behaviorist, cognitive, social-constructivist, etc.) as well as lesson design, curriculum design, and outcomes desired. Fortunately I had an additional masters degree to help me figure them out. Hint - you don’t need a masters degree to do that.
In my work, I tend to focus on a few of these in particular. When I work with faculty, I typically don’t refer to a specific learning theory when we are putting a curriculum together - but it’s always in the back of my mind. One of the theories that would have the biggest impact on me in terms of how the faculty teach or deliver lectures is the cognitive load theory. CLT attempts to characterize and account for the role of memory and the complexity of learning materials in the learning process. The theory makes use of a number of hypotheses about the structure of human memory. Our working memory as well as our short term memory are both limited in the number of elements it can take in simultaneously. An example might be having a slide with an image that has a lot of markers on it and a series of bulleted points to inform the same image.
Another theory that is instrumental in what I do is Dual Coding Theory. What I was finding by viewing lecture recordings or attending lectures, is that most of the faculty would include as much text on a slide as they could and would talk over it or read the words verbatim off of the slide. People can only take so much information into working memory at a time. The students are likely trying to read the slide and listen to what the instructor is saying at the same time. There is very little chance that they will be able to trap all that information into working memory and then into long-term memory. A lot is lost along the way. The same goes with a very complicated illustration on a slide. So the DCT recognizes that while visual cues are useful, there must be some sort of association for the student to be able to trap it into LTM. A better example of the image I mentioned earlier, would be a slide with just the image on it and the instructor explains what the students are looking at - this reduces the likelihood that they will miss something important. Instructor and course evaluations demonstrate to us that the students do not like slides that are extremely text heavy.
One of the most popular instructional systems design framework is the ADDIE model. It appears to be linear but it does not have to be followed rigidly. There are also many variations on this model. Some layers are skipped because information is already available - for example, that you can only deliver a lecture or module in one format. This is not a theory per se! It can be used as a project template with any of the learning theories you use.
This is the “delivery’ of the most popular lecture of the year, on Toxins and Poisons.
Some things to keep in mind during the analysis phase: The course needs to be relevant to the learner Spend time with learners in their environment Be a bridge between the creator and learners Put the context in context Measure the effectiveness of the learning activities
More of how the design prototype went - this example is from the Medical Genetics course.
In this example, I worked with the Medical Genetics instructor to learn how to use the Explain Everything app on his iPad in order to create videos that are specific to a salient point. These videos were no longer than 15 minutes.
The bullet points are “typical” tasks for this part of the model. In terms of developing and programming, I am really neither so fortunately Explain Everything makes this part much easier.
This is an example of a mashup of content in the Medical Anatomy and Embryology course. I also worked with course directors in Cell & Tissue Biology and even some of the clerkship directors to incorporate quizzing into their courses via Blackboard.
Talk about use of discussion boards.
When designing or purchasing an educational technology resource that contains multimedia components, particular attention should be paid to the selection, sequencing, and presentation of information. Certain elements can induce cognitive overload and detract from learning, such as the presentation style of information and the appropriateness of the learning material. Thus, one challenge of effective instrHotsiuctional design is creating applications that include only those features that promote learning while avoiding gratuitous elements that may distract.
Richard Mayer’s widely accepted ten instructional multimedia principles can offer medical educators components in educational interventions in order to maximize the positive effects for optimum student learning. With these principles in mind, instructional multimedia should conform to the following: guidance on the application of multimedia
There has been a lot of recent research on using multimedia design principles in teaching for understanding in medical classrooms. Richard Mayer is one author that I follow.
Effective Use of Educational Technology in Medical Education Colloquium on Educational Technology: Recommendations and Guidelines for Medical Educators AAMC Institute for Improving Medical Education March 2007
Because the overall technology topic is so broad, colloquium participants were charged to focus consideration on interactive instructional and assessment applications: namely, those that teach or assess understanding of biomedical concepts, patient diagnosis and management, and procedural skill training. Resources with little interactivity— such as those that only enable basic learner navigation of text and images—were considered less relevant to the colloquium’s scope. Likewise, the group did not discuss delivery systems such as teaching management systems (e.g., BlackBoard), pod-casting, computer-based testing, digitized lecture dissemination, and distance learning.
Notably, this report highlights the essential role of instructional design principles to promote the effective use of educational technology.
When I came on board in December 2013, the first task I was given was to go over all of the course-level and instructor-level evaluation material for the previous academic year. Because they have never had anyone in my role before, not a lot was done with this evaluation information. So, if an instructor got low marks year after year, they might still be allowed to teach - no one was minding the store. As I reviewed the evaluations, I watched parts of Echo360 lecture recordings for that instructor to see if I could figure out to what they students were referring in their quantitative comments.
Another big part of this analysis phase was to partner with someone in the Department of Medical Education. We interviewed each of the 15 course directors to find out very broadly, what was working in their courses, what was not, and how could they use UGME and me as ID? Feedback: they needed assistants or coordinators. Many of the instructors were managing multiple teaching faculty members, as well as managing the uploading of content into Blackboard and assessment data.
This was a key part of encouraging all of the teaching faculty to follow research-based, evidence-based teaching guidelines as well as how to use technology effectively. This includes how to use PowerPoint, the amount of slides per given minute of lecture-time, etc.
LCME Standard 6.3 is Self-Directed and Life-Long Learning In a nutshell: Identify, analyze, and synthesize information relevant to their learning needs Assess the credibility of information sources Share the information with their peers and supervisors Receive feedback on their information-seeking skills
To me, including the medical librarian in these conversations is crucial.
For this session, we are focusing specifically on tools that can be used for lecture capture in order to flip the classroom.
Readings: Pros: low-cost, little preparation time Cons: Passive, self-motivation required Lecture: Pros: low-cost, accommodates large number of learners, structured presentation of complex topics Cons: Passive, teacher centered, quality of lecture is highly dependent on speaker and A/V materials Discussion: Pros: Active learning, learners apply newly acquired knowledge, suitable for higher order cognitive levels Cons: More faculty intensive, group and facilitator dependent Reflection: Pros: Promotes learning from experiences as well as self-awareness / mindfulness, can be built into discussion activities Cons: Small group: Pros: Active learning, more multidisciplinary, encourages cooperation, teamwork & discussion Cons: faculty facilitators (or experienced facilitators), time TBL: Pros: Active learning, higher cognitive levels, students take responsibility for learning, collaborative Cons: Self-direction, need to orient students to process of teamwork and peer evaluation Standardized Patients: Pros: While this is not an exhaustive list, I’m going to attempt to tie-in lecture capture / ad hoc capture to most of them…and how we used it to achieve improvement in student satisfaction in the classroom.
When I came back to UIC in late 2013 and started working for the college of medicine, one of the many first tasks I took on was to help find a way to make the Blackboard shells more consistent. Students have long complained that it was difficulty to find content they were looking for, in different courses. Some courses would have a syllabus tab and others would have a syllabus under some other tab. This drove not only the students crazy, but also any additional teaching faculty who might teach for more than one course.
While lectures are low-cost and can accommodate larger numbers of learners, it is also a very passive way to deliver information. The center of attention is on the teacher. The quality of the lecture also depends largely on the speaker and their a/v materials.
With the best practices in place, observations of teaching can be more specific and honed to each lecturer.
Evidence shows that engaging students in active learning enhances their learning outcomes and improves their motivation and attitudes. McLaughlin, et al. (2014). The flipped classroom: A course redesign to foster learning and engagement in a health professions school. Academic Medicine (89),2. 236-242.
Talk about TBL and incorporating EBM into the ECM TBLs? Screenshots of TBL questions? Talk up work with LHS liaison in writing questions as well as rationale.
SAMR is an acronym for Substitution, Augmentation, Modification and Redefinition. SAMR can help one reflect on the quality of teaching and learning that occurs when one uses technology. For technology to have a positive impact on teaching and learning, first and foremost, the teaching must be good. Then we can look at the technology use. For technology to make a positive difference, the technology needs to help the practitioner and students do something that they could not do without the technology.
Add comebm website?
Create short tutorial with: Explain Everything PowToon Adobe Slate ShowMe iSight Camera / Smartphone or tablet camera
Instructional Design for Medical Librarians
Learning By Design
Instructional Design for Medical Librarians
• Describe the basic principles of
• Distinguish between educational
technologies to investigate when
creating an instructional design
• Create a short tutorial using
educational technologies based on
sound instructional design theory
Overview of Curriculum at
University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine
• Cell & Tissue Biology (fall)
• Medical Biochemistry (fall)
• Anatomy / Embryology
• Essentials of
Clinical Medicine 1-2 (fall/spring)
• Physiology I/II (fall/spring)
• Neuroanatomy (spring)
• Brain & Behavior (spring)
• Medical Genetics (spring)
• Human Development (spring)
• Basic Immunology &
• Essentials of
Clinical Medicine 3-4 (fall/spring)
• Clinical Pathophysiology (fall/spring)
• Medical Pharmacology (fall/spring)
• Pathology (fall/spring)
• Clinical Microbiology
& Immunology (fall)
• Psychiatry (spring)
• What types of learning
• What are the delivery
• What are the pedagogical
• What is the timeline for
• Documentation of the project’s
instructional, visual, and technical
• Apply instructional strategies to
outline/create course content
• Create storyboards
• Design the user interface and user
• Prototype creation
• Apply visual design
• Developers create and assemble
the content assets
• Programmers work to develop
and/or integrate technologies
• Testers perform debugging
• Project is reviewed and revised
according to feedback from team
• TAs and Instructors prepared to use new tools used in course
• Learners prepared to use new tools, mode of delivery, and pedagogical
• ID ensures that the learning materials (books, hands-on equipment, tools,
and software) are in place and course site is functional
• Formative evaluation
• Informing the design
• Present in each stage of ADDIE process
• Summative evaluation
• Informs instructional design improvements
• Conducted after course implementation is over
• Need data from systems and users
1. Coherence Principle - exclude extraneous words, pictures, sounds
2. Pre-training Principle - ensure students have prior knowledge of names,
characteristics of concepts
3. Spatial Contiguity Principle - present corresponding words and pictures in
close proximity to one another
4. Temporal Contiguity Principle - present corresponding words and pictures
simultaneously rather than successively
5. Signaling Principle - highlight important words
RICHARD MAYER’S TEN INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN PRINCIPLES
RICHARD MAYER’S TEN INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN PRINCIPLES (CONT
6. Redundancy Principle - pair animation and narration together without on-
7. Voice Principle - use non-accented human spoken voice for narration over
machine-simulated or foreign-accented human voice
8. Personalization Principle - employ conversational style, instead of formal style
to present words
9. Segmenting Principle - offer narrated animation in learner-paced segments
rather than a continuous unit
10. Modality Principle - pair animation and narration together instead of pairing
animation and on-screen text
Best Practices Guidelines
• Decided on by students
and faculty and covers:
• Summary slides
• Faculty Development Series begun (more formally) in spring 2014
• Best Practices in Learner-Centered Instruction
• Creating Effective Independent Learning Assignments
• Best Practices in Creating Powerful PowerPoint Presentations
• Setting the Stage: Meeting LCME Standard 6.3
• Hands on with Explain Everything
• Poll Everywhere
• Approaches to the Flipped Classroom: Achieve Student Engagement with Active Learning
Flipped Classroom & Active Learning
Active Learning Exercises
• Case Studies / Poll Everywhere
• Team-Based Learning
• Problem-Based Learning
McLaughlin, et al. (2014). The flipped classroom: A course redesign to foster learning and engagement in a health professions school. Academic Medicine (89),2. 236-242.
• Instructors prerecord lectures and
post online for students to watch
• Class time is dedicated to student-
centered learning activities
Technology - Enhanced Medical
Basic Principles for Teaching with
LMS Governance Board
By Peter Mercator (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-
sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
Create a short 2-3 minute tutorial using a program of your choosing and submit it
Some of the programs that were discussed in the webinar:
◦ Explain Everything (tablet app)
You will create a short video to illustrate something that might be particularly difficult
for your audience to grasp, and perhaps a visual/audio explanation can help with
understanding of the topic.
Submit here: https://uofi.box.com/MLA-December-2015
Instructions on how to submit are on the Moodle site!
Staying up to date
• DR-ED listserv
• Read by Qx
• Linking institutional access to premier journals
University of Illinois at Chicago
College of Medicine
Office of Undergraduate Medical Education