HISTORY AND BODY REVIEW, HORMONES LEVELS EVALUATION AND SPERM TESTING Primary Diagnosis of Azoospermia Affected Patients
Introduction <ul><li>Azoospermia means entire absence of germ cells within the sperm. It is in charge of about 20 pct of m...
 
Primary Evaluation - Medical History combined with Physical Exam <ul><li>The analysis of azoospermia is primary confirmed ...
 
Seminal fluid Assessment <ul><li>Ejaculate examination records the absence of sperm cell as well the amount of ejaculate. ...
 
Serum Hormonal Assessment <ul><li>The purpose of the serum endocrine evaluation is to evaluate the hypothalamic-pituitary-...
 
<ul><li>For the latest scientific news in biology and medicine, visit: </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.bioXplorer.com </li></ul>
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Primary Diagnosis of Azoospermia Affected Patients

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Primary Diagnosis of Azoospermia Affected Patients

  1. 1. HISTORY AND BODY REVIEW, HORMONES LEVELS EVALUATION AND SPERM TESTING Primary Diagnosis of Azoospermia Affected Patients
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Azoospermia means entire absence of germ cells within the sperm. It is in charge of about 20 pct of mature men exhibiting with infertility. Azoospermia is usually diagnosed when a pair of semen biological materials, supplied at least 2 weeks apart, show no sperm cell prior or after sedimentation. The occurrence of any existing germ cells in the sedimented pellet is considered acute oligospermia, also referred to as cryptospermia, excluding congestion. The primary evaluation of the azoospermia diagnosed patient should sort out the illness as obstructive or nonobstructive. </li></ul>
  3. 4. Primary Evaluation - Medical History combined with Physical Exam <ul><li>The analysis of azoospermia is primary confirmed by means of careful study of patient story. Important info in relation to the very first record is covered in detail inside the Initial Assessment for Males Barrenness procedure. A careful medicalexamination supplies extra insight into the etiology of azoospermia. The degree of virilization, pubic hair layout, also, the presence of gynecomastia means an endocrine system disturbance, such as an disproportion within the proportion of testosterone to prolactine overload, or genetic material abnormalities such as Klinefelter's syndrome. The volume of the testicles could possibly be tested utilising an orchido-meter, calipers or scrotal ultrasound to recognize obstructive from nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA). Orchidometers have been established to underestimate overall size in smaller sized testes, however scientific significance is probably very little. Atrophic testes advise defective germ cell development as seminal channels constitute the bulk of testicular structure, however, regular measurements fails to exclude azoospermia. Epididymal dilation suggests obstructions, and must not be confused with a non-obstructive spermatocele. The absent vas deferens or Atretic, poorly developed vas deferens hints obstructive azoospermia and CBAVD (congenital bilateral the deficiency of the vas deferens). Occurrence of a varicocele, scrotal or inguinal scars need to be mentioned. Scarcely, anal exam will disclose a cyst or seminal vesicle dilation suggestive of EDO (Ejaculatory Duct Obstructions). </li></ul>
  4. 6. Seminal fluid Assessment <ul><li>Ejaculate examination records the absence of sperm cell as well the amount of ejaculate. Typical sperm amounts prevents obstruction distal to the ejaculation canal and shows either non obstructive azoospermia or bilateral obstruction of the vas deferens or epididymis. Though the World Health Organization describes a standard seminal fluid amounts as about 2-5 ml, a level above one ml is rarely pathologic. If the semen volume level is less than one ml, ejaculatory malfunction, obstructive azoospermia from EDO or CBAVD (congenital bilateral deficiency of the vas deferens), or endocrine system malfunction should be regarded. The lack of sperm cell inside the ejaculate and first post ejaculation urinalysis rules out retrograde ejaculation. Since a big part of the sperm volume comes from the seminal vesicles and/or prostate, any existing obstruction more proximal to these body parts minimally impacts ejaculation volume levels. The exception to this condition is Congenital bilateral deficiency of the vas deferens (CBAVD), as the vas deferens and seminal vesicles are both male urogenital structures and absent vasa are accompanied by atrophied or atretic vesicular glands. Fructose from the seminal vesicles should be examined on scheduled seminal fluid analysis, and the absence of fructose in a reduced quantity ejaculate can often mean Ejaculatory duct obstructions (EDO) or CBAVD. </li></ul>
  5. 8. Serum Hormonal Assessment <ul><li>The purpose of the serum endocrine evaluation is to evaluate the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, to assist recognize obstructive from NOA, and to grant prognostic info concerning treatment method results. However FSH presents essentially the most fundamental knowledge essential, it is rational to also determine LH (leutinizing hormone), testosterone, and prolactin amount. FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) is secreted from the pituitary gland in reaction to gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) via the hypothalamus gland. follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) influence the testes when the most important indicator for germ cell development. Inhibin is made by Sertoli glands of the testis and delivers negative feedback for the control of FSH secretion. A substantially lifted Follicle-stimulating hormone, in particular a ratio greater than two fold typical, is diagnostic of a deficiency in sperm generation and consistent with NOA. However, a normal Follicle-stimulating hormone isn't going to exclude NOA. Nonetheless, the analysis of azoospermia is best eliminated with testis tissue sample, since there is no definitive Follicle-stimulating hormone tolerance that forecasts deficiency of sperm cell on microscopic TESE. Certain practitioners have advocated using inhibin b being a sign for sperm generation to calculate presence of germ cells at TESE (Testicular Sperm Extraction). Inhibin-B is a hormonal agent released by Sertoli cells that correlates inversely with serum FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) levels. A number of numerous studies have described serum inhibin b being a far better predictor of effective Testicular Sperm Extraction than FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone), though the amounts of inhibin B taken into account to predict the successful sperm retrieval with Testicular Sperm Extraction (TESE) remain undefined. Rates of inhibin-b within the semen plasma have also been studied, however clinical utility of this demands further investigating. One analysis suggested inhibin-b estimated successful sperm cell retrieval, whereas another mentioned that the involvement from accessory seminal glands limits the utility of seminal fluid inhibin-b as a marker for germ cell development. </li></ul>
  6. 10. <ul><li>For the latest scientific news in biology and medicine, visit: </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.bioXplorer.com </li></ul>

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