Lecture01

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Lecture01

  1. 1. Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard Department of Modern Languages and Literatures Western University
  2. 2. Lecture 1 Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard * Contents: 1. Why this lecture? 2. Justification and goals of the course 3. Chapter 1 4. Overview of the course 5. Assignment 6. Bibliography 2
  3. 3. Why this lecture? * This lecture... · presents this course, its justification, contents and goals · introduces the concepts of DH and KR, and justify why the latter is so important for the former Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard3
  4. 4. Justification and goals of the course * Why DH? · It is an emergent field · Its rich heritage from Humanities · The wide range of problems it addresses Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard4
  5. 5. Justification and goals of the course * Skills in DH: · Modelling · Knowledge Representation . Programming . Natural Language Processing · History Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard5
  6. 6. Justification and goals of the course * Why KR? · KR is becoming a key dimension of DH · KR is the first and essential step for further computer processing · KR has the potential to change the way humanities scholarship is done Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard6
  7. 7. Justification and goals of the course * Why programming? · It improves modelling and KR skills · It allows to create new solutions for old problems by providing a more versatile way to manipulate data Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard7
  8. 8. Justification and goals of the course * Why NLP? · Most of the humanities disciplines rely on texts · Methods and tools for digitization and processing of texts Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard8
  9. 9. Justification and goals of the course * Why Historical Texts? · Answer research questions from the humanities Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard9
  10. 10. Justification and goals of the course * Why Historical Texts? · Similar to current media: + sms + forum posts + chats + social networkings · Sentiment Analysis is applicable Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard10
  11. 11. Justification and goals of the course * Why Sentiment Analysis? · market trends · recommendation systems · targeted advertising Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard11
  12. 12. Justification and goals of the course * Aim of the course: · Abstract relevant aspects of a problem · Model those relevant aspects into a formal representation · Solve formalized problems by means of programming Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard12
  13. 13. References “Digital Humanities Forum 2011.” N. p., n.d. Web. 16 June 2013. Piotrowski, Michael. “Chapter 2: NLP and Digital Humanities.” Natural Language Processing for Historical Texts. [San Rafael, Calif.]: Morgan & Claypool, 2012. Open WorldCat. Print. Steven Bird, Ewan Klein, and Edward Loper. “Preface.” Natural Language Processing with Python. O’Reilly Media, 2009. Print. Svensson, Patrik. “Humanities Computing as Digital Humanities.” Digital Humanities Quarterly 003.3 (2009): n. pag. Print. Svensson, Patrik. “The Landscape of Digital Humanities.” Digital Humanities Quarterly 4.1 (2010): n. pag. Web. 30 May 2013. Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard13
  14. 14. References The Alliance of Digital Humanities Organizations et al. Digital Humanities 2012 - Conference Abstracts. Proceedings (Komplette Ausgabe einer Konferenz etc.). 2008. Print. Unsworth, John. “Knowledge Representation in Humanities Computing.” Inaugural E-humanities Lecture at the National Endowment for the Humanities (2001): n. pag. Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard14
  15. 15. Chapter 1 Digital Humanities and Knowledge Representation 1. The landscape of Digital Humanities 2. Modelling and Knowledge Representation Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard15
  16. 16. Chapter 1 1 The landscape of Digital Humanities 1.1 Definition of DH 1.2 DH projects 1.3 Skills in DH 1.4 The DH community Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard16
  17. 17. Chapter 1 2 Modelling and Knowledge Representation 2.1 Definition of KR 2.2 KR in DH 2.3 Representing data and procedures Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard17
  18. 18. The landscape of Digital Humanities Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard18
  19. 19. Definition of Digital Humanities * What is DH? · No agreement in what DH is, open debate in the discipline · It descends from Humanities Computing: formal representations of the human record Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard19
  20. 20. Definition of Digital Humanities * DH is a wide field that involves: · data mining and visualization · modelling and conceptualization · formalization and representation · programming · conservation · linguistics, history, literature... Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard20
  21. 21. Definition of Digital Humanities * In the specific area of text processing: · digitization of documents + conservation · annotation with metadata + modelling + representation Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard21
  22. 22. Definition of Digital Humanities * In the specific area of text processing: · public access to collections + visualization · text mining + data mining · natural language processing + programming Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard22
  23. 23. Definition of Digital Humanities * Some approaches to the concept: · Susan Schreibman, Ray Siemens and John Unsworth (2002): + preservation of physical artifacts + knowledge representation Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard23
  24. 24. Definition of Digital Humanities * Some approaches to the concept: · Andrew Prescott (2012): + conservation of culture through transformation of original objects ==> modelling and representation + interdisciplinar collaboration ==> “universal science” Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard24
  25. 25. Definition of Digital Humanities * Some approaches to the concept: · Matthew G. Kirschenbaum (2010): + networking and collaboration · Michael Piotrowski (2012): + traditional humanities & new computer-based methods and tools Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard25
  26. 26. Definition of Digital Humanities * Some approaches to the concept: · Patrick Svensson (2010): + humanities and information technology + humanities 2.0 + networking + decentralization of knowledge + interdisciplinarity and collaboration Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard26
  27. 27. Definition of Digital Humanities * Some approaches to the concept: · Tod Presner (2009): + print is no longer “the” medium + digital tools, techniques, new media + new production and dissemination of knoledge Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard27
  28. 28. Definition of Digital Humanities * Some approaches to the concept: · Wikipedia: + intersection of computing and humanities + digitization, curation, data mining... + linguistics, history, literature... · Digital Humanities Quarterly journal: + still emerging field Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard28
  29. 29. Definition of Digital Humanities * Some common ideas: · intersection of computing and humanities · conservation · knowledge representation · interdisciplinar collaboration Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard29
  30. 30. References “Digital Humanities.” Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 9 Aug. 2013. Wikipedia. Web. 12 Aug. 2013. “DHQ: Digital Humanities Quarterly.” N. p., n.d. Web. 20 Dec. 2013. Kirschenbaum, Matthew G. “What Is Digital Humanities and What’s It Doing in English Departments?” ADE Bulletin 150 (2010): n. pag. Piotrowski, Michael. “Chapter 2: NLP and Digital Humanities.” Natural Language Processing for Historical Texts. [San Rafael, Calif.]: Morgan & Claypool, 2012. Open WorldCat. Print. Prescott, Andrew. “An Electric Current of the Imagination: What the Digital Humanities Are and What They Might Become.” Journal of Digital Humanities (2012): n. pag. Web. 29 May 2013. Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard30
  31. 31. References Schreibman, Susan, Ray Siemens, and John Unsworth, eds. “The Digital Humanities and Humanities Computing: Introduction.” A Companion to Digital Humanities. Hardcover. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Professional, 2004. Wiley Online Library. Web. 3 June 2013. Blackwell Companions to Literature and Culture. Svensson, Patrik. “The Landscape of Digital Humanities.” Digital Humanities Quarterly 4.1 (2010): n. pag. Web. 30 May 2013. The Alliance of Digital Humanities Organizations et al. Digital Humanities 2012 - Conference Abstracts. Proceedings (Komplette Ausgabe einer Konferenz etc.). 2008. Print. “The Digital Humanities Manifesto 2.0.” 2009. Unsworth, John. “Knowledge Representation in Humanities Computing.” Inaugural E-humanities Lecture at the National Endowment for the Humanities (2001): n. pag. Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard31
  32. 32. Digital Humanities projects * The Sylva Project Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard32
  33. 33. Digital Humanities projects * The Sylva Project (http://sylvadb.com/) The CulturePlex Lab, Western University · Modelling and conceptualization · KR: Graph databases · Data visualization · Data mining · Collaboration Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard33
  34. 34. Digital Humanities projects * The Printer's Devil Project Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard34
  35. 35. Digital Humanities projects * The Printer's Devil Project (http://ett.arts.uwo.ca/printersdevil/) The Research Group for Electronic Textuality and Theory, Western University · Online communities · Digitization · Public access to collections Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard35
  36. 36. Digital Humanities projects * Deception Detection Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard36
  37. 37. Digital Humanities projects * Deception Detection (http://publish.uwo.ca/~vrubin/lab/deceptdetect.html) Language and Information Technology Research Lab, Western University · NLP · Machine Learning Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard37
  38. 38. Digital Humanities projects * The Proceedings of the Old Bailey, 1674·1913 Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard38
  39. 39. Digital Humanities projects * The Proceedings of the Old Bailey, 1674·1913 (http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/) Universities of Hertfordshire and Sheffield and the Open University · Digitization · Public access to collections · NLP Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard39
  40. 40. Digital Humanities projects * Alfred Escher Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard40
  41. 41. Digital Humanities projects * Alfred Escher (http://alfred-escher.ch/en/) Alfred Escher Foundation · Digitization · Public access to collections Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard41
  42. 42. Digital Humanities projects * Extraction of structured knowledge from ancient sources Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard42
  43. 43. Digital Humanities projects * Extraction of structured knowledge from ancient sources (http://www.eaqua.net/en/) Institute for Computer Science, University Leipzig · Text mining · NLP Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard43
  44. 44. Skills in Digital Humanities Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard44 * From the analisys of the DH's landscape:
  45. 45. Skills in Digital Humanities Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard45 * Most important skills in DH:
  46. 46. Skills in Digital Humanities * Modelling * Knowledge Representation * Programming * Natural Language Processing * History Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard46
  47. 47. The Digital Humanities community * Communities of Digital Humanists (“DHers”) · ADHO (http://adho.org/) + ALLC + ACH + CSDH/SCHN + centerNet + aaDH + JADH Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard47
  48. 48. The Digital Humanities community * Communities of Digital Humanists (“Dhers”) · Others + HASTAC (http://www.hastac.org/) + CHAIN (http://www.arts-humanities.net/chain) + DARIAH (http://www.dariah.eu/) + Twitter (https://twitter.com/) Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard48
  49. 49. Modelling and Knowledge Representation Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard49
  50. 50. Definition of Knowledge Representation * What is KR? · KR is a sub-discipline in the field of artificial intelligence, but also an interdisciplinary methodology that combines logic and ontology to produce models of human understanding that are tractable to computation (Unsworth, 2001). Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard50
  51. 51. Definition of Knowledge Representation * What is KR? · In other words, it is the representation of knowledge by means of a formal language that enables automated processing. Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard51
  52. 52. Definition of Knowledge Representation * KR entails: 1. abstraction and modelling 2. a formal language Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard52
  53. 53. Definition of Knowledge Representation * Abstraction and modelling · substitution for the thing itself · determine important aspects to represent · ignore irrelevant details · reasoning about the world rather than taking action in it Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard53
  54. 54. Definition of Knowledge Representation * A formal language · a language to say things about the world · a medium of human expression to represent the model · formalized morphology, syntax and semantics · computationally processable Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard54
  55. 55. References Davis, Randall, Howard Shrobe, and Peter Szolovits. “What Is a Knowledge Representation?” AI Magazine 14.1 (1993): 17. www.aaai.org. Web. 13 Aug. 2013. Unsworth, John. “Knowledge Representation in Humanities Computing.” Inaugural E-humanities Lecture at the National Endowment for the Humanities (2001): n. pag. Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard55
  56. 56. Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities * Representation of: · cultural objects · archival materials + printed-based (e.g. manuscripts) + visual-based (e.g. paintings) + audio-based (e.g. sound films) Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard56
  57. 57. Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities * KR is a critical and self-conscious activity * KR requires humanists · to make explicit what they know about the object · to understand the relationship between the object and its representation Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard57
  58. 58. Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities * Examples: · electronic edition of a text · model of an artwork Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard58
  59. 59. * Electronic edition of a text Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard59 Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities <text title:”Romeo and Juliet” author:”William Shakespeare”>  <act index:1>   <scene index:1 title:”A public place”>    <actor>Sampson</actor>:    Gregory, o' my word, we'll not <note meaning:”take            insults”>carry coals</note>.    <actor>Gregory</actor>:    No, for then we should be <note meaning:”coal                 miners”>colliers</note>.    <actor>Sampson</actor>:    I mean, if we be <note meaning:”angered”>in                   choler</note>, we'll <note meaning:draw our                   weapons>draw</note>.    ...   </scene>  </act> </text>
  60. 60. * Model of an artwork Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard60 Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities
  61. 61. References Davis, Randall, Howard Shrobe, and Peter Szolovits. “What Is a Knowledge Representation?” AI Magazine 14.1 (1993): 17. www.aaai.org. Web. 13 Aug. 2013. Schreibman, Susan, Ray Siemens, and John Unsworth, eds. “The Digital Humanities and Humanities Computing: Introduction.” A Companion to Digital Humanities. Hardcover. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Professional, 2004. Wiley Online Library. Web. 3 June 2013. Blackwell Companions to Literature and Culture. Unsworth, John. “Knowledge Representation in Humanities Computing.” Inaugural E-humanities Lecture at the National Endowment for the Humanities (2001): n. pag. Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard61
  62. 62. Representing data and procedures * Data: · Facts · Items · Objects Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard62 * Data: · Facts · Items · Objects * Procedures: · Recipes · Methods · Algorithms
  63. 63. Representing data and procedures * Data representation: · Bit · Number · String · Abstract data type Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard63
  64. 64. Representing data and procedures * Data representation: · Database · Conceptual map · Markup language · Other formats: CSV, RGB... Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard64
  65. 65. Representing data and procedures * Procedure representation: · Flow diagram · Pseudocode · Programming language implementation Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard65
  66. 66. Representing data and procedures * Data + Procedure = Problem solution * Example: Count how many words are written in plural (ends with s) in a text. Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard66
  67. 67. Representing data and procedures * Data: · text (list of words) · word (string of letters) · letter (single character) · counter (number) Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard67
  68. 68. Representing data and procedures * Procedure: 1. The counter starts with 0 2. Separate the text in a list of words 3. For each word, get its last letter 4. If the last letter is the letter s, increment the counter in 1 5. Repeat the process for the next word 6. The result is the value of the counter Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard68
  69. 69. Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard69 Representing data and procedures
  70. 70. * Result of the program Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard70 Representing data and procedures
  71. 71. References Miller, Bradley N, and David L Ranum. “Chapter 1: Introduction.” Problem Solving with Algorithms and Data Structures Using Python. 2nd edition. Sherwood, Or.: Franklin, Beedle & Associates, 2011. Print. Unsworth, John. “Knowledge Representation in Humanities Computing.” Inaugural E-humanities Lecture at the National Endowment for the Humanities (2001): n. pag. Sperberg-McQueen, C. M., and David Dubin. “Data Representation.” DH Curation Guide (2012): n. pag. Print. Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard71
  72. 72. Overview of the course * NLP with Python · A natural language... + is used for communication among humans (e.g. English, Spanish...) + is hard to pin down with explicit rules Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard72
  73. 73. Overview of the course * NLP with Python · NLP to cover any kind of computer manipulation of natural language + counting word frecuencies + “understanding” complete human utterances Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard73
  74. 74. Overview of the course * NLP with Python · Students will learn: + how to program + how to analyze/manipulate language + how data structures and algorithms are used in NLP + how data is stored in standard formats Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard74
  75. 75. Overview of the course * NLP with Python · Why Python? + simple yet powerful programming language + excellent functionality for NLP + highly readable for humans Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard75
  76. 76. Overview of the course * Contents · Chapter 1. DH and KR · Chapter 2. Principles of Computing · Chapter 3. Fundamentals of Programming · Chapter 4. Python Programming Language · Chapter 5. Text Representation · Chapter 6. Domain Modelling and Complex Object Representation Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard76
  77. 77. Overview of the course * Contents · Chapter 7. Raw Text Processing · Chapter 8. Accessing Text Corpora and Lexical Resources · Chapter 9. NLP · Chapter 10. Historial Texts · Chapter 11. Sentiment Analysis Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard77
  78. 78. Overview of the course * Contents · Chapter 12. Final Project Development · Chapter 13. Final Project Presentations Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard78
  79. 79. Assignment * Assignment 1: DH & KR · Readings + What Is Digital Humanities and What's it Doing in English Departments? + DH2012 – Conference Abstracts (one project) Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard79
  80. 80. Assignment * Assignment 1: DH & KR · Project + From what you have learnt in this lecture and the first reading, give your own definition for DH + Pick up a project from the second reading and explain what its knowledge is about and how it is modelled Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard80
  81. 81. References Kirschenbaum, Matthew G. “What Is Digital Humanities and What’s It Doing in English Departments?” ADE Bulletin 150 (2010): n. pag. The Alliance of Digital Humanities Organizations et al. Digital Humanities 2012 - Conference Abstracts. Proceedings (Komplette Ausgabe einer Konferenz etc.). 2008. Print. Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard81
  82. 82. Bibliography Davis, Randall, Howard Shrobe, and Peter Szolovits. “What Is a Knowledge Representation?” AI Magazine 14.1 (1993): 17. www.aaai.org. Web. 13 Aug. 2013. “Digital Humanities.” Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 9 Aug. 2013. Wikipedia. Web. 12 Aug. 2013. “Digital Humanities Forum 2011.” N. p., n.d. Web. 16 June 2013. “DHQ: Digital Humanities Quarterly.” N. p., n.d. Web. 20 Dec. 2013. Kirschenbaum, Matthew G. “What Is Digital Humanities and What’s It Doing in English Departments?” ADE Bulletin 150 (2010): n. pag. Miller, Bradley N, and David L Ranum. Problem Solving with Algorithms and Data Structures Using Python. 2nd edition. Sherwood, Or.: Franklin, Beedle & Associates, 2011. Print. Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard82
  83. 83. Bibliography Piotrowski, Michael. Natural Language Processing for Historical Texts. [San Rafael, Calif.]: Morgan & Claypool, 2012. Open WorldCat. Print. Prescott, Andrew. “An Electric Current of the Imagination: What the Digital Humanities Are and What They Might Become.” Journal of Digital Humanities (2012): n. pag. Web. 29 May 2013. Schreibman, Susan, Ray Siemens, and John Unsworth, eds. A Companion to Digital Humanities. Hardcover. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Professional, 2004. Wiley Online Library. Web. 3 June 2013. Blackwell Companions to Literature and Culture. Sperberg-McQueen, C. M., and David Dubin. “Data Representation.” DH Curation Guide (2012): n. pag. Print. Steven Bird, Ewan Klein, and Edward Loper. Natural Language Processing with Python. O’Reilly Media, 2009. Print. Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard83
  84. 84. Bibliography Svensson, Patrik. “Humanities Computing as Digital Humanities.” Digital Humanities Quarterly 003.3 (2009): n. pag. Print. Svensson, Patrik. “The Landscape of Digital Humanities.” Digital Humanities Quarterly 4.1 (2010): n. pag. Web. 30 May 2013. The Alliance of Digital Humanities Organizations et al. Digital Humanities 2012 - Conference Abstracts. Proceedings (Komplette Ausgabe einer Konferenz etc.). 2008. Print. “The Digital Humanities Manifesto 2.0.” 2009. Unsworth, John. “Knowledge Representation in Humanities Computing.” Inaugural E-humanities Lecture at the National Endowment for the Humanities (2001): n. pag. Knowledge Representation in Digital Humanities Antonio Jiménez Mavillard84

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