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The ethnography of communication


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The ethnography of communication

  1. 1. The Ethnography of Communication ( EC )
  2. 2. The Ethnography of communication is the a method of discourse analysis in linguistics, which draws on the anthropological field of ethnography . ( From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia) The Ethnography of Communication ( EC )
  3. 3. <ul><li>The approach is concerned with: </li></ul><ul><li>the linguistic resources people use in context, not just grammar in the traditional sense, but the socially situated uses and meanings of words, their relations, and sequential forms of expression; </li></ul><ul><li>the various media used when communicating, and their comparative analysis, such as online &quot;messaging&quot; and how it compares to face–to–face messaging; </li></ul><ul><li>the way verbal and nonverbal signs create and reveal social codes of identity, relationships, emotions, place, and communication itself </li></ul>Nature of the approach
  4. 4. <ul><li>The ethnography of communication was founded by Dell Hymes. </li></ul><ul><li> Dell Hymes (1974) is an important person in the development of EC </li></ul>Origins
  5. 5. <ul><li>Communicative competence is Hymes’ focus in his study </li></ul><ul><li>CC influences the use of Grammar so that it is suitable to the communication purpose. </li></ul>The Ethnography of communication
  6. 6. <ul><li>According to Hymes, Culture is the knowledge which members in a community share and it is the basis of behaviors , which brings to behaviors certain meanings. </li></ul><ul><li> Therefore, when language is used, it realizes the cultural standards which is the basis of our behaviors </li></ul>The Ethnography of communication
  7. 7. <ul><li>Hymes introduced several concepts as basic units for the ethnographic study of communication: </li></ul><ul><li>- communication event </li></ul><ul><li>- communication act </li></ul><ul><li>- communication situation </li></ul><ul><li>- speech community </li></ul>The Ethnography of communication
  8. 8. The Ethnography of communication The famous “S.P.E.A.K.I.N.G” model ( 8 factors which participate in the communication process)
  9. 9. S Settin g: the time and place of a speech act and, the physical circumstances. Scene : &quot;psychological setting&quot; or &quot;cultural definition&quot; of a scene The &quot;S-P-E-A-K-I-N-G&quot; model (Hymes)
  10. 10.  P <ul><li>Participants : </li></ul><ul><li>Speaker </li></ul><ul><li>- Hearer and audience </li></ul>The &quot;S-P-E-A-K-I-N-G&quot; model (Hymes)
  11. 11. E Ends: Purposes, goals, and outcomes A The &quot;S-P-E-A-K-I-N-G&quot; model (Hymes) Act sequence: Form and order of the event
  12. 12. K Key: &quot;tone, manner, or spirit&quot; of the speech act I The &quot;S-P-E-A-K-I-N-G&quot; model (Hymes) Instrumentalities: Forms and styles of speech
  13. 13. The &quot;S-P-E-A-K-I-N-G&quot; model (Hymes) N Norms : Social rules governing the event and the participants' actions and reaction G The &quot;S-P-E-A-K-I-N-G&quot; model (Hymes) Genres: The kind of speech act or event