Mophosyntax - Second class handout


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Mophosyntax - Second class handout

  1. 1. Federal University of Acre Campus Floresta - Cruzeiro do Sul Center for Multidisciplinary Studies - English Course Morphosyntax I Prof. Msc. Mauro UchôaWhat is morphosyntax?The science of Morphology and syntax which are combined into the nameMorphosyntax. It covers morphosyntactic aspects such as sentence pattern, affixes,and inflection.The system of the internal structure of words (morphology) and the way in which wordsare put together to form phrases and sentences (syntax).The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition, definesmorphosyntax as: 1. The study of grammatical categories or linguistic units that have both morphological and syntactic properties. 2. The set of rules that govern linguistic units whose properties are definable by both morphological and syntactic criteria.How Words are Formed?Words are a part of everyday language and contain a number of basic parts. Prefixes,suffixes, and base words (root or core) are put together through the process of wordformation:Affixation Ex: pleasant - unpleasant, meaning - meaningful - meaningless.Conversion Ex: drive (verb) - drive (noun) Its a long drive from Glasgow to London. Im learning to drive.Compound Ex: tea + pot = teapot, arm + chair = armchairWords are structures that are used every day in speech, writing, and communication.Individual words are made of specific parts, each with their specific function andmeaning.What is a morpheme?The smallest unit of meaning in language is called a morpheme. These morphemes,which may or may not be a complete word in any given language, are the buildingblocks for creating words by adding prefixes, suffixes, and other parts of words.
  2. 2. Free Morpheme Bound Morpheme read-able leg-ible hear-ing audi-ence en-large magn-ify, perfom-ance rend-ition white-ness clar-ity dark-en obfusc-ate seek-er aplic-antA base word is a morpheme or group of morphemes that have one complete meaning.Base words can be short, such as "but," or much longer. These are the parts oflanguage that are used to communicate, but are also used to build more complicatedwords with more intricate meanings.Affixes are indeed always bound, but it is not the case that roots are always free.Morphemes and theirs allomorphsHow are the plural of most English nouns formed?Is every morpheme pronounced the same in all context?[s] = /s/, /z/ and /iz/  when the preceding sound is a sibilant (the kind of hissing or hushing sound heard at the end of horse, rose, bush, church and judge, the /iz/ allomorphy occurs.  otherwise, when the preceding sound is voiceless, i.e. produced with no vibration of the vocal folds in the larynx (as in cat, rock, cup of cliff, the /s/ allomorph occurs  otherwise, (i.e. after a vowel or a voiced consonant, as in dog or day), the /z/ allomorph occurs.How do we pronounce the -ed?In 3 ways - / Id/ or / t/ or / d/ / Id/ wanted, ended / t/ Hoped, laughed, faxed, washed, watched, liked / d/ Played, allowed, begged Please visit this website to learn more: morphologyInflectional morphemes: vary (or "inflect") the form of words in order to express grammaticalfeatures, such as singular/plural or past/present tense. Thus Boy and boys, for example, aretwo different forms of the "same" word; the choice between them, singular vs. plural, is amatter of grammar and thus the business of inflectional morphology. (Crystal, p. 90.)-s = plural form, possessive, verb third person -er - comparative-ed = past form -est = superlative-ing = progressive form
  3. 3. Federal University of Acre Campus Floresta - Cruzeiro do Sul Center for Multidisciplinary Studies - English Course Morphosyntax I Prof. Msc. Mauro UchôaExercises 01 - Consider the following words:a) tigers - speakers b) untimaly - uniquely c) decorating - decentralisingd) wholesome - gruesome e) consumed - consumption f) leucocyte - erythocyte1) Divide them into morphemes, noting any instances where you are unsure. What differences are therebetween the words in each pair?2) Are there any morphemes here which have two or more allomorphs?3) Which of these morphemes are free and which are bound? Are the bound morphemes all affixes, orare some of them roots or combining forms?Exercises 02 - Explain the function of the bold morpheme in the following sentences1) This pianist performs in the local hall every week.2) Mary told us that this pianist performed in the local hall every week.3) The performance last week was particularly impressive.Exercises 03 - In each of the following groups of word forms, identify those that are (or can cam be,according to context) forms of the same lexeme:a) woman, womans, women, womanly, girlb) greenish, greener, green, greensc) written, wrote, writer, rewrites, writingBibliography:CARSTAIRS-McCARTHY. Andrew. An Introduction to English Morphology.Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2002.