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Validity, reliablility, washback

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Validity, reliablility, washback

  1. 1. VALIDITY, RELIABLILITY, WASHBACK Carolina Salazar 17.02.2014
  2. 2. The test measures what it is intended to measure. VALIDITY
  3. 3. CONTENT VALIDITY
  4. 4. Content Validity TEST RELEVANT!!! skills structures concepts
  5. 5. Judging Content Validity SPECIFICATIONS ACTUAL TEST
  6. 6. Importance of Content Validity Content General Content Construct WASHBACK ValidityValidity Validity Validity
  7. 7. CRITERION-RELATED VALIDITY
  8. 8. Criterion-related Validity Assessment DO Test results THEY AGREE? results
  9. 9. Kinds of Criterion-related Validity Concurrent C-R V. Test = criterion EXAMPLES?Test  Predictive Criterion
  10. 10. Examples of Criterion-related Validity One of the objectives of a Spanish course is to measure speaking (especially pronunciation of vowels) and writing (especially comments on readings). Testing these abilities in detail could take up to 2 hours per student (too impractical), but only 20 minutes can be devoted to each student. Can a twenty-minute session give an accurate estimate of the student’s ability in these functions? After the students finish the 20-min test, the teacher decides to choose a sample of the students taking the evaluation to subject them to the full 2-hour one. Then he compares the results.
  11. 11. Examples of Criterion-related Validity A student takes a placement test for English. He receives the results and is placed in 3rd level. How well did the test predict the most appropriate class for the student? Will he succeed and pass?
  12. 12. SCORING VALIDITY
  13. 13. Scoring Validity READING-COMPREHENSION TEST
  14. 14. FACE VALIDITY
  15. 15. Face Validity
  16. 16. HOW TO MAKE TESTS MORE VALID?
  17. 17. Tips for more valid tests 1. Set specifications 2. Use direct testing 3. Relate the scoring to what you are testing
  18. 18. The test is repeatable. RELIABILITY
  19. 19. Reliability
  20. 20. Reliability Exemplified STUDENT SCORE (A) SCORE (B) T 80 52 U 61 78 V 98 59 W 43 68 X 52 66 Y 40 98 Z 28 50 • 100-item test • SCORE A: Monday • SCORE B: Tuesday STUDENT SCORE (A) SCORE (B) A 91 97 B 88 83 C 46 50 D 54 52 E 99 99 F 66 70 G 27 25
  21. 21. The Reliability Coefficient 0 ..... 1
  22. 22. Role of Reliability …THE MORE IMPORTANT THE DECISIONS, THE GREATER RELIABILITY WE MUST DEMAND.
  23. 23. How do we arrive to the R.C.? Testretest R.C. Alternate forms Split-half
  24. 24. SCORER RELIABILITY
  25. 25. Scorer Reliability
  26. 26. HOW TO MAKE TESTS MORE RELIABLE?
  27. 27. Tips for more reliable tests 1. Use enough items 2. Do not give too much freedom 3. Write unambiguous items 4. Provide clear instructions 5. Ensure that tests are legible 6. Make candidates familiar with formats/techniques 7. Provide non-distracting and uniform conditions 8. Use items that allow objective scoring 9. Provide a detailed scoring key 10. Train scorers 11. Agree upon acceptable responses and scores before scoring 12. Identify candidates by number 13. Employ multiple, independent scoring
  28. 28. Reliability and Validity A reliable test is not always valid and viceversa. WHY? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5lG3R6-4T3k
  29. 29. Effects of the test on students WASHBACK
  30. 30. Kinds of Washback POSITIVE WASHBACK NEGATIVE WASHBACK Encourages students Clarifies concepts … Makes students nervous, anxious Makes teachers/ students ignore «unimportant» topics … http://tapchi.vnu.edu.vn/nn_4_09/b.8.pdf
  31. 31. Tips for achieving beneficial washback 1. Test the activities whose development you want to encourage 2. Sample widely and unpredictably 3. Use direct testing 4. Make testing criterion-referenced 5. Base achievement tests on objectives 6. Ensure the understanding of the test 7. Provide assistance if necessary
  32. 32. VALIDITY, RELIABLILITY, WASHBACK Carolina Salazar 17.02.2014

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