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  1. 1. Légende Arthurienne -Ressources Anglophones Cinéma 21
  2. 2. CINÉMA TITRE RÉALISATEUR DATE COMMENTAIRESA connecticut Yankee in King ArthurCourt Ralph L. Thomas 1949 Adaptation du roman de Marc TwainThe Knight of the Round Table Richard Thorpe 1953 Avec Ava GardnerThe Sword in the stone Disney 1963Holy Grail Monty Python 1975 ParodieExcalibur John Boorman 1981Fisher King Terry Gilliam 1991 Dinspiration arthurienne lointaineFirst Knight Jerry Zucker 1995 Avec Richard GereMerlin Steve Barron 1998 TéléfilmQuest for Camelot Frederik Du Chau 1998 AniméThe Mists of Avalon Uli Edel 2001 Adaptation des romans de Marion Zimmer Bradley Chagford filmmaking Adaptation de Lanval, Marie de France, Libre de droit pour diffusion dansSir Lanval group 2011 les écoles 22
  3. 3. A CONNECTICUT YANKEE IN THE KING ARTHUR’S COURT RALPH L. THOMAS – 1949 Ce film est une adaptation du roman du même titre de Marc Twain. Synopsis Hank Martin, an American mechanic, is knocked out and wakes up in the land of King Arthur. Here he finds romance with Alisande la Cartelois and friendship with Sir Sagramore.Unfortunately, the heroic Hank also incurs the hatred of both Merlin and Morgan le Fay. While Hank persuades King Arthur, played by Sir Cedric Hardwicke as an aged, semi-perpetual, cold-in-the-nose invalid, to tour his kingdom in disguise to see the true, wretched condition of his subjects, Merlin and Morgan plot to usurp his throne. When Hank tries to stop them, he is returned to his own time. Heartsick over losing the woman he loves, he goes on a tour of a British castle. Its owner, Lord Pendragon, sendshim to see his niece, who looks just like Alisande.A highlight of the film is the scene in which Hank Martin teaches the court musicians how to "jazz up" the medieval music they are playing.Extrait du film 23
  4. 4. THE KNIGHTS OF THE ROUND TABLE – RICHARD THORPE – 1953SynopsisIn 6th century England, the end of the Roman occupation has left the country in turmoil. At the site of a recent battle between warring overlords,Arthur Pendragon and his half-sister, Morgan LeFay, meet as arranged by the sorcerer Merlin to discuss how to end the bloodshed. Morganmaintains that as she is the only legitimate offspring of the late king, the throne belongs to her, but Merlin puts the adversaries to a test todetermine Englands rightful ruler. Merlin leads them to Excalibur, a sword embedded in an anvil, and says that according to legend, whoever canremove the sword shall be Englands true sovereign. Morgans knight champion Modred tries in vain to extract the sword, but Arthur removes iteasily. Modred accuses Merlin of witchcraft, and a hearing is arranged with the Council of Kings at the circle of stone. After advising Arthur thathe must prove himself worthy of the throne by his deeds, Merlin instructs him to return the sword to the stone. Meanwhile, the French knightLancelot and his men ride toward the circle of stone, hoping to offer their services to Arthur. On the road, Lancelot encounters a young womannamed Elaine, who quickly falls in love with the handsome knight. They are waylaid by Modreds men, and Lancelot bravely does battle with allof them. Arthur arrives and join in the battle, and the chagrined Lancelot, unaware of Arthurs identity, challenges him to fight. After a long,exhausting battle, Lancelot finally asks his opponents name, and when he learns it is Arthur, breaks his sword against a tree and kneels beforehim. They are joined by Elaines brother Percival, who asks to be Arthurs knight errant. Later, at the circle of stone, Arthur and Modred debatebefore the Council of Kings. When the crowd turns against Arthur and Lancelot, they are forced to flee, vowing to take the kingdom on thebattlefield. Arthur and his men lie low throughout the cruel winter, then launch their attack against Modreds men in the spring. Despite beinggreatly outnumbered, Arthurs men win, and Arthur is crowned King of England. In the interest of peace, Arthur immediately pardons all hisformer enemies, but when Lancelot objects to Modreds pardon, the two men angrily part ways. On the road, Lancelot discovers that the lovelyGuinevere has been kidnapped and rescues her, unaware that she is Arthurs fiancée. Arthur and Guinevere are wed, and the kings joy is 24
  5. 5. complete when Lancelot arrives at Camelot and pledges his allegiance anew. Arthur swears in his select group of knights at the Round Table, andEngland enjoys a period of peace and prosperity. One day, Percival brings Elaine to court and asks Guinevere to make her a lady-in-waiting.Meanwhile, Morgan and Modred continue to harbor ill feelings against Arthur, and note with interest the growing warmth between Lancelot andGuinevere. Merlin privately warns Guinevere that Modred will attempt to sow suspicion abouther relationship with the knight, and says that Lancelot should marry. Guinevere tells Lancelotshe knows of his secret love for her and urges him to marry Elaine. Lancelot proposes to Elaineand asks Arthur to let him join the fight at the Scottish border. One night, Lancelot and Elaineare visited by Percival, who relates how a heavenly vision instructed him to go on a quest forthe Holy Grail, the cup from which Christ drank at the Last Supper. Modred calls a meetingof Arthurs enemies in Scotland and urges them to make peace so that Lancelot will be forced toreturn to Camelot, where he will eventually be exposed as Guineveres lover. Word of peacereaches Arthur at Camelot at the same time that Lancelots infant son Galahad, whose mother diedin childbirth, is brought to court with instructions that he be sent to Lancelots father.Sensing a plot, Merlin argues against bringing Lancelot back to Camelot, but Morgan poisonshim, and the knight returns amid great fanfare. Late one night, jealous after seeing Lancelot kissanother woman, Guinevere goes to his rooms, unaware that she is being spied on by Morgan andModred. Lancelot angrily denounces Guineveres folly in coming to him, and Modredsmen soon arrive to arrest them for high treason. Lancelot fights them off and flees with Guinevere.Lancelot and Guinevere are tried in absentia at the Round Table and declared guilty. Lancelotsuddenly walks in and surrenders, and when he confesses his chaste love for Guinevere, Arthur revokes their death sentence. Over Modredsprotests, Arthur orders that Guinevere be confined in a convent and banishes Lancelot from England. Outraged at this show of mercy, Modredsucceeds in turning the other knights against Arthur, and civil war returns to the land. Arthur meets with Modred and agrees to his terms for 25
  6. 6. ending the war, which include disbanding the Round Table. When one of Arthurs men draws his sword to kill a snake, however, the battle cry issounded. Arthur is mortally wounded, and Lancelot returns from exile to be at his side. With his dying breath, Arthur commands Lancelot todestroy Modred and give Guinevere his love and forgiveness. Pausing only to hurl Excalibur into a lake, Lancelot calls on Guinevere at theconvent and conveys Arthurs message, then kills Modred after a fierce battle. Lancelot then meets Percival at the Round Table and weeps,blaming himself for the noble fellowships demise. After Percival receives another holy vision of the Grail, he hears Gods voice telling him thatLancelots son Galahad will be a worthy knight, and that Lancelot is forgiven and will now know peace.Extrait 26
  7. 7. THE SWORD IN THE STONE – DISNEY – 1963SynopsisWart, a measly servant knave, dreams of becoming a knight but is barely certain he may act as castle lordSir Ectors even ruder son Kays squire. Then the sorcerer Merlin and his grumpy speaking owlArchimedes invite themselves and move into a dilapidated tower. Merlin, who can magically access thefuture, accepts the challenge to prepare Wart for a grand future. So he gives the squirt dangerous lessonsby transforming themselves into animals to learn the mental skills fitting a knight and a ruler. For themagic sword in the stone, which can confer the kingdom of all England, then still divided, couldnt bewithdrawn for years, and now a tournament in London is to designate a contender instead. Kay is going tocompete, but the fat klutz stands no chance.Extrait 27
  8. 8. HOLY GRAIL – MONTY PYTHON – 1975SynopsisThe movie starts out with Arthur, King of the Britons, looking for knights to sit with him at Camelot. He findsmany knights including Sir Galahad the pure, Sir Lancelot the brave, the quiet Sir Bedevere, and Sir Robin theNot-Quite-So-Brave-as-Sir Lancelot. They do not travel on horses, but pretend they do and have their servantsbang coconuts to make the sound of horses hooves. Through satire of certain events in history (witch trials, theblack plague) they find Camelot, but after literally a quick song and dance they decide that they do not want togo there. While walking away, God (who seems to be grumpy) come to them from a cloud and tells them tofind the Holy Grail. They agree and begin their search. While they search for the Grail, scenes of the knightstales appear and why they have the name they have. Throughout their search they meet interesting people andknights along the way. Most of the characters die; some through a killer rabbit (which they defeat with the holyhand grenade), others from not answering a question right from the bridge of Death, or die some otherridiculous way. In the end, King Arthur and Sir Bedevere are left and find the Castle Arrrghhh where the HolyGrail is. They are met by some French soldiers who taunted them earlier in the film, so they were not able toget into the castle.Extrait 28
  9. 9. EXCALIBUR – JOHN BOORMAN – 1981SynopsisThe sorcerer Merlin retrieves Excalibur from the Lady of the Lake for Uther Pendragon. With it,Uther secures a brief alliance with Gorlois, the Duke of Cornwall, but Uthers lust for Cornwallswife Igrayne soon ruins the truce. Merlin agrees to help Uther seduce Igrayne on the condition thatUther gives Merlin whatever results from his lust. Merlin transforms Uther into Cornwalls likenesswith the Charm of Making. Cornwalls daughter Morgana senses her fathers death in an assault onUthers camp. Igrayne is fooled by the disguise, and Uther impregnates her. Only the devastatedMorgana knows the truth.Nine months later, Merlin takes Uthers son Arthur. Uther pursues but is mortally wounded byGorloiss knights. Uther thrusts Excalibur into a stone, and Merlin proclaims that "he who draws thesword from the stone, he shall be king.Extrait : 29
  10. 10. FISHER KING – TERRY GILLIAM – 1991SynopsisJack Lucas, a cynical, arrogant talk radio host, becomes suicidally despondent after his insensitive on-air comments inadvertently prompt adepressed caller to commit a mass murder at a popular Manhattan bar. Three years later, while heavily intoxicated and depressed, he attemptssuicide. Before he can do so, he is mistaken for a homeless person and is attacked and nearly set on fire by thugs. He is rescued by Parry, adeluded homeless man who is on a mission to find the Holy Grail, and tries to convince Jack tohelp him. Jack is initially reluctant, but comes to feel responsible for Parry when helearns that the mans condition is a result of witnessing his wifes horrific murder at thehands of Jacks psychotic caller. Parry is also continually haunted by a hallucinatory RedKnight, who terrifies him whenever he shows any confidence.Jack learns that Parry had slipped into a catatonic state following his wifes death andhad remained there for a few years. When he emerged he was obsessed with the legend of theFisher King, a form of which he recounts to Jack. The Fisher King was charged by God withguarding the Holy Grail, but incurred an incapacitating wound for his sin of pride. Asimple-minded Fool asks the King why he suffers, and when the King says he is thirsty, theFool gives him a cup of water to drink. The king realizes the cup is the Grail and is baffledthat the boy found it, as demonstrated in the closing exchange: "Ive sent my brightest and bravest men to search for this. How did you find it?" 30
  11. 11. The Fool laughed and said "I dont know. I only knew that you were thirsty."Jack seeks to redeem himself by helping Parry find love again. He sets Parry up with Lydia, a shy woman who works as an accountant for aManhattan publishing house, with whom Parry has been smitten. Jack and his girlfriend, Anne, then join them for a dinner date. Followingdinner, Parry declares his love for Lydia but is once again haunted by the Red Knight. Trying to escape his hallucinatory tormentor, he isattacked by the same thugs who had earlier attacked Jack. The beating is not fatal but causes Parry to become catatonic again.Jack infiltrates the Upper East Side castle of a famous architect and retrieves the "Grail," a simple trophy. When he brings it to Parry, thecatatonia is broken and Parry regains consciousness. While he and Jack lead the patients of the mental ward in a rousing rendition of "HowAbout You?," Parry is reunited with Lydia. Later, Jack, who had earlier broken up with Anne, is reunited with her.Extrait 31
  12. 12. FIRST KNIGHT – JERRY ZUCKER – 1995SynopsisThe films opening text establishes that King Arthur of Camelot, victorious from his wars, has dedicated his reign to promoting justice and peaceand now wishes to marry. However, Malagant, a Knight of the Round Table, desires the throne for himself and rebels.The film opens with Lancelot, a vagabond and skilled swordsman, dueling in small villages for money. Lancelot attributes his skill to his lack ofconcern whether he lives or dies. Guinevere, the ruler of Leonesse, decides to marry Arthur partly out of admiration and partly for securityagainst Malagant, who is shown raiding a village. While traveling, Lancelot chances by Guineveres carriage on the way to Camelot, and helpsspoil Malagants ambush meant to kidnap her. He falls in love with Guinevere, who refuses his advances. Though Lancelot urges her to followher heart, Guinevere remains bound by her duty. She is subsequently reunited with her escort.Later, Lancelot arrives in Camelot and successfully navigates an obstacle course on the prospect of a kiss from Guinevere, though he insteadkisses her hand. He also wins an audience with her husband-to-be, Arthur. Impressed by Lancelots courage and struck by his recklessness andfreewheeling, Arthur shows him the Round Table which symbolizes a life of service and brotherhood. Guinevere is subsequently kidnapped byMalagants followers and imprisoned in an oubliette. Lancelot poses as a messenger to Malagant only to escape with Guinevere and return her toCamelot. Once again, Lancelot tries to win her heart, but is unsuccessful. On the return journey, it is revealed that Lancelot was orphaned andrendered homeless after bandits attacked his village, and has been wandering ever since.In gratitude, Arthur offers Lancelot a higher calling in life as a Knight of the Round Table. Amidst the protests of the other Knights (who aresuspicious of his station), and of Guinevere (who struggles with her feelings for him), Lancelot accepts and takes Malagants place at the Table,saying he has found something to care about. Arthur and Guinevere are subsequently wedded. However, a messenger from Leonesse arrives, 32
  13. 13. with news that Malagant has invaded. Arthur leads his troops to Leonesse and successfully defeats Malagants forces. Lancelot wins the respectof the other Knights with his prowess in battle. He also learns to embrace Arthurs philosophy, moved by the plight of villagers.Lancelot feels guilty about his feelings for the queen and in private announces his departure to her. She cannot bear the thought of him leavingand asks him for a kiss, which turns into a passionate embrace, just in time for the king to interrupt. Though Guinevere claims to love bothArthur and Lancelot – albeit in different ways – the two are charged with treason. The open trial in the great square of Camelot is interrupted by asurprise invasion by Malagant, ready to burn Camelot and kill Arthur if he does not swear fealty. InsteadArthur commands his subjects to fight, and Malagants men shoot him with crossbows. A battle betweenMalagants men and Camelots soldiers and citizens ensues, and Lancelot and Malagant face off.Disarmed, Lancelot seizes Arthurs fallen sword and kills Malagant. The people of Camelot win thebattle, but Arthur dies of his wounds. On his deathbed, he asks Lancelot to "take care of her for me" –referring to both Camelot and Guinevere. The film closes with a funeral raft carrying Arthurs bodyfloating out to sea, which is set aflame.Extrait 33
  14. 14. MERLIN – STEEVE BARRON – 1998SynopsisThe legend of King Arthur, this time, from the perspective of the Kings Wizard,Merlin. Merlin is a creature born of pagan magic, living in a world converting toChristianity. Merlin is beside Arthur as he gains Excalibur, builds Camelot and isbetrayed by his wife, Guinevere. Merlin and Arthur are both menaced by the plots ofMorgan Le Fey, her son by Arthur, Mordred, and their cohorts. Through it all,Merlin tries to keep Arthur from the destructive path set by fate.Extrait 34
  15. 15. QUEST FOR CAMELOT – FREDERIK DU CHAU – 1998SynopsisA young girl named Kayley desires to become a knight of the Round Table like her father Sir Lionel in the kingdom of Camelot and wishes toaccompany him when the knights are called to a special meeting with King Arthur, but he kindly objects that she is too young and promises totake her someday. When the knights arrive at Camelot, Sir Ruber (who has gone mad with power and seeks riches from his position as a knightof the Round Table) attacks Arthur. Mortally wounding Lionel with his mace, he is ultimately driven off by the other knights after Arthur strikeshim down with Excalibur.After Lionel dies, Kayley must learn to live without him. Inspired by her fathers bravery, she spends ten years tending to her family farm. Now ayoung woman, Kayley is still much of a dreamer and still wishes to be a knight, much against her mother Juliannas wishes.Her dream seems to pay off though, when the knights again gather with King Arthur and Merlin to discuss the era of peace among the kingdomwhen a gryphon flies in, attacks and wounds Arthur and takes the sword Excalibur. Merlin summons a falcon with silver wings called Ayden toface the gryphon. After a furious fight, the gryphon drops the sword into the Forbidden Forest and loses it. He reports this to Ruber. The call goesout across the land that Excalibur had been stolen, but Kayleys mother forbids her to go out after it. Shortly thereafter, Ruber comes to payJulianna a visit, planning to use her to gain access to Camelot and introducing a magic potion that he had gotten that combines his men (and byaccident, a chicken) with an assorted array of weapons. During the festivities, Kayley manages to free herself and escapes capture by fleeing to 35
  16. 16. the Forbidden Forest, whose enchanted plant and animal life prevent Rubers army from following her. The chicken, now named Bladebeak, isordered to follow Kayley and report her whereabouts to Ruber.While lost in the forest, Kayley comes across Garrett, a handsome yetblind hermit who wants to be left alone . He grudgingly helps Kayleyfind Excalibur. Guided by Ayden, they manage to find the scabbard of thesword in the footprints of a giant. As they make their way into dragoninfested mountains, they come across a conjoined two-headed dragon - thesophisticated and intelligent Devon and the boorish but loyal Cornwall. Thanksto the bullying from the rest of the dragons due to their differences and theirinability to fly, they want nothing more than to be apart from one another.Developing a friendship toward Kayley, they join the party. Due to Kayleysinsistence, Garrett misses a key warning from Ayden and is injured in anattack. During the escape, Kayley uses the forests plants to heal Garrettswounds, and they develop a mutual attraction and feelings towards oneanother.Soon they come across the giant who is using the sword as a toothpick andmanage to outwit Ruber again, trapping him and his minions with the giantas they slide uncontrollably down the mountainside. Garrett returns to the forest, having grown distant from the world of men and preferring tostay in the forest. Kayley starts toward Camelot, sword in hand, but is captured by Rubers men. Devon and Cornwall discover their power offlight, which only works when they cooperate or agree on something mutually. They rejoin Garrett, who mounts a rescue mission, but Rubermanages to gain entry to Camelot via disguise and traps himself with King Arthur with Excalibur; now grafted to his arm with his magic potion. 36
  17. 17. Kayley is held prisoner in the back of the cart, but is freed by Bladebeak. Kayley and Garrett manage to fight their way with their friends help tojoin with Arthur and in a fight, they manage to trick Ruber into inserting the sword back into the stone it had been pulled from. The magicalforces conflict and completely disintegrate Ruber, leaving the kingdom free again. The magic that spills on the kingdom separates all of Rubersmen (and Bladebeak) from their weapons and separates Devon and Cornwall, but the pair decide to reunite before the magic dissipates.Soon after Kayley and Garrett are knighted as members of the round table. As the pair ride off into the sunset, their horse has a flag mounted toits back reading "Just Knighted".Extrait 37
  18. 18. THE MISTS OF AVALON – ULI EDEL – 2001SynopsisMists of Avalon is a generations-spanning retelling of the Arthurian legend, but bringing itback to its Brythonic roots (see Matter of Britain). Its protagonist is Morgaine, whowitnesses the rise of Uther Pendragon to the throne of Camelot. As a child, she is taken toAvalon by High Priestess Viviane, her maternal aunt, to become a priestess of the MotherGoddess and witnesses the rising tension between the old Pagan and the new Christianreligions. At one point, she is given in a fertility ritual to a young man she will later learn isArthur, her half-brother. Unbeknownst to Arthur, Morgaine conceives a child, Gwydion,later called Mordred, as a result of the ritual.After Uther dies, his son Arthur claims the throne. Morgaine and Viviane give him themagic sword Excalibur, and with the combined force of Avalon and Camelot, Arthur drivesthe invasion of the Saxons away. But when his wife Gwenhwyfar fails to produce a child,she is convinced that it is a punishment of God: firstly for the presence of pagan elements (astance which Morgaine deeply resents), and secondly, for her forbidden love for Arthursfinest knight Lancelet. She increasingly becomes a religious fanatic, and relationshipsbetween Avalon and Camelot (i.e. Morgaine and herself) become hostile. 38
  19. 19. When the knights of the Round Table of Camelot leave to search for the Holy Grail, Mordred seeks to usurp the throne. In a climactic battle,Arthurs and Mordreds armies square off, and in the end Avalon and Arthur are magically removed from the circles of the world. It is Morgainealone who lives to tell the tale of Camelot.Extrait 39
  20. 20. LANVAL – CHAGFORD FILMMAKING GROUP – 2011 Synopsis A magical film adaptation of Marie de France’s medieval romance about a knight who falls in love with a fairy. This film is a unique collaboration between Chagford Filmmaking Group in Devon, England, and Le Centre de l’Imaginaire Arthurien in Brittany, France. Extrait : 40