Tree biology, benefits, and the urban

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  • Crime: Baltimore Study—10% increase in canopy, 12% decrease in crime
  • Tree biology, benefits, and the urban

    1. 1. Tree Biology, Benefits, and the Urban Environment Massachusetts Tree Steward Training October 19, 2012, Harvard Forest Eric Seaborn & Mollie Freilicher MA-DCR Urban & Community Forestry Program
    2. 2. Tree Biology• What makes a tree a tree? – Wood – Grow radially as well as vertically – Can you climb it? 2009 San Diego Urban Tree Exhibit
    3. 3. Tree Anatomy Xylem • Dead and living cells • Conduct water and minerals • Structural support • Store carbohydrates • Defend against disease spread & decay • Made of tracheids, fibers, parenchyma, and vessel elements (hardwoods)
    4. 4. Tree Anatomy Phloem• Moves sugars produced by photosynthesis in leaves to other parts of the tree• Innermost layer of bark; old phloem becomes part of bark• Made of sieve tube elements and companion cells in hardwoods and sieve cells in conifers
    5. 5. Tree Anatomy Rays• Transport sugars and other compounds through trunk• Store starch• Restrict decay bio.tamu.edu
    6. 6. Tree Anatomy Bark• Protects – Moderate temperature – Provide defense – Reduce water loss – Made of old (non- functioning) phloem and cork tissue – Lenticels are small openings in the bark that allow gas exchange Image: TX A&M Extension
    7. 7. Leaves• Photosynthesis• Transpiration Image: Maricopa.edu Image: Arbor Day Foundation
    8. 8. Parts of a Stem Image: Clemson.edu
    9. 9. Branch Structure Image: U.S. Forest Service
    10. 10. Branch Structure Image: Univ. of Kentucky
    11. 11. Roots• Functions – Anchorage – Absorption – Storage – Conduction• Grow outward – Most roots are in top 6-12 inches of soil
    12. 12. Importance of Urban Trees Pittsfield, MA
    13. 13. Percent Urban – Suburban 2010
    14. 14. Percent Urban – Suburban 2020
    15. 15. Percent Urban – Suburban 2030
    16. 16. Percent Urban – Suburban 2040
    17. 17. Percent Urban – Suburban 2050
    18. 18. FOREST COVER BY STATESTATE %TREE LAND % % % % POP. DENSITY COVER AREA km AGR. FOR. URB. CHANGE Per kmCT 45.1 12550 11.2 54.2 25.0 -0.4 260.9MA 50.4 20300 8.2 48.5 24.6 1.3 300.1ME 70.0 79939 3.1 82.1 2.1 1.3 15.6NH 73.7 23231 5.0 75.6 8.6 4.8 50.0NY 54.6 122310 29.4 52.3 9.0 1.1 148.7RI 35.2 2707 7.7 49.1 21.7 -1.3 365.9VT 73.3 23956 17.4 71.5 3.7 4.6 24.6
    19. 19. TREE COVER IN MA COMMUNITIESPLACE TREE LAND WATER 1990 POP. COVER AREA AREA POP. DENSITYNEEDHAM 29.5 32.7 .02 27557 843AMHERST 23.2 12.7 0.0 17824 1404DOVER 50.4 11.3 0.0 2003 177WIN- 16.8 15.6 .07 20267 1295CHESTERBROOK- 14.1 17.6 .1 54718 3111LINE
    20. 20. Nature is a continuum with wilderness at one pole and thecity at the other. But the same natural processes operate in the wilderness and in the city. - Anne Whiston Spirn
    21. 21. Tree Benefits • Stormwater • Social – Reduction & retention – Reduced crime • Air pollution – “Sense of Place” – Reduction & retention – Property values – Temperature – Screening & privacy Reduction – Noise reduction • Energy savings – Reduce cooling costs New Bedford, MA
    22. 22. A 20-inch swampwhite oak in ourarea can intercept2,564 gallons ofwater per year
    23. 23. Air Pollution Blocks wind to help reduce heating needs Leaves filterBranches and form pollutants from airprovide shade,reducing the needfor air conditioning Evapo-transpiration from leaves cools surrounding air reducing the formation of ground-level ozone Roots stabilize soil and prevent soil erosion
    24. 24. Larger Trees, Greater Benefits Image: Arbor Day Foundation
    25. 25. Large Tree Argument• Large trees provide nearly 8 times the benefits as smaller trees over the life of a large tree• Ornamental trees are often shorter-lived than large shade trees – A crabapple may only live 40 years – An elm may live for 100s of years
    26. 26. Urban Environment Urban Heat Island
    27. 27. Urban Environment People
    28. 28. Urban Environment Limited Planting Space
    29. 29. The Real World – Tree Decisions
    30. 30. We Make it Tough on Trees
    31. 31. Urban Environment PeopleImportant for us to be stewards ofour trees to help them in the difficulturban environment
    32. 32. Urban Environment Poor Urban Soils
    33. 33. Urban Environment Compaction
    34. 34. After removals
    35. 35. Proximity to Wachusett Reservoir
    36. 36. “ The wind up here is terrible now! My windows were rattling and I think I lost shingles from my roof”“I never used to be able to see I-190 and all that stuff down there” “The sun baked us this summer”“My Dad planted that tree. It was hard to see it go” “Welcome to the wasteland”

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