quick overview on English Literature


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  • When historians discuss the “Enlightenment,” they are usually referring to 18 th century Europe (France and England in particular). The Enlightenment was a period of in which people began to change their views on the world and on society. In many ways, this change marked the beginning of the modern era. This picture shows a French salon where the members of the enlightenment often gathered.
  • The most important factor in the development of the Enlightenment was the Scientific Revolution of the 16th and 17th centuries.
  • The Connection : The Connection The Scientific Revolution showed that nature, that the universe could be explained through reason, using mathematical precision. It only followed, therefore, that people got it in their head to believe that they could explain the workings of society, the relationships of people in terms of scientific study.
  • Montesquieu 1689-1755 French political thinker. His famous book, the Spirit of the Laws (1748) argued: that no single set of laws could apply to all peoples at all times and in all places (i.e. monarchy was not necessarily the appropriate government everywhere).
  • Montesquieu: The Separation of Powers One of Montesquieu most important observations was what he called the separation of powers, and checks and balances that would divide government into three branches in order to prevent one branch of government from getting too powerful. He found his example in the kingdom of England where judicial power rested in the courts, legislative power was in the hands of Parliament, and executive power resided with the King. In his estimation, any two branches of this government could check the third hand should it grow too powerful. We can see his ideas about separation of governmental powers reflected in the  United States Constitution.  The separate branches of government are the legislative, judiciary, and the executive.
  • Voltaire Lived from 1694-1778. He believed in the possibility of social change and reform. Voltaire was a prolific writer, and produced works in almost every literary form, authoring plays, poetry, novels, essays, historical and scientific works, over 20,000 letters and over two thousand books and pamphlets. “ Man is free at the instant he wants to be. “ Le secret d'ennuyer est celui de tout dire. “The secret of being a bore is to tell everything.”
  • Thomas Hobbes (1588- 1679) , English philosopher. Famous book, Leviathan, established the foundation for most of Western political philosophy from the idea of social contract. Social Contract theory is the idea that people would live in a state of nature if they did not have a society. In this sate of nature, everyone would be able to do whatever they wanted. This would mean also that people could do anything they wanted to others as well. To avoid this, free men have a social contract in establishing a government. People get civil rights in return for having a government ( a state) rule them. His ideas endorsed a strong government and in part formed the basis of federalism.
  • John Locke (1632–1704) - Developed new ideas about the rights of the people and their relationships to their rulers - Locke’s ideas about the sovereignty and rights of the people were radical and challenged the centuries-old practice throughout the world of dictatorial rule by kings, emperors, and tribal chieftains.    He also wrote that government was created by consent of the governed in order to protect these natural rights. If the government did not protect these rights he said that people had the right to rebel and dissolve the government. This was the philosophical justification of the American Revolution.
  • quick overview on English Literature

    1. 1. EnglishEnglish LiteraryLiterary Periods
    2. 2. 3/9/2011 Prof. MSc. Maura Xavier Garcia Chaucer made a crucial contribution to English literature in using English at a time when much court poetry was still written in Anglo-Norman or Latin.
    4. 4. The mind is its own place, and in itself Can make a Heaven of Hell, a Hell of Heaven.
    5. 5. 3/9/2011 Prof. MSc. Maura Xavier Garcia The Vitruvian Man is a world-renowned drawing created by Leonardo da Vinci around the year 1487e Canon of Proportions or, less often, Proportions of Man. It is stored in the Gallerie dell'Accademia in Venice, Italy Monalisa began to be painted in 1503
    6. 6. 3/9/2011 Prof. MSc. Maura Xavier Garcia
    7. 7. Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564[ – 8 January 1642), known as Galileo, was an Italian PHYSICIST, MATHEMATICIAN , ASTRONOMER and OHILOSOPHER who played a major role in the Scientific Revolution His achievements include improvements to the telescope and consequent astronomical observations, and support for Copernicanism
    8. 8. Newton (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727 described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion, which dominated the scientific view of the physical universe for the next three centuries.
    9. 9. The Enlightenment was an intellectual movement in Europe during the 18th century in which people began to change their views on the world and on society. Salon Image: www.biographie.net/Anicet-Charles-Gabriel-Lem. The Enlightenment 18/09/13 Prof. Ms. Maura Xavier Garcia
    10. 10. The equatorial armillary, used for navigation on ships The Enlightenment grew largely out of the new methods and discoveries achieved in the Scientific Revolution of the 16th and 17th centuries. Image: www.math.nus.edu.sg/.../teaching/heavenly.htm 18/09/13 Prof. Ms. Maura Xavier Garcia
    11. 11. The Connection : • The Scientific Revolution showed that nature and the universe could be explained through reason, using mathematical precision. • So people began to believe that they could explain the workings of society and the relationships of people in terms of scientific study. 18/09/13 Prof. Ms. Maura Xavier Garcia
    12. 12. 18/09/13 Prof. Ms. Maura Xavier Garcia
    13. 13. B. Immanuel Kant – “What is Enlightenment?” Enlightenment is man's release from his self-incurred tutelage. Tutelage is man's inability to make use of his understanding without direction from another. Self- incurred is this tutelage when its cause lies not in lack of reason but in lack of resolution and courage to use it without direction from another. Sapere aude! [Dare to know!][Dare to know!] "Have courage"Have courage to use your own reason!"-to use your own reason!"- that is the motto of enlightenment. 18/09/13 Prof. Ms. Maura Xavier Garcia
    14. 14. B. Immanuel Kant [Dare to know!][Dare to know!] "Have courage"Have courage to use your ownto use your own reason!"-reason!"- that is the motto of enlightenment. 18/09/13 Prof. Ms. Maura Xavier Garcia
    15. 15. Central ConceptsCentral Concepts A.A.The methods ofThe methods of natural sciencenatural science shouldshould be used to understand all aspects ofbe used to understand all aspects of life- through the use oflife- through the use of REASONREASON B. Discover theB. Discover the natural lawsnatural laws of humanof human society as well as the natural worldsociety as well as the natural world (“social science”)(“social science”) C. The idea ofC. The idea of progressprogress - The confidence- The confidence in human power, human reason toin human power, human reason to improve societyimprove society18/09/13 Prof. Ms. Maura Xavier Garcia
    16. 16. Central conceptsCentral concepts D. Rejection ofD. Rejection of superstitionsuperstition andand traditiontradition E.E. ToleranceTolerance andand equalityequality F.F. DeismDeism - God does not intervene in the- God does not intervene in the world through miracles; he created theworld through miracles; he created the world, and then removed himself from itworld, and then removed himself from it 18/09/13 Prof. Ms. Maura Xavier Garcia
    17. 17. A. Denis Diderot - The Encyclopedia - a compilation of all knowledge! 18/09/13 Prof. Ms. Maura Xavier Garcia
    18. 18. “[Our aim] is to collect all the knowledge scattered over the face of the earth, … and to transmit this to those who will come after us.... It could only belong to a philosophical age to attempt an encyclopedia; … All things must be examined, debated, and investigated without exception and without regard for anyone’s feelings…. We have for quite some time needed a reasoning age.”18/09/13 Prof. Ms. Maura Xavier Garcia
    19. 19. B. MontesquieuB. Montesquieu - separation and- separation and balance of powersbalance of powers 18/09/13 Prof. Ms. Maura Xavier Garcia
    20. 20. Montesquieu 1689 – 1755 • French philosopher • Argued that no single set of laws could apply to all people at all times • Wrote the book –Spirit of the Laws -1748 • Stated monarchy was not necessary if there was a better government 18/09/13 Prof. Ms. Maura Xavier Garcia
    21. 21. Separation of Power • Montesquieu believed in idea of separation of powers and checks and balances to divide government into three branches • Idea came from England—judicial, legislative, and executive powers • Became the framework of the Constitution 18/09/13 Prof. Ms. Maura Xavier Garcia
    22. 22. C. VoltaireC. Voltaire 1. freedom of thought1. freedom of thought and religion ~and religion ~ tolerationtoleration 2. ridiculed the clergy2. ridiculed the clergy for their bigotry,for their bigotry, intolerance, andintolerance, and superstitionsuperstition 3. Admired Louis XIV3. Admired Louis XIV and Frederick theand Frederick the Great - thoughtGreat - thought people unable topeople unable to govern themselvesgovern themselves18/09/13 Prof. Ms. Maura Xavier Garcia It is dangerous to be right whenIt is dangerous to be right when the government is wrong.the government is wrong. I may not agree with what you haveI may not agree with what you have to say, but I will defend to the deathto say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it.your right to say it.
    23. 23. Voltaire 1694-1778 • French philosopher • Believed in possibility of social change and reform • “Man is free at the instant he wants to be.” • Tolerance, reason, freedom of religion and speech – Bill of Rights 18/09/13 Prof. Ms. Maura Xavier Garcia
    24. 24. D. Jean-Jacques Rousseau (later Enlightenment) 1. Society is artificial and corrupt - state of nature is better - education 2. Valued impulse and emotion more than reason 3. Believed in contract government and individual freedom 4.4. “General Will”“General Will” - republic as- republic as ideal governmentideal government 18/09/13 Prof. Ms. Maura Xavier Garcia
    25. 25. Thomas Hobbs 1588- 1679 • People have a social contract in establishing a government. • People get civil rights in return for having a government rule them. Leviathan. www.cdhi.mala.bc.ca/jengine/theory.htm18/09/13 Prof. Ms. Maura Xavier Garcia
    26. 26. John Locke 1632–1704 • English philosopher • New ideas about rights of people and their relationship to ruler • Wrote that government was created for the people • If rules did not protect the rights, then people had right to get new government • American Revolution resulted from this idea Image. www. student.britannica.com/comptons/art-74910/Por... 18/09/13 Prof. Ms. Maura Xavier Garcia
    27. 27. “Must Read” Books of the Time 18/09/13 Prof. Ms. Maura Xavier Garcia
    28. 28. 18/09/13 Prof. Ms. Maura Xavier Garcia
    29. 29. A Parisian Salon 18/09/13 Prof. Ms. Maura Xavier Garcia
    30. 30. A dissection at the Royal Academy, LondonA dissection at the Royal Academy, London 18/09/13 Prof. Ms. Maura Xavier Garcia
    31. 31. Chemistry Labs & Botany Gardens 18/09/13 Prof. Ms. Maura Xavier Garcia
    32. 32. Augustan Age The Rise of Journalism http://italiano.istockphoto.com/file_closeup/locations-and-travel/travel-backgrounds/5963939-old-engraved-map-of- europe.php?id=5963939 18/09/13 Prof. Ms. Maura Xavier Garcia
    33. 33. The Rise of Journalism Interest of the Middle Class in: – Literature – Art – Social problems – Political life Desire of the Middle Class: – To be informed – To discuss events, famous people http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jonathan_swift 18/09/13 Prof. Ms. Maura Xavier Garcia
    34. 34. The Periodicals Joseph Addison (“The Spectator”) Richard Steel (“The Tatler”) Subjects of general interests: – Fashion – Literature – Manners – History Aim: – Moral Teachings and Entertainment http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Spectator 18/09/13 Prof. Ms. Maura Xavier Garcia
    35. 35. The Tatler • 3 times a week • 1711 • Casual and conversational style http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tatler18/09/13 Prof. Ms. Maura Xavier Garcia
    36. 36. The Spectator • Daily (no on Sundays) 1711-1712 • Mr Spectator  imaginary club • Comments upon: – customs and morals – virtues and vices • Different social classes • Clear and simple style • Imitation outside England (“Il Caffè” – Verri) http://kclibrary.lonestar.edu/englishpeasants.jpg http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Spectator 18/09/13 Prof. Ms. Maura Xavier Garcia
    37. 37. Other Periodicals Novelists  careers as journalists Jonathan Swift “The Examiner” (whig ministers) Daniel Defoe “The Review” (home & foreign policy) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daniel_Defoe 18/09/13 Prof. Ms. Maura Xavier Garcia
    38. 38. The period between 1660 and 1785 was a time of amazing expansion for England — or for "Great Britain," as the nation came to be called after an Act of Union in 1707 joined Scotland to England and Wales.
    39. 39. One lasting change was a shift in population from the country to the town. "A Day in Eighteenth- Century London" shows the variety of diversions available to city-dwellers.
    40. 40. The Augustan Age The Rise of the Novel http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daniel_Defoe18/09/13 Prof. Ms. Maura Xavier Garcia
    41. 41. Features of the 18th century novels 1. Simple way of writing to be understood 2. Realism in the way life was shown 3. Hero, a bourgeois man, mouthpiece of the author 4. Contemporary names of characters struggling for survival or social success 5. Chronological sequence 18/09/13 Prof. Ms. Maura Xavier Garcia
    42. 42. Features of the 18th century novels 1. Particular times 2. Attention to the setting 3. Narrator never abandoned his characters 4. Story appealing to the tradesman 5. Reward and Punishment  Puritan ethics of middle classes 18/09/13 Prof. Ms. Maura Xavier Garcia
    43. 43. Jonathan Swift http://www.mgrande.com/weblog/images/partosdepandora/Jonathan_swift.jpg 18/09/13 Prof. Ms. Maura Xavier Garcia
    44. 44. A brilliant satirist (1667 – 1745) • Born in Dublin • Moved to England • Work for Sir William Temple • Best satirical works: – The Battle of the Books – A Tale of a Tub • Anglican priest in Ireland • In London friendship with Pope • Writings for Tory • Back to Ireland Dean of St. Patrick’s Cathedral • Pamphlets against sufferings of Irish – A Proposal for the Universal Use of Irish Manufacture – The Drapier’s Letter http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Temple_(British_politician) 18/09/13 Prof. Ms. Maura Xavier Garcia
    45. 45. An Irish hero National Hero Ireland as a place of exile Gulliver’s Travels (1726) A Modest Proposal (1729) – Irony and bitterness – Against English rule – Against Irish passive attitude – Mocking the projector Decay of Swift’s mental faculties http://www.nt.armstrong.edu/ireland2map0.gif 18/09/13 Prof. Ms. Maura Xavier Garcia
    46. 46. A controversial writer Labelled as – a misanthrope – morbid attitude – monster – lover of mankind Concerned with politics and society Conservative attitude No optimism of his age Irony, Satire and Parody http://carbolicsmoke.com/wpcontent/uploads/2008/07/modestproposal.jpg 18/09/13 Prof. Ms. Maura Xavier Garcia
    47. 47. Gulliver’s Travel (1726) • Greatest satire in the language • Imaginary voyage • Pure fantasy • Pessimistic portrait of man and the social institutions
    48. 48. First Voyage In Lilliput, society is reduced to a small scale, since Gulliver is taller than every citizen The simultaneous recreation of Gulliver as giant and prisoner – irony MetaphorMetaphor to make theto make the satire strongersatire stronger Part I – A Voyage to Lilliput
    49. 49. First Voyage • Actions performed by the Liliputians are absolutely nonsense and they fought over nothing – oxymoronoxymoron • Invest on verisimilitude • Just to finish off he leaves his family and travel again
    50. 50. Second Voyage To the giants land Brobdingnag both the human pride and physical appearance is attacked; Gulliver is now feeling as a lilliputian too small when close to those enormous creatures; The demonstrationThe demonstration that one day we canthat one day we can be the hunter and onbe the hunter and on the other we can bethe other we can be huntedhunted
    51. 51. Second Voyage Irony/ Satire when Gulliver explains to the king everything about politics. A visible criticism of the monarchy Reversal when is treated by the queen as if he was a member of the monarchy
    52. 52. The third voyage extends Swift’s attack to science, learning, and abstract thought, offering a critique of excessive rationalism, or reliance on theory, during the Enlightenment. In his description of the technique used to move the island from one place to another, the movement of these parts from one point to another resembles the mechanistic philosophical and scientific descriptions of Swift’s time. Third Voyage
    53. 53. Third Voyage The Struldbrugs of Luggnagg provide an opportunity for Swift to satirize human desires. Many would seek eternal life, and the primary benefit of old age, as Gulliver sees it, is the ability to use one’s accumulated wisdom to help humanity. The reality is much less glorious—instead of growing in wisdom, the immortal Struldbrugs grow only more prejudiced and selfish, eventually becoming a detriment to the whole Luggnaggian society.
    54. 54. Third Voyage Furthermore, the Struldbrugs’ immense sadness despite their seeming advantage shows the emptiness of Gulliver’s desire—a desire prominent in Western society—to acquire riches. Swift denounces such self-absorbed goals as the province of small minds unconcerned with the good of society as a whole.
    55. 55. Fourth Voyage Directly attacks humankind, without the subtlety of satire or allusion the Houyhnhmns are gigantic
    56. 56. Fourth Voyage • It is similarly possible to regard Gulliver's preference as absurd and the sign of his self-deception. • Regard them as a veiled criticism by Swift of the British Empire's treatment of non-whites as lesser humans
    57. 57. Conclusion Swift in Gulliver’s Travels raises disturbing questions about the discrepancies between the ideals we profess and the way we actually live. Far from being an eminently rational creature who is capable of reasoning but who uses his intelligence and cunning for absurd and selfish ends.
    58. 58. `Father, thy word is passed, Man shall find grace; And shall Grace not find means, that finds her way, The speediest of thy winged messengers,
    59. 59. British Romanticism What was the historical background like? Can we define the beginning of British romanticism?
    60. 60. British romanticism originated in the second half of the 18th century in Western Europe, and gained strength during the Industrial Revolution.
    61. 61. British Romanticism formalized with the jointthe joint publicationpublication by Wordsworth and Coleridge of Lyrical Ballads in 1798.
    62. 62. •What are the tenets of Romanticism?
    63. 63. • tenets of Romanticism: • Emotion – imagination over reason • Individual over society - Common people over aristocrats • Nature – wilderness over human works (the healing power of nature) • Freedom over control and authority
    64. 64. William Blake 1757-1827William Blake 1757-1827 •English poet, visionary, painter, and printmaker. •Blake became a heroa hero of the counter culturof the counter culture.
    65. 65. William BlakeWilliam Blake He focused his creative efforts beyond the five senses, for “If the doors of perception were cleansed every thing would appear to man as it is, infinite. For man has closed himself up, till he sees all things thro’ narrow chinks of his cavern” –
    66. 66. Some remarkable authors of the period Pandaemonium___John_Hannah.wmv • William WordsworthWilliam Wordsworth was born on 7 April 1770 in Cockermouth, Cumberland, in the Lake District. He died on April 23, 1850. Slide 12 • Samuel Taylor ColeridgeSamuel Taylor Coleridge was born in Ottery St Mary, Devonshire, England, in 1772. He died in 1834. • Robert SoutheyRobert Southey was born in Bristol in 1774. He died in 1843. • Thomas De QuinceyThomas De Quincey was born Manchester, Lancashire, in 1785. He died in 1859. • William BlakeWilliam Blake was born on 28 November, 1757, in London, England, died at home on 12 August, 1827. ake
    67. 67. • William Wordsworth is actively engaged in trying to create a new kind of poetry that emphasized intuition over reason and the pastoral over the urban, often in an effort to use ‘real’ language. • The poem Splendour in the Grass is from Intimations of Immortality from Recollections of Early Childhood, which begins with the majestic: There was a time when meadow, grove, and stream, The earth, and every common sight, To me did seem Apparelled in celestial light, The glory and the freshness of a dream.
    68. 68. Samuel Taylor ColeridgeSamuel Taylor Coleridge • Iron Maiden, Powerslave (1984): Rime of the Ancient Mariner. the group Iron Maiden recorded a version of Rime of the Ancient Mariner on their Powerslave album in 1984. • IronMaiden___Rime_Of_The_Ancient_Mariner._Part2.wmv • Hunt Emerson, Rime of the Ancient Mariner, comic version (Knockabout). It's a lovely, lovely parody, complete with an albatross that just won't die-- it keeps climbing back up the side of the ship. • Kubla_Khan___Samuel_Taylor_Coleridge.wmv
    69. 69. Some remarkable authors of the period Pandaemonium___John_Hannah.wmv • Percy Bysshe ShelleyPercy Bysshe Shelley was born in Horsham, Sussex, England, in 1792. He died in 1822. (30) • John KeatsJohn Keats was born in London, England, in 1795. He died in 1821. (26) • Robert BurnsRobert Burns 25 January 1759 – 21 July 1796, a Scottish writer. (37) • George Gordon ByronGeorge Gordon Byron 1788-1824 (36) • Jane AustenJane Austen was born in Hamshire, England, in 1775. She died in 1817. (42) • Mary Wollstonecraft ShelleyMary Wollstonecraft Shelley was born in London, England, in 1797. She died in 1851. (54) Thomas HardyThomas Hardy was born at Higher Bockhampton, Dorset, on June 2, 1840. He died on January 11, 1928 . (88)
    70. 70. Victorian period Social Structure
    71. 71. Observe the pictures and say • Who are they? Men? Women? Children? • Where are they? Describe the place. • What do they look like? • What are they doing? Describe actions and feelings; are they working, entertaining? • What social class do you think they belong to?
    72. 72. Social Classes • Upper Class – did not have to work • Middle Class – performed clean work • Working Class – physical labor
    73. 73. Upper Class • Wealth came from inherited land or investments • Included people from the church and of nobility • Men Had to follow rules for introductions • His Duty is always to his lady • He had to Follow etiquette for dinner parties
    74. 74. Middle Class • Only men provided the income • Consisted of bankers, shopkeepers, merchants, engineers, other professionals • Only women of the upper and middle class have completed education which signified availability for marriage; also could be introduced into social life • They Must follow a strict set of rules connected to Outward appearance and Social behavior
    75. 75. Working Class Poor living and working conditions – Workers included women and children • Women did all their own housework then had to go do chores for more privileged women • Men in this class held jobs for the unskilled • Children even had to work to help support the family in textile mills and factories – Long work days – Poor nutrition and health • Living conditions: places were Often overcrowded, Poorly ventilated, No sewage or drainage systems • Did not follow rules of courtship /Did not participate in social entertainment/Had very little chance for education
    76. 76. Courtship • Rules varied based upon class • Courtship advanced by gradations • Lower classes had opportunities to socialize at church and during holiday season • Upper class held their own social events throughout the season
    77. 77. Entertainment • Several popular forms of entertainment vary by socioeconomic class • All could enjoy the arts except those of the working class - Class distinction was evident in the type of dancing • Middle and upper class read and studied society novels • Women of higher class joined various social groups, they were Limited to specific sports, but towards the end of the era, women’s sports expanded
    78. 78. Men’s Entertainment • Men joined various social groups and societies • Card games and gambling became popular among the males • Well-bred men would frequent pleasure gardens like the Cremorne Gardens
    79. 79. Reforms Education reforms: Moving to provide education for more than just the privileged Factory reforms : Moving to get children out of the factories and provide better conditions of living Political reforms : moving to diminish the huge gap between the classes
    80. 80. A beast of a servant came up with a lantern, at last, shouting - ‘Keep fast, Skulker, keep fast!’ He changed his note, however, when he saw Skulker’s game. The dog was throttled off; his huge, purple tongue hanging half a foot out of his mouth, and his pendent lips streaming with bloody slaver. The man took Cathy up; she was sick: not from fear, I’m certain, but from pain. He carried her in; I followed, grumbling execrations and vengeance. ‘What prey, Robert?’ hallooed Linton from the entrance. ‘Skulker has caught a little girl, sir,’ he replied; ‘and there’s a lad here,’ he added, making a clutch at me, ‘who looks an out-and- outer! Very like the robbers were for putting them through the window to open the doors to the gang after all were asleep, that they might murder us at their ease. Hold your tongue, you foul- mouthed thief, you! you shall go to the gallows for this. Mr. Linton, sir, don’t lay by your gun.’ ‘No, no, Robert,’ said the old fool. ‘The rascals knew that yesterday was my rent-day: they thought to have me cleverly. Come in; I’ll furnish them a reception. There, John, fasten the chain. Give Skulker some water, Jenny. To beard a magistrate in his stronghold, and on the Sabbath, too! Where will their insolence stop? Oh, my dear Mary, look here! Don’t be afraid, it is but a boy - yet the villain scowls so plainly in his face; would it not be a kindness to the country to hang him at once, before he shows his nature in acts as well as features?’ He pulled me under the chandelier, and Mrs. Linton placed her spectacles on her nose and raised her hands in horror. The cowardly children crept nearer also, Isabella lisping - ‘Frightful thing! Put him in the cellar, papa. He’s exactly like the son of the fortune-teller that stole my tame pheasant. Isn’t he, Edgar?’
    81. 81. Finalmente, apareceu a besta do criado com uma candeia a gritar: -- «_Agarra Skulker, agarra!» -- Porém, quando viu o que o cão estava a agarrar, mudou logo de tom. O cão foi afastado violentamente pela trela, quase ficando esganado: a sua grande língua rosada pendia-lhe da boca e, dos beiços, pingava uma mistura de baba e sangue. -- O homem pegou na Cathy, que, entretanto, perdera os sentidos, não do medo, mas da dor. Levou-a para dentro de casa. Eu fui atrás dele, gritando tudo o que me vinha à cabeça de insultos e ameaças. -- «_Então, Robert, qual é a pressa?», perguntou o Linton da entrada. -- «_O Skulker apanhou uma menina» respondeu. «_E está também aqui um rapaz« acrescentou, agarrando-me, «que parece um ladrãozeco! Com certeza, os ladrões que por aí andam tencionavam metê-los dentro de casa para depois lhes abrirem a porta e nos matarem a todos durante o sono. Cala-te, meu safado, ou vais parar à forca. Não largue a espingarda, Mr. Linton!» -- «_Está descansado, Robert» disse o tonto do velho.«_Estes :, patifes sabiam que ontem era o dia de receber as rendas e pensavam que me podiam roubar. Entrem, vão ter uma óptima recepção. John, tranca a porta. E tu, Jenny, dá de beber ao Skulker. Assaltar um magistrado na sua própria residência, e ainda por cima no Dia do Senhor! Onde é que isto irá parar? Mary, querida, olha-me só para isto! Não tenhas medo, é apenas um garoto. Porém, o rapaz tem cá uma cara que seria um favor para todos enforcá-lo imediatamente, antes que passe das palavras aos actos.» -- Levou-me para debaixo do lustre. Mrs. Linton pôs os óculos e elevou as mãos aos céus horrorizada. Os filhos aproximaram-se cobardemente. Isabella ciciou: «_Meu Deus, que coisa mais horrível! Feche-o na cave, papá. É igualzinho ao filho daquela
    82. 82. In Wuthering Heights, by Emily Bronte, • the Lintons represent the Victorian family ideal through their genteel mannerisms and lack of concern for the poor. This is evident when the Lintons shun Heathcliff; yet immediately look after Catherine because she appears injured. This is also ironic because the Lintons are nonviolent and Catherine hurt herself at Thrushcross Grange.
    83. 83. • During the time that Wuthering Heights was written, violence was definitely not a common part of Victorian family life – among the upper class. Lockwood is another person who represents the Victorian ideal. Lockwood is also very polite, and solves his problems nonviolently, which can be seen by the way he talks to Heathcliff after he was insulted. Lockwood is very kind to Heathcliff and Cathy, yet he treats Hareton curtly because he thinks of him as simple. Violence in the Victorian era was thought of as low-class, Heathcliff was violent, therefore was thought of as lowly.
    84. 84. Kate Bush's version of Wuthering Heights Out on the wiley, windy moors Wed roll and fall in green. You had a temper like my jealousy: Too hot, too greedy. How could you leave me, When I needed to possess you? I hated you. I loved you, too. Bad dreams in the night. They told me I was going to lose the fight, Leave behind my wuthering, wuthering Wuthering heights. Heathcliff, its me--cathy. Come home. Im so cold! Let me in-a-your window. Ooh, it gets dark! it gets lonely, On the other side from you. I pine a lot. I find the lot Falls through without you. Im coming back, love. Cruel heathcliff, my one dream, My only master. Too long I roam in the night. Im coming back to his side, to put it right. Im coming home to wuthering, wuthering, Wuthering heights, Heathcliff, its me--cathy. Come home. Im so cold! Let me in-a-your window. Heathcliff, its me--cathy. Come home. Im so cold! Let me in-a-your window. Ooh! let me have it. Let me grab your soul away. Ooh! let me have it. Let me grab your soul away. You know its me--cathy! Heathcliff, its me--cathy. Come home. Im so cold! Let me in-a-your window. Heathcliff, its me--cathy. Come home. Im so cold!
    85. 85. Sources • www.umd.umich.edu • www.studyworld.com • www.bbc.co.uk • www.victoriaspast.com • www.ancestry.com • www.english.uwosh.edu • www.fortunecity.com • www.victoriancourt.com • www.victorianweb.org • www.victorianbazaar.com
    86. 86. VictorianVictorian PeriodPeriod an age ofan age of transitiontransition HistoricalHistorical BackgroundBackgroundProf. Ms. Maura Xavier Garcia Queen Victoria ( 1837-1901)
    87. 87. • Changed life patterns: Growth of urban population, Starving population and unemployment, homeless children and prostitution • Code of values - morality (to balance the anarchy) • Just towards the end of this period there was a Shift in religion – Darwin’s theory of Evolution, but remained a Christian nation • The printing press experienced a great development during the last 20 years of the 19th c.
    88. 88. Victorian novelVictorian novel • Most Victorian novels were long and full of intricate language, verisimilitude, that is, they presented a close representation to the real social life of the age – effects of Realism • Long complicated plots ( full descriptions and expositions, multiplotting and several central characters ) • Deeper analysis of the characters who are blends of virtue and vice • Chronological structure • Closed form, a final chapter where the whole texture of events is explained and justified
    89. 89. Victorian novelVictorian novel • Most novels of the Victorian period were published in serial form; that is, individual chapters or sections appearing in subsequent journal issues. As such, demand was high for each new appearance of the novel to introduce some new element, whether it be a plot twist or a new character, so as to maintain the reader's interest. • During this time, authors were paid by the word, which tended to create wordy prose. In part for these reasons, Victorian novels are made up of a variety of plots and a large number of characters, appearing and reappearing as events dictate.
    90. 90. Victorian novel • female authors assumed a central role: The English novel was defined, to a large extent, by the works of Charlotte Bronte, Elizabeth Gaskell, and George Eliot. • Emily Bronte and Charles Dickens wrote in very different styles and addressed altogether different themes. • Key to Victorian style is the concept of the authorial intrusion and the address to the reader. For example, the author might interrupt his/her narrative to pass judgment on a character, or pity or praise another, while later seeming to exclaim "Dear Reader!" and inform or remind the reader of some other relevant fact.
    91. 91. Representative authors of the Victorian Period • Charlotte Brontë (1816-55) born at Thornton, Yorkshire, England. Dies in pregnancy. • Emily Brontë (1818-48) born at Thornton, near Bradford, Yorkshire, England. Dies of inflammation of the lungs. • Anne Brontë (1820-49) • Elizabeth Gaskell (1810-1865) Elizabeth Cleghorn Stevenson was born on 29 September 1810 in Chelsea, London, England. In 1865, at the age of fifty-five, she died suddenly of a heart attack . • George Eliot [pseudonym of Mary Anne or Marian Evans] (1819- 1880) in Warwickshire, England • Charles Dickens (1812-1870) Charles John Huffman Dickens was born on 7 February, 1812 in Portsmouth, Hampshire, England. He died from a cerebral hemorrhage on 9 June 1870 at his home, Gad’s Hill. • Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde (1854-1900) was born on 16 October 1854, in Dublin, Ireland, died of meningitis on 30 November 1900 • Lewis Caroll born on January 27 1832 in Daresbury in Cheshire. Died in 1898 Charles Lutwidge Dodgson • Robert Louis Stevenson 13 November 1850– 3 December 1894was a Scottish novelist, poet, essayist and travel writer. • Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (1859-1930), Scottish author, Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle was born on 22 May 1859 in Edinburgh, Scotland
    92. 92. Emily Brontë (1818-48) • (1847) • Poems • Representative authors of the Victorian Period The_League_... •Pseudonym Ellis Bell
    93. 93. Charles Dickens MASTERPIECE_CLASSIC__The_Tales_of_Charles_Dickens__PBS(2).wmv • author of short stories, plays, novellas, novels, fiction and non, known for his remarkable characters, his mastery of prose in the telling of their lives, and his depictions of the social classes. He had his share of critics like Virginia Woolf and Henry James, but also many admirers, even into the 21st
    94. 94. Charles Dickens (1968). Great expectations (pp. 78-80; 114-116; 121). New York: Lancer Books. What are the themes? Tone, atmosphere? Historical clues? What are the views on love?
    95. 95. ... I was half afraid. However, the only thing to be done being to knock at the door, I knocked, and was told from within to enter. I entered, therefore, and found myself in a pretty large room, well lighted with wax candles. No glimpse of daylight was to be seen in it. It was a dressing-room, as I supposed from the furniture, though much of it was forms and uses then quite unknown to me. But prominent in it was a draped table with a gilded looking-glass, and that I made out at first sight to be a fine lady’s dressing-table. Whether I should have made out this object so soon, if there had been no fine lady sitting at it, I cannot say. In an armchair, with an elbow resting on the table and her head leaning on that hand, sat the strangest lady I have ever seen, or shall ever see.
    96. 96. She was dressed in rich materials--satins, and lace and silks -- all of white. Her shoes were white. And she had a long white veil dependent from her hair, and she had bridal flowers in her hair, but her hair was white. Some bright jewels sparkled on her neck and on her hands, and some other jewels lay sparkling on the table. Dresses, less splendid than the dress she wore, and half-packed trunks, were scattered about. She had not quite finished dressing, for she had but one shoe on -- the other was on the table near her hand -- her veil was but half arranged, her watch and chain were not put on, and some lace for her bosom lay with those trinkets, and with her handkerchief, and gloves, and some flowers, and a Prayer-book, all confusedly heaped about the looking-glass.
    97. 97. It was not in the first few moments that I saw all these things, though I saw more of them in the first moments than might be supposed. But, I saw that everything within my view which ought to be white, had been white long ago, and had lost its lustre, and was faded and yellow. I saw that the bride within the bridal dress had withered like the dress, and like the flowers, and had no brightness left but the brightness of her sunken eyes. I saw that the dress had been put upon the rounded figure of a young woman, and that the figure upon which it now hung loose, had shrunk to skin and bone. Once I had been taken to see some ghastly waxwork at the Fair, representing I know not what impossible personage lying in state. Once, I had been taken to one of our old marsh churches to see a skeleton in the ashes of a rich dress, that had been dug out of a vault under the church pavement. Now, waxwork and skeleton seemed to have dark eyes that moved and looked at me. I should have cried out, if I could.
    98. 98. “Who is it?” said the lady at the table. “Pip, ma’am.” “Pip?” “Mr. Pumplechook’s boy, ma’am. Come-to play.” “Come nearer; let me look at you. Come close.” It was when I stood before her, avoiding her eyes, that I took note of the surrounding objects in detail, and saw that her watch had stopped at twenty minutes to nine, and that a clock in the room had stopped at twenty minutes to nine. “Look at me,” said Miss Havisham. “You are not afraid of a woman who has never seen the sun since you were born?” I regret to state that I was not afraid of telling the enormous lie comprehended in the answer “No.” “Do you know what I touch here?” she said, laying her hands, one upon the other, on her left side. “Yes, ma’am.” (It made me think of the young man.) “What do I touch?” “Your heart.” “Broken!” She uttered the word with an eager look, and with strong emphasis, and with a weird smile that had a kind of boast in it. Afterwards, she kept her hands there for a little while, and slowly took them away as if they were heavy. “I am tired,” said Miss Havisham. “I want diversion, and I have done with men and women. Play.”
    99. 99. I crossed the staircase landing, and entered the room she indicated. From that room, too, the daylight was completely excluded, and it had an airless smell that was oppressive. A fire had been lately kindled in the damp old-fashioned grate, and it was more disposed to go out than to burn up, and the reluctant smoke which hung in the room seemed colder than the clearer air--like our own marsh mist. Certain wintry branches of candles on the high chimneypiece faintly lighted the chamber; or it would be more expressive to say, faintly troubled its darkness. It was spacious, and I dare say had once been handsome, but every discernible thing in it was covered with dust and mold, and dropping to pieces. The most prominent object was a long table with a tablecloth spread on it, as if a feast had been in preparation when the house and the clocks all stopped together. An épergne or centre-piece of some kind was in the middle of this cloth; it was so heavily overhung with cobwebs that its form was quite undistinguishable; and, as I looked along the yellow expanse out of which I remember its seeming to grow, like a black fungus, I saw speckled-legged spiders with blotchy bodies running home to it, and running out from it, as if some circumstance of the greatest public importance has just transpired in the spider community. I heard the mice too, rattling behind the panels, as if the same occurrence were important to their interests. But the black beetles took no notice of the agitation, and groped about the hearth in a ponderous elderly way, as if they were short- sighted and hard of hearing, and not on terms with one another.
    100. 100. These crawling things had fascinated my attention, and I was watching them from a distance, when Miss Havisham laid a hand upon my shoulder. In her other hand she had a crutch-headed stick on which she leaned, and she looked like the Witch of the place. “This,” said she, pointing to the long table with her stick, “is where I will be laid when I am dead. They shall come and look at me here.” With some vague misgiving that she might get upon the table then and there and die at once, the complete realization of the ghastly waxwork at the Fair, I shrank under her touch. “What do you think that is?” she asked me, again pointing with her stick; “that, where those cobwebs are?” “I can’t guess what it is, ma’am.” “It’s a great cake. A bride-cake. Mine!” * * * * * “On this day of the year, long before you were born, this heap of decay,” stabbing with her crutched stick at the pile of cobwebs on the table but not touching it, “was brought here. It and I have worn away together. The mice have gnawed at it, and sharper teeth than teeth of mice have gnawed at me.” She held the head of her stick against her heart as she stood looking at the table; she in her once white dress, all yellow and withered; the once white cloth all yellow and withered; everything around, in a state to crumble under a touch. “When the ruin is complete,” said she, with a ghastly look, “and when they lay me dead, in my bride’s dress on the bride’s table--which shall be done, and which will be the finished curse upon him--so much the better if it is done on this day!”
    101. 101. Great_Expectations_(1946)_'Boy_Meets_Girl'__Part.2.wmv
    102. 102. Dicken’s works • Fiction – A Christmas Carol – A Message from the Sea – A Tale of Two Cities – All The Year Round – American Notes – Barnaby Rudge – Bleak House – David Copperfield – Daombey and Son – Great Expectations – Hard Times – Holiday Romance – Hunted Down – Little Dorrit – Martin Chuzzlewit – Master Humphrey’s Clock – Mudfog and Other Sketches – Nicholas Nicklebv – Oliver Twist – Our Mutual Friend – Reprinted Pieces – Sketches by Boz – The Battle of Life – The Chimes – The Cricket on the Hearth – The Haunted Man and the Ghost’s Bargain – The Lazy Tour of Two Idle Apprentices – The Mystery of Edwin Drood – The Old Curiosity Shop – The Pickwick Papers – The Uncommercial Traveller
    103. 103. atividades • Imagem de Londres e Paris no sec.XIX – conflitos internos devido aos problemas sociais – quais tipos de expectativas uma criança poderia ter nessa época – e hoje. • Ler trechos de Great Expectations e Oliver Twist – em grupos linguagem, tom, ponto de vista da narrativa etc. – Trechos do filme e comparação – BILDUNGSROMAN 50´ • Imagem do retrato de Dorian Gray – discussão do tema relacionando aos dias de hoje e ao período Vitoriano • (poder ser uma entrevista com o professor após discussão da imagem – levar chapéu, cachecol e luvas) Leitura de trechos de Dorian Gray – detecção de estilo de linguagem, indicação de contexto histórico-social – como transformariam em linguagem teatral – produção escrita para discussão das características do gênero.
    104. 104. atividades • Montagem da árvore genealógica dos personagens com as características – atividade em grupo – coletiva (tag names) – Apresentam-se em 1o. Pessoa • Comentar sobre o enredo (deduzirinferir de acordo com expectativas ou quem leu conta) – ler a letra da música e verificar se corresponde às características dos protagonistas conforme foi apresentado. • Leitura de trechos do livro para análise de aspectos do estilo e contexto e falar sobre a autora
    105. 105. Charlotte Brontë (1816-55) • Life in mourning, struggle against the grim realities which surrounded her — abandonment, brutalization, emotional deprivation, death (the traumatic loss of her mother, her four sisters, and her brother) • her novels are secretly fairy tales, variations on the Cinderella theme, ardent, sensitive, lonely, passionate heroines who are versions of herself •First wrote under pseudonym of Currer Bell
    106. 106. Charlotte Brontë (1816-55) • Works • Jane Eyre (1847) • Shirley (1849) • Villette (1853) • The Professor (1857) • Representative authors of the Victorian Period The_League_...
    107. 107. Anne Brontë (1820-49) • Works • Agnes Grey (1847) • The Tenant of Wildfell Hall (1848) • Selected Poems • Representative authors of the Victorian Period The_League_... •Pseudonym Acton Bell
    108. 108. Elizabeth Gaskell (1810-1865) • Fiction • A Dark Night’s Work • Half A Life-Time Ago • Lizzie Leigh • Mary Barton • Ruth • Sylvia’s Lovers • The Doom of the Griffiths • The Moorland Cottage • Wives and Daughters • Non-Fiction • The Life of Charlotte Bronte • Short Stories • An Accursed Race • Cousin Phillis • The Half-Brothers • The Manchester Marriage • Representative authors of the Victorian Period The_League_... •
    109. 109. Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (Lewis Carroll) alice in wonderland.wmv • Useful and Instructive Poetry (1845) • Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland (1865) • Phantasmagoria (1869) • Through the Looking Glass (1871) • Rhyme? and Reason? (1883) • Sylvie and Bruno (1889) • Representative authors of the Victorian Period The_League_...
    110. 110. Robert Louis Balfour Stevenson (13 November 1850 – 3 December 1894) Representative authors of the Victorian Period The_League_... The Victorian poet and novelist Robert Louis Stevenson once said, "Don't judge each day by the harvest you reap, but by the seeds you plant." The author of the magical A Child's Garden of Verses and the chilling The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, Treasure 'Jekyll_&_Hyde'_on_Broadway_~~_Part_6_of_16.wmv Dr._Jekyll_&_Mr._Hyd
    111. 111. Short Stories The Devoted Friend The Happy Prince The Nightingale and the Rose The Remarkable Rocket The Selfish Giant Poems in Prose The Young King The Birthday of the Infanta The Fisherman and His Soul The Star Child The Sphinx Without a Secret The Model Millionaire Essays The Critic As Artist De Profundis The Decay Of Lying: An Observation Pen, Pencil, And Poison - A Study In Green The Soul Of Man Under Socialism The Truth Of Masks -a Note On Illusion The Rise of Historical Criticism The English Renaissance of Art House Decoration Art and the Handicraftsman Lecture to Art Students London Models Selected Prose Shorter Prose Pieces
    112. 112. Eliot deals with themes of social change and triumphs of the heart and has a remarkable talent for showing us the depth and scope of Provincial English life: its classes, pretensions, and hypocrisies. Many of her novels today are included in the canon of classic 19th century literary works. She also wrote poetry and essay. Fiction Adam Bede Brother Jacob Daniel Deronda Middlemarch Scenes of Clerical Life Silas Marner The Lifted Veil The Mill on the Floss Representative authors of the Victorian Period The_League_...
    113. 113. Fiction Representative authors of the Victorian Period The_League_... A Duet A Study in Scarlet Beyond the City Micah Clarke Rodney Stone Round the Red Lamp Sir Nigel Tales of Terror and Mystery The Adventures of Gerard The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes The Captain of the Polestar The Doings of Raffles Haw The Exploits of Brigadier Gerard The Firm of Girdlestone The Great Shadow and Other Napoleonic Tales The Hound of the Baskervilles The Lost World The Memoirs of Sherlock Holmes The Mystery of Cloomber The Parasite The Poison Belt The Refugees The Return of Sherlock Holmes The Sign of Four The Stark Munro Letters The Tragedy of the Korosko The Valley of Fear The White Company Uncle Bernac
    114. 114. Irish dramatist, poet, and author wrote the darkly sardonic Faustian themed The Picture of Dorian Gray (1891) Representative authors of the Victorian Period The_League_... Fiction Lord Arthur Savile's Crime The Canterville Ghost The Picture of Dorian Gray The Portrait of Mr. W. H. Plays A Florentine Tragedy: A Woman of No Importance An Ideal Husband La Sainte Courtisane Lady Windermere's Fan Salome The Duchess of Padua The Importance of Being Ea Vera, or the Nihilists The_Secret_of_Dorian_Gray_(1970).wmv
    115. 115. TEARS AND RAIN close reading James Blunt Tears And Rain Lyrics Video.wmv How I wish I could surrender my soul Shed the clothes that become my skin See the liar that burns within my needing How I wish I’d chosen darkness from cold How I wish I’d screamed out loud instead I’ve found no meaning I guess it’s time I run far, far awayI guess it’s time I run far, far away Find comfort in pain,Find comfort in pain, All pleasure’s the same: it just keepsAll pleasure’s the same: it just keeps me from trouble. Hides my true shapeme from trouble. Hides my true shape like Dorian Gray.like Dorian Gray. I’ve heard what theyI’ve heard what they say, but I’m not here for trouble,say, but I’m not here for trouble, it’s more than just words - It’s just tears and rain How I wish I could walk through the doors of my mind/ Hold memory close at hand, Help me understand the years. How I wish I could choose between Heaven and Hell. How I wish How do you see this individual related to society according to the underlined sentences
    116. 116. VICTORIANVICTORIAN PERIODPERIODwhen we use the adjective victorian, quite often we mean values as: hard workhard work, thrift (frugality)thrift (frugality), strictstrict moralitymorality, family virtuesfamily virtues, pruderyprudery, bigotrybigotry or intolerancesintolerances, and hipocrisyhipocrisy
    117. 117. ... 1854: In October 16th was born Oscar Fingal O’Flahertie Wills Wilde in Dublin. 1879: He starts to be famous as `dandy´. The magazine Punch makes fun about his appeareance. 1884: He works as a journalist in London. He gets married with Constance Lloyd. 1885: His son, Cyril, is born. He becomes a literary critic at the magazine Pall Mall Gazette. 1886: His second son, Vivian, is born. It starts the rumours about his `double life’. 1887: He rules the magazine The Woman’s World (until 1889). 1891: He meets Lord Alfred Douglas. He often travels to Paris. 1893: He is an hedonist and shows his vices without shame. 1894: His public life is almost a scandal. 1895: The Queenberry’s Marquis, Lord Alfred’s father, writes to Wilde an insulting letter. Oscar makes an accusation and he gets involved in three trials, after them he is sentenced to two years in jail, at Wandsworth and Reading Gaol. 1897: He gets out of jail and he lives in exile in France. He meets with Lord Alfred at Italy. 1900: Poor and ill, he dies November the 30th in Paris.  Wilde’s biography from the works of Mª Concepción Sanz Casares(11-14): 
    118. 118. Pre-raphaelite movement: John Ruskin belonged to this  movement against the ugly uniformity of the age,  Also Walter Pater (1839-94) and Matthew Arnold (1822-88) Pater influenced  Wilde because of his artistic and sensual style In the "The Renaissance"(1873), Pater says “the artist gets rid  from some `powers´, so he would be able to get more originality  than his models”. His ascesis is epicurean and hedonist. The truth is in the things, the mind is like a stream of sensations. Whatever is morally good is related with the  pleasure.       As a result of  Ruskin’s Pre-Raphaelite ideas, Pater’s ascesis and  Arnold’s cultural moralism, together with the relations between  literature and visual, the period between 1870 and 1900, in the English literature, has been called successively  aestheticism, decadentism and symbolism. the concept of aestheticism, and the idea of  the art for art’s sake. Keats, Flaubert and Pater influenced him according to Wilde  himself
    119. 119. The Picture of Dorian Gray • Gothic and autobiographicalGothic and autobiographical • Elements of the supernatural and a Dark atmosphere • According to Philippe Lejeune On Autobiography (1989) a “retrospective prose narrative written by a real person concerning his own existence, where the focus is his individual life, in particular the story of his personality.”
    120. 120. Letter and diary • “Dear Mr. Payne, the book that poisoned, or made perfect, Dorian Gray does not exist; it is a fancy of mine merely. • I am so glad you like that strange many coloured book of mine (): It contains much of me in it. Basil Hallward is what I think I am. Lord Henry, what the world thinks of me. Dorian what I would like to be in other ages, perhaps.”
    121. 121. Letter and diary • 20th September, 1900 • Minha primeira obra realmente significativa foi O Retrato de Dorian Gray. È um livro estranho, cheio de vivacidade e da estranha alegria com que foi escrito. Escrevi-o depressa e sem nenhuma preparação séria e, como resultado, minha personalidade inteira está em algum ponto dele: mas acho que não sei onde, exatamente. Existo em todas as personagens, embora não possa pretender compreender as forças que a impulsionam.
    122. 122. modifications(1890 version) • “Then I feel Harry, that I have given away my whole soul to some one who seems to take a real delight in giving me pain. I seem quite adjusted to it. I can imagine myself doing it. But not to him, not to him. Once or twice we have been away together. Then I have had him all to myself. I am horribly jealous of him, of course. I never let him talk to me of the people he knows. I like to isolate him from the rest of life and to think that he absolutely belongs to me. He does not, I know. But it gives me pleasure to think he does. “
    123. 123. (1891 version) • “Then I feel, Harry, that I have given away my whole soul to some one who treats it as if it were a flower to put in his coat...”
    124. 124. Oscar Wilde does not celebrate homossexuality, he just presents two corrupted ways of love... The_Picture_of_Dorian_Gray_(1945)_Original_Trailer. wmv The_Secret_of_Dorian_Gray_(1970).wmv Dorian_Gray_Movie_Trailer.wmv
    125. 125. Dorian Gray was later reincarnated in "Dorian" by Will Self • Dorian Gray was also re- done in a modern setting in a novel by Rick R. Reed "A Face Without a Heart“ (2000). The plot takes place in a gay club scene and a sophisticated hologram stands in for the painting.
    126. 126. The Picture of Dorian Gray • The book was parodied in The Green Carnation by Stanley Hichen. • A 1981 episode of the TV series Blake’s Seven, "Rescue", featured a character named "Dorian", whose base contained a room that functioned like the portrait in Wilde's story: "The room exists, Avon. And since I found it I haven't aged one day. It cleanses me of all the corruptions of time and appetite. " • The character also featured in the 2003 motion picture The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen , but, despite references to the book in the comic book series the film was based on, the character is not a major part of the comic series. • The 1945 film version was nominated for several Academy Awards and starred Peter Lawford and Angela Lansbury. The portraits used in the film were by Ivan Albright. • A 1976 BBC Television adaptation of the novel in the Play of the Month strand was scripted by John Osborne and starred Peter Firth, Jeremy Brett and John Gielgud. This production is available on DVD from BBC Worldwide.
    127. 127.       "Throughout Wilde’s writings he never ceased to argue that the `real men’, the poets, philosophers, men of science and culture, were those `who have realised themselves and in whom all humanity gains a partial realisation’[...] The drive towards a higher state of consciousness was the purpose of life.“       Entrevista de EL PAIS SEMANAL de 19/01/97 : "When a play that is a work of art is produced on the stage what is being tested is not the play, but the stage; when a play that is not a work of art is produced on the stage what is being tested is not the play, but the public"
    128. 128. Oscar Wilde (1854- 1900)High, small, puffy and patchy MASTER OF chi·as·mus A rhetorical inversion of the second of two parallel structures   /ka æzɪˈ m sə / 
    129. 129. "Life imitates"Life imitates artart far more thanfar more than art imitatesart imitates
    130. 130. Thin and uniform •Wilde conveys his belief that the purpose of life is self-expressionself-expression, with art being a great aid in that endeavor. •It's a fitting observation from one who once said, "I have put my genius into my life; I have put only my talent into my work."
    131. 131. Low, puffy and piled up "The soul is born old, but grows young. That is the comedy of life. And the body is born young and grows old. That is life's tragedy.“ “Nowadays, all the married men live like bachelors, and all the bachelors like married men.” "The Ideal man … should always say much more than he means, and always mean much more than he says.“ "No crime is vulgar, but all vulgarity is crime.“ "Nothing can cure the soul but the senses, just as nothing can cure the senses but the soul."
    132. 132. ImpliedImplied chiasmuschiasmus"Work is the curse of the drinking classes."Popular saying: "Drink is the curse of the working classes." "The English have a miraculous power of turning wine into water." reversing the biblical phrase about turning water into wine, this was Wilde's assessment of the wine-making skills of the English. (Dr. Mardy Grothe)
    133. 133. Nobody talks more passionately about his rights than he who, in the depths of his soul, is doubtful about them. Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900)
    134. 134. Oscar Wilde • “Man tells nothing when he speaks on his behalf, but give him a mask and he will tell the truth.”
    135. 135. ModernismModernism • Theoretical science, meanwhile, was rapidly shifting from two-hundred-year-old Newtonian models to Einstein’s theory of relativity and finally to quantum mechanics. • experimental movements, which were sometimes collectively termed “modernist” because of their emphasis on radical innovation, swept through Europe.
    136. 136. Modernism and Modern literature • Modernist literature is the literary form of Modernism defined by its move away from Romanticism and Victorian period venturing into subject matter that is traditionally mundane. • Modern literature is the history of the modern novel and modern poetry. • Modernist literature was at its height from 1900 to 1940, and featured such authors as T.S. Eliot, James Joyce, Virginia Woolf, W.B. Yeats, Thomas Mann
    137. 137. anglophone literature • “modernism” more nearly describes an era than a unitary movement. • But what connects the modernist writers— aside from a rich web of personal and professional connections—is a shared desire to break with established forms and subjects in art and literature.
    138. 138. modernist writers • rejected realistic representation and traditional formal expectations. • In the novel, they explored the Freudian depths of their characters’ psyches through stream of consciousness and interior monologue.
    139. 139. Modernist writers • In poetry, they mixed slang with elevated language, experimented with free verse, and often studded their works with difficult allusions and disconnected images. • Among the earliest groups to shape English- language modernism were the imagists, a circle of poets led initially by the Englishman T. E. Hulme and the American Ezra Pound, in the early 1910s.
    140. 140. Imagist poetic doctrineImagist poetic doctrine • included the use of plain speech, the preference for free verse over closed forms, and above all the creation of the vivid, hard-edged image. • Shaped by Asian forms such as the haiku, the imagist poem tended to be brief and ephemeral, presenting a single striking image or metaphor
    141. 141. innovation • Eliot’s Waste Land and James Joyce’s Ulysses were technically innovative and initially controversial (Ulysses was banned in the United States and Great Britain), but their eventual acceptance as literary landmarks helped to bring modernism into the canon of English literature.
    142. 142. Aldous Huxley (1894-1963) • English novelist and critic, best known for his dystopian novel Brave New World (1931). • Besides novels he published travel books, histories, poems, plays, and essays on philosophy, arts, sociology, religion and morals • At the age of 16 suffered an attack of keratitis punctata and became for a period of about 18 months totally blind. • Huxley's first novel, Crome Yellow (1921), a witty criticism of society, appeared in 1921. Huxley's style, a combination of brilliant dialogue, cynicism, and social criticism, made him one of the most fashionable literary figures of the decade. In eight years he published a dozen books, among them Point Counter Point (1928) and Do What You Will (1929). • Brave New World Revisited appeared in 1958. • The Devils Of Loudon (1952), depicting mass-hysteria and exorcism in the 17th-century France. • Island (1962) was an utopian novel and a return to the territory of Brave New World, in which a journalist shipwrecks on Pala, the fabled island, and discovers there a kind and happy people. But the earthly paradise is not immune to the harsh realities of oil policy. • In 1954 Huxley published an influential study of consciousness expansion through mescaline, The Doors Of Perception and became later a guru among Californian hippies. • In 1961 Huxley suffered a severe loss when his house and his papers were totally destroyed in a bush- fire. • In 1963 appeared Literature And Science, a collection of essays. • He also started to use LSD and showed interest in Hindu philosophy.
    143. 143. James Joyce (1882-1941) • Irish novelist, born in Dublin, a journalist, teacher • noted for his experimental use of language in such works as Ulysses (1922) and Finnegans Wake (1939) • extensive use of interior monologue; a complex network of symbolic parallels drawn from the mythology, history, and literature, and created a unique language of invented words, puns, and allusions. • In 1907 Joyce had published a collection of poems, Chamber Music - Dubliners in 1914, Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man in 1916, a play Exiles in 1918, and Ulysses in 1922. IN 1939 Finnegans Wake
    144. 144. Virginia Woolf (1882-1941) • Born in London, English author, feminist, essayist, publisher, and critic wrote A Room of One’s Own (1929) • In some of her novels she moves away from the use of plot and structure to employ stream-of-consciousness to emphasise the psychological aspects of her characters. ThemesThemes in her works include gender relations, class hierarchy and the consequences of war. • Suffered from bi-polar disorder and she suffered at the hands of her half- brother • married left-wing political journalist, author and editor Leonard Woolf (1880-1969) on 10 August 1912. They would have no children. • Mrs. Dalloway (1925) which inspired a film “The Hours” in 2002. To The Lighthouse (1927) was followed by Orlando: A Biography (1928) • screen in 1993- A roman à clef, Orlando’s character is modeled after Vita Sackville West (1892-1962), friend and possible lover of Woolf • she drowned herself in the River Ouse near their home in Sussex, by putting rocks in her coat pockets. Her body was found later in April and she was then cremated
    145. 145. D.H. Lawrence (1885-1930) • David Herbert Lawrence was born on September 11, 1885, in Eastwood, Nottinghamshire, central England. His father was a coal miner, a heavy drinker. His mother was a former schoolteacher, superior in education to her husband. Lawrence's childhood was dominated by poverty and friction between his parents. • English novelist, storywriter, critic, poet and painter. • Lawrence's mother died in 1910; he helped her die by giving her an overdose of sleeping med • "Snake" and "How Beastly the Bourgeoisie is" are probably his most anthologized poems • first novel, The White Peacock(1911) • Sons and Lovers appeared in 1913 and was based on his childhood (married in 1914 to Frieda) • fourth novel, The Rainbow (1915) • Women In Love (1920) • best known work is Lady Chatterly's Lover (1928) It tells of the love affair between a wealthy, married woman, and a man who works on her husband's estate.
    146. 146. George Orwell(1903-1950) • George Orwell [pseudonym of Eric Arthur Blair], journalist, political author and novelist wrote Animal Farm (1945) and Nineteen Eighty-Four (1949); • Born in Bengal (Bihar) India / lower-upper middle class • Purposefully lived as a tramp in LondonPurposefully lived as a tramp in London and stayed with the miners in the north. IN 1932 he was a teacherteacher • Learned French with Huxley, studied with Tolkien • Shot in the throat during the Spanish Civil war. He was a War correspondent • He wanted to transform political writing into art • (1949) he had tuberculosis, died at the age of 46
    147. 147. William Butler Yeats (1865-1939) • Born in Dublin. His first volume of verse appeared in 1887 • Together with Lady Gregory he founded the Irish Theatre, which was to become the Abbey Theatrethe Abbey Theatre, and served as its chief playwright • His plays usually treat Irish legendstreat Irish legends; they also reflect his fascination with mysticismmysticism and spiritualismspiritualism • The Countess Cathleen (1892), The Land of Heart's Desire (1894), Cathleen ni Houlihan (1902), The King's Threshold (1904), and Deirdre (1907) are among the best known • After 1910, Yeats's dramatic art took a sharp turn toward a highly poetical, static, and esoteric style • His poetry, The Wild Swans at Coole (1919), Michael Robartes and the Dancer (1921), The Tower (1928), The Winding Stair and Other Poems (1933), and Last Poems and Plays (1940), made him one of the outstanding and most influential twentieth-century poets writing in English. • ThemesThemes: the contrast of art and life, masks, cyclical theories of life (the symbol of the winding stairs), and the ideal of beauty and ceremony contrasting with the hubbub of modern life.
    148. 148. George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950) • Born in Dublin, His education was irregular, due to his dislike of any organized training • music and theatre critic in the eighties and nineties • Plays Pleasant and Unpleasant (1898), Widower's Houses and Mrs. Warren's Profession savagely attack social hypocrisy, while in plays such as Arms and the Man and The Man of Destiny the criticism is less fierce. • Shaw's radical rationalism, his utter disregard of conventions, his keen dialectic interest and verbal wit often turn the stage into a forum of ideas, examples in the famous discourses on the Life Force, «Don Juan in Hell», the third act of the dramatization of woman's love chase of man, Man and Superman (1903). • Caesar and Cleopatra (1901), a historical play filled with allusions to modern times • Androcles and the Lion (1912), in which he exercised a kind of retrospective history and from modern movements drew deductions for the Christian era. • Major Barbara (1905), one of Shaw's most successful «discussion» plays, the audience's attention is held by the power of the witty argumentation that man can achieve aesthetic salvation only through political activity, not as an individual. • The Doctor's Dilemma (1906), facetiously classified as a tragedy by Shaw, is really a comedy the humour of which is directed at the medical profession. • Candida (1898), with social attitudes toward sex relations as objects of his satire, and • Pygmalion (1912), a witty study of phonetics as well as a clever treatment of middle-class morality and class distinction MY_FAIR_LADY_(1964)_Trailer.wmv
    149. 149. Origins of the AbsurdOrigins of the Absurd Early German Expressionism Concerned with the effects of an uncaring society upon the individual and the emotional angst this caused. Exhibited in many art forms: painting, literature, theatre, film, architecture and music, it concentrates on communication through emotion Friedrich Nietzsche was a key player in the origins of modern Expressionism when he presented his theories of the Apollonian And the Dionysian - a dualism between the plastic ‘art of sculpture’ - of lyrical dream inspiration, identity, order, regularity and calm repose and on the other hand the non plastic ‘art of music’ - of intoxication, chaos and dissolution of identity.
    150. 150. Absurd and Conventions of DramaAbsurd and Conventions of Drama • Asides • Aston: What? Didn’t they give you the food? • Davies: Well... They did, but... What tiny piece of crap food they did give me! What were they thinking? That I was a dog? An animal? • Aston: [in an aside] Maybe not a dog, but you should at least be thankful. • Davies: Sorry? • Aston: Never mind. I have another pair of shoes, why don’t you try them? • Dramatic monologue • [while Davies was trying the other pair of shoes, Aston walked to the corner of the room, thinking out loud] • Aston: What an idiot! Why does he have to complain about everything? He should be happy for getting the things he has for a homeless man! • Those conventions are used to reveal the conflict, external (between the characters) and internal (within one character)
    151. 151. Absurd and Conventions of DramaAbsurd and Conventions of Drama • Inserting of harmony resorting to : • dreams, nightmares • new characters • detailed scenery or organized one+ flashbacks • Focus on theme to help the identity issue • Keep the atmosphere of suspense • The use of references and more symbolic elements • The insertion of a PLOT, giving a storyline to it instead of the depiction of a situation and taking away excerpts clearly with lack of purpose (...being a decorator or not...)
    152. 152. Explanation of the Absurd Characteristics of the movement include illogical situations, unconventional dialogue, and minimal plots in an attempt to reflect the absurdity of human existence. ‘Theatre of the Absurd’ was not the name of the movement to which playwrights such as Beckett and Pinter claimed to be part of, but instead a name given to their work by others. To be part of the ‘anti-‘anti- theatre’theatre’ movement was found more acceptable, as they attacked traditional artforms as no longer being valid in this pointless existence. The ‘absurd’ in this sense refers not to the ridiculous, but to being ‘out of harmony’.‘out of harmony’. While the theatre was shocking to audiences, viewing it as ‘absurd’, Camus argues that it is the world that is absurd. Eugene Ionesco claimed that the ‘Absurd is that which is devoid of‘Absurd is that which is devoid of purpose…’purpose…’
    153. 153. Anti- Theatre The term ‘Theatre of the Absurd’ was first coined by Martin Esslin in his 1961 book. The playwrights included in this prefer to use the term ‘anti-theatre’, which was founded in the 1950s. In 1953, Ionesco used the subtitle ‘anti-play’‘anti-play’ for his piece ‘Bald Prima Donna’, which made the term accessible for critics and the media. ‘Anti-Theatre’ combines futurism and surrealism, and illustrates a rejection of the traditional psychological play.rejection of the traditional psychological play. It can be characterised by a critical and ironic attitude towards the traditions of society and art. It claims that the stage is no longer able to give an accurate account of the modern world, and embraces illogical action and a rejection of all values. In literary theatre, the emphasis is usually on the language itself, while the language is often contradictory to the action onstage inthe language is often contradictory to the action onstage in anti-literary theatreanti-literary theatre..
    154. 154. Impact The ‘Theatre of the Absurd’ can be seen as a statement of hopelessness, but for this entire movement to have been born out of something as universally depressing as a world war perhaps casts some hope. ‘Theatre of the Absurd’ forces us to face the awful situations we have brought upon ourselves, and so society can choose to do something about it. It has been suggested that the ‘Theatre of the Absurd’ was only a product of a very specific point in history and consequently since gone ‘the way of the dinosaur’. It could also be claimed, however, that the sense of ‘absurdity’ in theatre has only disappeared as it has become more acceptable and less shocking to audiences.
    155. 155. Samuel BeckettBorn in Dublin, in 1906, He died in Paris, December 22, 1989. It is difficult for an audience to find a single meaning to many of Beckett’s plays, reflecting his despair at being unable to find a meaning to existence. Along with the other playwrights within ‘Theatre of the Absurd’, Beckett aims not to illustrate a narrative of any kind, but simply a situation.
    156. 156. Samuel Beckett ‘Eleutheria’, ‘Waiting for Godot’ and ‘Endgame’ were all written in French. ‘Waiting for Godot’, once described as ‘terrible’ due to the fact that ‘nothing happens, nobody comes, nobody goes’, is now hailed as ‘one of the greatest successes of the post- war theatre’, and has been translated into over twenty languages.  Beckett won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1969. ‘Waiting for Godot’
    157. 157. Harold Pinter Harold Pinter was born in 1930 and frequently comments on the ‘irrelevancy of everyday speech’. ‘Mountain Language’ (one-act play 1988) He died on December 24, 2008. Despite having been criticised for not having fully rounded characters, Pinter defends this as being more realistic. He is critical of communication but suggests that people permanently try to avoid it, rather than simply being bad at it. ‘A Slight Ache’ (tragicomic play 1958)
    158. 158. Harold Pinter  Pinter’s first full-length play, ‘The Birthday Party’ can be seen to comment on conformity, death, and ‘the individual’s pathetic search for security’.  Like Beckett before him, in 2005 Pinter won the Nobel Prize for Literature. •Pinter seems to be obsessed with the most basic of theatrical techniques, particularly the traditional idea of suspense. - ‘The Room’ - ‘The Dumb Waiter’
    159. 159. •"We are the hollow men- We are the stuffed men" • We are seemingly stuffed but in the depth of our souls we are empty. The hollow men are Eliot's modern, empty corrupted man.  •"Leaning together/ Headpiece filled with straw“ • We are like Guy Fawkes effigy; our heads are filled with despair, delusions but empty at the core.  The hollow men are like walking corpses whose minds are empty and detached from reality and life.  They are alive but they are also experiencing death at the same time. The situation of them is like "life in death". They are lifeless without direction and hope of salvation. They have force but a paralyzed one so they can not get into action.  •"Those who have crossed with direct eyes, to death's other kingdom“ • In those lines Eliot mentions the dead, who have faced the death with direct eyes'.  Direct' indicates the positive aspect of death. Eliot may refer to the idea of life in death for the hollow men. Hollow men can not really die they are in between life and death.  •"Remember us not as lost violent souls but as the hollow men“ •" Lost violent souls" may represent the two epigraphs- Mr. Kutz and Guy Fawkes they  hope to be remembered as hollow men. Eliot probably hints that it is better to be lost violent souls than being "hollow" and "stuffed" man.
    160. 160. "Eyes I dare not meet in dreams in death's dream kingdom“ In those lines the speaker fears facing the death, the eyes of death even in his dreams. We, hollow men, can only encounter with the eyes' symbols like "sunlight on a broken column" which gives broken light "a tree" and "voices in the wind". All of these are perceived indirectly. To reach the direct eyes are more distant and more solemn than the fading star which represents remoteness from reality, especially spiritual reality. In short, he fears the meet with direct vision of death. "Let me be no nearer in death's dream kingdom“ The speaker doesn't want to come any closer to death kingdom in other words he doesn't want to be near to death. He wants to be disguised among other hollow men. He wants to conceal himself and he wishes to "wear such deliberate disguises/rat's coat, crowskin, crossed staves" and behave as the wind behaves. He tries to disguise himself among hollow men like a scarecrow with crossed staves. Crossed staves may be related to being stuffed with delusions and hopelessness.
    161. 161. "there is dead land, cactus land / Here the stone images" . Stone (lifeless) images of spiritual is meant here. It is a dead land like its inhabitants. Here the representation of the spiritual world and worship of hollow men (its inhabitants) are depicted. Dead worship and supplicate those stone images. "Under the twinkle of fading star" gives a remoteness from reality, life, spirit and naturally spiritual. The narrator wonders whether being dead and this world is the same. "Death's other kingdom" is related with the world hollow men lives, in other words Eliot's view of world at his time. Narrator fears the afterworld will be empty as this world. He will be awakening by lips praying to broken stones. The narrator fears also that whether death is lack of spirituality like this world also lacks. As it is mentioned before, the hollow men are searching for the salvation. Since they are in life in death, the speaker wonders whether salvation can be achieved by death.
    162. 162. " The eyes are not here/ There are no eyes here" In this part the narrator becomes progressively indifferent to the eyes of dead in contrast to previous lines of the poem. The fading star in previous stanzas becomes "dying star". The darkness increases as the shadow of the death in the hollow valley of death emerges. "Gathered on this beach of the tumid river" is an allusion to Dante's Inferno, on the far side of the river there is Hell . They gather on the banks of the river to get to "death's other kingdom". Eliot uses the word "sightless" because without any eyes (eyes of death) they don't have any sight. However, "multifoliate rose", which is a symbol of paradise in Dante's Divine Comedy, is their hope for salvation.
    163. 163. "Here we go round the prickly pear/ At five o'clock in the morning": It is in fact a variation of a children's rhyme: "Here we go round the mulberry bush"  substituting  a  prickly  pear  cactus  for  the  mulberry bush. These lines  may suggest the frustration and reality of the hollow men. At intervals the frustrating shadow of fear interferes in every effort  to make potential become actual. "Shadow" must be isolating the hollow men,  making  their  movement  and  feeling  impossible.  "For Thine is the Kingdom":  This  line  is  a  part  from  the  Bible  is  said  to serve as a reminder that God will not accept any excuses for sin.  Another  interpretation  can  be  exhausted,  fearful  hollow  men  recite  Bible  to  strive  for  salvation.  This is the way the world ends / not with a bang but with a whimper /  Life is very long” It suggests that the end will be with whimpers of fear of hollow  men  not  with  the  bang  of  Creation.  The  whimper  may  be  caused  from  the  longing for the salvation of their souls. In those lines, the tone of the poem is  sad and hopeless about life and spiritual journey. The narrator thinks that the end will be not with an apocalyptic catastrophe as in the Bible but through mankind who allow themselves slowly decay, degrade, exhaust and be empty at the core
    164. 164. Central symbol = GYRE • Conical shape consisting of series of ever-widening, connected circles • Repeating trends of history; psychological development, subjectivity vs objectivity, life vs death • An age in history spreads its “ever-widening” influence until it spends its force and ends • Each spiral = 200 years • Beginning of each new gyre brings about chaos and the destruction of the old • Poem describes current historical period (1921) – world on the brink of some apocalyptic revelation Slide 2
    165. 165. Introductory Notes • Poem suggests that the Second Coming of Christ instead of bring about good will bring about a state of anarchy on earth • Title is derived from Bible – Matthew 24 and St John’s description of the Beast of the Apocalypse in Revelation • STANZA 1: conditions present in the world, anarchy, things falling apart • STANZA 2: surmise that these conditions foretell of a monstrous Second Coming
    166. 166. Song of Kabir, Rudyard Kipling • My brother kneels, so saith Kabir, • To stone and brass in heathen-wise (atheist) • But in my brother’s voice I hear • My own unanswered agonies. • His God is as his fates assign • His prayer is all the world’s... And mine.
    167. 167. Postmodern eraPostmodern era • Many significant literary movements in the later half of the 20th century were directly or indirectly influenced by SurrealismSurrealism. • Salman Rushdie, when called a Magical Realist, said he saw his work instead "allied to surrealism“ • Magical Realism is a popular technique among novelists of the latter half of the 20th century and it has some obvious similarities to Surrealism with its juxtaposition of the normal and the dream- like
    168. 168. Salman Rushdie• His works [what are his themes???] • 1975: Grimus; • 1987: The Jaguar Smile: A Nicaraguan Journey; • 1990: Haroun and the Sea of Stories • 1980: Midnight's Children • 1983: Shame • 1989: The Satanic Verses • 1991: Imaginary homelands • 1994: East, West 1995: The Moor's Last Sigh • 1999: The Ground Beneath her Feet
    169. 169. Major Themes • India’s National Identity vs. British colonization • Indian diaspora • His definition of migrant identity and the themes of Indian diaspora • Colonialism and Gender/Power Struggle
    170. 170. migrant identity • Rushdie: migrant identity What is the best thing about migrant peoples and seceded nations? I think it is their hopefulness... And what is the worst thing? It is the emptiness of one's luggage....We have floated upwards from history, from memory, from Time. (70-71) 'It maybe be argued that the past is a country from which we have all migrated, that its loss is part of our common humanity. . . .'
    171. 171. Midnight’s Children: • The narrator and narrative methods • Digressive, foreboding and summarizing. • Talking about his own writings. A mixture of tones: humorous, poetic, crude and with ribald jokes. Mixing the personal and the historical/political Motifs • Can you give me an example from the reading of the first page of Satanic Verses?
    174. 174. CHARACTERISTICS OFCHARACTERISTICS OF POSTMODERNISM IN CULTUREPOSTMODERNISM IN CULTURE • image has become more important than the written word • - loss of universal stories that relate universal themes and truths • emphasis on the present not the past – (history is not important)
    175. 175. • disembodied communication internet (cyberspace) Texting Instant messaging “Twitter”
    176. 176. • uncertainty about the individual person – ( what is a human being?) – Is an embryo a human being? – Is cloning right? – What is it that makes us human?