Infiltration and Extravasation-Preventing a complication of IV catheterization


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Infiltration and Extravasation-Preventing a complication of IV catheterization
AJN Am Journal Nurs August 2007 Vol. 107, No. 8

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Infiltration and Extravasation-Preventing a complication of IV catheterization

  1. 1. Infiltration and Extravasation Preventing a complication of IV catheterization. vesicant refers to any medication Overview: The Infusion Nurses Society’s national standards of or fluid with the potential for caus- practice require that a nurse who administers IV medication or ing blisters, severe tissue injury, fluid know its adverse effects and appropriate interventions to or necrosis if it escapes from the venous pathway. Table 1 (page take before starting the infusion. A serious complication is the 65) lists vesicants that can cause inadvertent administration of a solution or medication into the tis- extravasation injuries. Tissue dam- sue surrounding the IV catheter—when it is a nonvesicant solution age may occur from direct contact or medication, it is called infiltration; when it is a vesicant med- with vesicant medication, from ication, it is called extravasation. Both infiltration and extravasa- compression of surrounding tissues tion can have serious consequences: the patient may need by a large volume of fluid in the surgical intervention resulting in large scars, experience limita- case of infiltration, or from severe vasoconstriction. tion of function, or even require amputation. Another long-term These local complications fre- effect is complex regional pain syndrome, a neurologic syndrome quently have serious consequences. that requires long-term pain management. These outcomes can The patient may need surgical be prevented by using appropriate nursing interventions during intervention, which could result in IV catheter insertion and early recognition and intervention upon large scars; experience limitation the first signs and symptoms of infiltration and extravasation. of function; or even require ampu- Nursing interventions include early recognition, prevention, and tation. Another long-term effect treatment (including the controversial use of antidotes, and heat of infiltration or extravasation is complex regional pain syndrome and cold therapy). Steps to manage infiltration and extravasa- (CRPS), a neurologic syndrome tion are presented. requiring long-term pain manage- ment. These serious, life-altering outcomes can be prevented. nfiltration and extravasation are known com- The national standards established by the INS I plications of iv infusion therapy. The Infusion Nurses Society (INS) and the Oncology Nursing Society have set the definitions of infiltration and extravasation. Both complica- tions involve accidental leakage of an iv solution into surrounding tissue, but the type of iv solution differs. Infiltration is the inadvertent administration require that a nurse who administers iv medication or fluid know the possible adverse effects and the interventions to undertake before starting the infusion. Before administering the infusion the nurse must assess the patency of the vein and the catheter. This is done by checking for lack of resis- tance when flushing the catheter, brisk blood return of a nonvesicant solution or medication into the tis- from the catheter, and a free-flowing gravity infu- sue surrounding the iv catheter, whereas extravasa- sion. In addition, the nurse should palpate the area tion is the inadvertent administration of a vesicant above the insertion site, assess the length of dwell medication into the surrounding tissue.1, 2 The term time for the catheter (older catheters are more likely to be associated with complications), and Lynn Hadaway is president of Lynn Hadaway Associates, an compare the appearance of the two extremities. education and consulting company specializing in infusion The nurse should confirm the absence of all signs therapy and vascular access in Milner, GA. She has been a and symptoms of complications, such as1: paid consultant and a professional speaker for Bard Medical, • pain, tenderness, or discomfort Inc., the manufacturer of the StatLock catheter stabilization device. Such devices are discussed in this article. Contact • edema at, above, or below the insertion site author: • erythema at or above the insertion site 64 AJN M August 2007 M Vol. 107, No. 8
  2. 2. By Lynn Hadaway, MEd, RNC, CRNI • blanching of the area around the insertion site Table 1. Vesicant Medications and Solutions • changes in the temperature of the surrounding skin Reported to Cause Extravasation Injuries • numbness, tingling, or a feeling of “pins and needles” Antimicrobials • burning at the insertion site or along the venous Fluoroquinolones pathway Gentamicin • fluid leaking from the insertion site Nafcillin • feeling of skin tightness around the insertion site Penicillin or tightness below the site (such as in the fingers) Vancomycin • bruising • palpable cording of the vein Electrolytes Decisions made about the insertion site, catheter Calcium chloride size, methods of catheter stabilization, and drug Calcium gluconate administration techniques influence the clinical out- Potassium chloride come for the patient (as well as the legal liability of Sodium bicarbonate the nurse). When infiltration or extravasation Cytotoxic agents occurs, the nurse who inserted the catheter rarely knows about loss of function, surgical procedures, Cisplatin (Platinol-AQ) amputation, and CRPS, unless a lawsuit is filed. Dactinomycin (Cosmegen) Daunorubicin (Cerubidine) The incidence of infiltration and extravasation Doxorubicin (Adriamycin, Doxil) is hard to determine because of limited reporting. Epirubicin (Ellence) Extravasation injury from cancer chemotherapy is Idarubicin (Idamycin PFS) reported to be 11% in children and 22% in adults.3 Mechlorethamine (Mustargen) Jacobs reported a rate of 0.6% (41 events out of Mitomycin (Mitomycin-C) 6,600 injections) for extravasation of contrast Paclitaxel (Taxol) agents given with high-pressure injector pumps.4 Plicamycin (Mithracin) Although pumps do not cause infiltration or Streptozocin (Zanosar) extravasation, their use forces fluid into the subcuta- Vinblastine (Velban) neous tissue and so could make the situation worse Vincristine (Oncovin) Vinorelbine (Navelbine) if the complication is not detected quickly. Rates of extravasation with cancer chemotherapy infused Dextrose through implanted ports range from 0.3% to 6%.5, 6 Ethical considerations limit evidence for clinical Diazepam (Valium) management to case reports and animal studies. The Dobutamine (Dobutrex) following case study, a composite based on clinical experience, demonstrates decisions that nurses can Dopamine make during iv catheter insertion to prevent infiltra- Fat emulsion tion and extravasation. Human immunoglobulin CASE STUDY Norepinephrine (Levophed) Greta Henderson, age 58, arrives at the ED by Parenteral nutrition formulas, hypertonic ambulance, reporting severe epigastric pain of sud- den onset, weakness, and nausea. The nausea has Phenytoin (Dilantin) resulted in limited oral intake and a moderate fluid Promethazine (Phenergan) volume deficit. The emergency medical technician Propofol (Diprivan) has inserted a 16-gauge, 1-in., peripheral iv catheter in her left antecubital fossa, through which Ms. Radiographic contrast agents Henderson is receiving an infusion of 5% dextrose Vasopressin (Pitressin) and 0.45% sodium chloride at a rate of 125 mL per hour. During transfer from the ambulance stretcher to the ED stretcher, the iv catheter is accidentally dextrose and 0.45% sodium chloride with 20 mEq pulled out. After three attempts to reinsert it, a potassium chloride at 125 mL per hour. The follow- 20-gauge catheter is inserted in the left wrist area. ing medications are ordered: imipenem–cilastatin The physician orders the continuation of 5% (Primaxin) 500 mg every eight hours by intermittent AJN M August 2007 M Vol. 107, No. 8 65
  3. 3. iv infusion, diluted in 100 mL of normal saline and the left wrist, the surgeon examines the arm and infused over 30 minutes; meperidine (Demerol) decides that Ms. Henderson has compartment syn- 25 mg iv every three hours as need for pain; and drome. She is taken to the operating room for a promethazine (Phenergan) 12.5 mg iv every three fasciotomy of the left arm. The fasciotomy incision hours as needed for nausea and vomiting. An elec- extends from the volar aspect of the left wrist to trocardiogram (ECG), complete blood count and the antecubital fossa. chemistry panel, abdominal X-rays and ultrasound, Elevated serum amylase and lipase levels and an and pancreatic computed tomography are ordered. enlarged pancreas on computed tomography confirm the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. Ms. Henderson responds well to bed rest and no oral intake. She is discharged on day 5. A variety of taping techniques have Ms. Henderson requires physical therapy for months to improve the function of her arm. The been used to stabilize catheters, pain in the arm continues. Three months after the incident, a neurologic examination confirms CRPS but they’re all inadequate and type I (previously known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy). increase the risk of complications. CLINICAL OUTCOMES A more rapid response from the surgical consul- tant might have altered the outcome in this case. In the ED, Ms. Henderson receives two doses of Compartment syndrome lasting longer than 12 meperidine and promethazine by iv push through hours leads to additional complications.7 It occurs the catheter site in the left wrist and one dose of when fluid collects in tight spaces bound by fascia, imipenem–cilastatin over 30 minutes. To ensure cor- bone, muscle, and skin. The increasing pressure rect flow rates, an electronic iv pump is used. During decreases capillary perfusion in the area. The out- the imipenem–cilastatin infusion, Ms. Henderson come may be irreversible nerve damage and per- complains that her hand feels tight and that she can- manent loss of function.7, 8 Irreversible damage can not flex her fingers completely. When she reports a occur after as little as four hours.9 Fasciotomy severe burning pain in her arm with each dose of decompresses the compartment and relieves the promethazine, the nurse tells her this is normal for pressure. that drug. Ms. Henderson was diagnosed with CRPS type The ECG is normal. The white blood cell count is I, a neurologic pain disorder that most often occurs elevated, and the blood glucose level is 235 mg/dL. after trauma. Burning pain is the most common An ultrasound is negative for gallstones. The patient symptom. Other signs and symptoms include color is admitted to the medical unit to rule out pancre- and temperature differences in the two extremities, atitis. edema, and hyperhidrosis (excessive perspiration). During the initial assessment on the medical unit, Long-term effects include skin and nail changes, Ms. Henderson complains of pain at the iv site. The osteoporosis, weakness, and tremor.10 Although the primary care nurse notices moderate edema in the pathophysiology remains unclear, research reveals hand and the area around the iv catheter. She imme- involvement of an inflammatory process.10 The diately removes it and inserts a new catheter in the complexity of signs and symptoms indicates, in right forearm. The nurse applies a heating pad to the addition to inflammatory processes, sensory, auto- left wrist and elevates the left arm on a pillow. nomic, trophic, and motor processes.10 Six hours later Ms. Henderson continues to Although Ms. Henderson did not experience a report severe pain in her left hand and arm and has necrotic ulcer, potassium chloride and promethazine great difficulty extending the fingers of that hand. have the potential to cause tissue destruction if they The edema has dramatically increased, making the enter the subcutaneous area. Extravasation of a vesi- skin look tight. Capillary refill in the left fingers is cant medication produces immediate pain, but blis- much slower than in the right hand, and it’s difficult ters may not appear for several days. Necrosis is to feel the left radial pulse. The primary care nurse seen within weeks.2, 11 notifies the physician, who orders continuation of The photographs on pages 68 and 69 show the the heat application and a surgical consultation. outcomes of extravasation and infiltration in Fifteen hours after removal of the catheter from actual patients (not Ms. Henderson). 66 AJN M August 2007 M Vol. 107, No. 8
  4. 4. CAUSES OF INFILTRATION AND EXTRAVASATION attempts, the catheter was then successfully placed Ms. Henderson was receiving iv fluids through in the left wrist. The medical record does not spec- an infusion pump at a rate of 125 mL per hour. ify the exact location of the unsuccessful venipunc- Although the infusion pump didn’t cause the ture sites. extravasation injury, it compounded the problem During all venipuncture procedures, a clot forms because it continued to pump fluid into the subcu- inside the vein lumen from disruption of the tunica taneous space. Five doses of iv medications were intima, the vein’s internal layer. Disruption of this infused or injected, adding to the fluid that could one-cell-thick layer allows blood to make contact escape into the tissue. Computed tomography with the basement membrane between the vein lay- involved an injection of a contrast agent at a fast ers, which immediately begins the clotting process. rate with a high-pressure injector, which also could The final, successful site of cannulation was distal to have driven more fluid into the tissue. the original antecubital site and possibly distal to the There are three basic causes of infiltration and unsuccessful sites as well. Those sites did not have extravasation: mechanical, obstructive, and inflam- sufficient time to heal. Fluid flowing to those sites matory. Two of these problems could be present in could have met resistance from the clots, resulting in Ms. Henderson’s case. fluid leaking into the subcutaneous tissue at the suc- Mechanical problems with the catheter can cessful site of catheterization. occur during the initial venipuncture or while Inflammatory processes sometimes play a part the catheter is in place. During venipuncture, the in infiltration, although that was probably not so in nurse could have pierced the posterior wall of the the present case. Inflammatory processes are usually vein, pulled the catheter back into the vein lumen, associated with drugs such as cytotoxic medications obtained a brisk blood return, and completed that promote venous inflammation. After infusion of the procedure. Although everything might have irritating fluids and medications, biochemical sub- appeared normal at the time, fluid could have been stances such as histamine, serotonin, leukotrienes, leaking unseen into the subcutaneous tissue from prostaglandins, and bradykinins cause gap junctions the puncture site in the vein wall. to open in the walls of capillaries. These openings The nursing documentation indicates that the allow the passage of fluid from the intravascular catheter was placed in the left wrist; however, the space to the interstitial space. The result is edema, exact location was not specified. Veins are located redness, and pain.13 on the radial, ulnar, and volar aspects of the wrist. Each of these sites is in an area of joint flexion. NURSING INTERVENTIONS Kagel and Rayan reported that more than half of The nurse is responsible for ensuring that all mea- major iv-associated complications occur in the sures have been taken to prevent infiltration or hand, and more than half of minor complications extravasation, that signs and symptoms are rapidly occur in the hand and wrist.12 recognized, and that proper treatment measures Many sites at which catheters are inserted in the are used (see Table 2, page 70). Hospitals should hand, wrist, and antecubital fossa are areas of joint establish written protocols that nurses can follow flexion and require stabilization of the joint. quickly and easily without waiting for instructions Movement of the joint will occur naturally as the from a physician. patient moves in bed, transfers or is transferred in Prevention. Measures to prevent infiltration and and out of bed or to a wheelchair, and performs extravasation include selection of an appropriate site activities of daily living such as dressing, eating, for catheter insertion, selection of an appropriate- and toileting. As the joint moves, the catheter will size catheter, use of appropriate fluids, stabilization move inside the vein, and the catheter tip can of the catheter, and use of proper administration pierce the vein wall. Instructing a patient not to techniques. use the hand, for example, or supporting the hand Site selection is the first step. Areas of joint flex- with a pillow doesn’t prevent joint movement. The ion such as the hand, wrist, and antecubital fossa best preventive measure is the use of a hand board, are never the best place for an iv catheter. which prohibits a flexible catheter from bending Palpating the veins can be difficult; sharpen your (cutting off flow).1 skills. Always use the same finger of your nondomi- Venous obstruction may also be involved in this nant hand. With repeated use of the same finger for case. The first catheter was placed in the left antecu- palpation, you’ll be able to find veins more success- bital fossa; there is no documentation of the specific fully and develop a better sense of how good and vein used. After three unsuccessful venipuncture bad choices for iv catheter placement feel. Veins AJN M August 2007 M Vol. 107, No. 8 67
  5. 5. erly, and the large catheter probably cre- ated a thrombosis that prevented ade- quate blood flow through the vein; a standard 20-gauge catheter would have been a better choice. The normal fibri- nolytic system had not had time to break down the clot. Four attempts were made to obtain a second iv site, but the number of nurses making these attempts was not documented. The INS standards of practice call for only two attempts per nurse, as well as documen- tation of the site of each attempt.1 Catheter size. The smallest-gauge catheter for delivering the prescribed therapy should be used. Catheters are now made with thinner yet stronger walls, resulting in a larger lumen. As a result, it’s now possible to achieve required flow rates using smaller gauges. A 20-gauge catheter is easily capable of infusing about 3,900 mL per hour, a 22-gauge catheter can infuse about 2,200 mL per hour, and a 24- gauge catheter can deliver about 1,400 mL per hour. Flow rate depends not just on the catheter gauge size, but also on the size of the vein, its condition, and whether vasospasm or valves are present. Use of a catheter that is too large for the vein will result in obstruction of blood flow and possible thrombosis distal to the site. Mechanical phlebitis occurs if the catheter makes contact with the endothelial vein lining. Osmolarity and pH. Many iv thera- pies should not be infused through peripheral veins because of their osmo- larity and pH; chemical phlebitis can Surgical scars after a fasciotomy necessitated by compartment syndrome from a severe infiltration. result.14 Fluids and medications with an osmolarity greater than 350 mOsm/L are considered hypertonic. Those with an osmolarity greater than 600 mOsm/L that can be palpated but not seen are usually larger should not be infused through a peripheral vein. than veins that appear as superficial blue lines Animal and human studies have demonstrated that under the patient’s skin. Veins that feel hard or these fluids are associated with the highest risk of cordlike should be avoided. Press down on a vein, endothelial damage.15-17 Medications with a pH and you’ll notice the elasticity of a healthy vein as lower than 5 or higher than 9 should not be infused you release the pressure on the site. through a peripheral vein, as similar endothelial In Ms. Henderson’s case, after the initial 16-gauge damage results.18 Such fluids and medications require catheter was accidentally dislodged, the opposite arm infusion through a central venous catheter. should have been used for subsequent insertion of a In a busy ED, however, trauma patients may be catheter. The first site had not had time to heal prop- the only ones to receive a central venous catheter. 68 AJN M August 2007 M Vol. 107, No. 8
  6. 6. The nurse therefore needs to be particularly careful about choosing sites and catheters to minimize the patient’s risk. Having a close working relationship with the hospital pharmacy and an iv-drug hand- book available will ensure that nurses have the necessary information about the pH and osmolar- ity of iv solutions and medications. Stabilization. Using a manufactured catheter stabilization device, which has a mechanism that anchors the catheter and prevents unnecessary movement within the vein, is the best way to stabi- lize the catheter. Numerous studies have reported greatly reduced complications when such devices A promethazine extravasation about five are used,19-23 and they’re now preferred, according weeks after the event. to the INS standards of practice.1 The use of hand boards may have decreased in the recent past because the Joint Commission has Flushing the catheter with normal saline while pal- stressed the importance of reducing the use of pating the site also makes detection of swelling at restraints.24 This concern is unfounded because the catheter tip easier. hand boards are not a form of physical restraint.1 Early recognition. Assessment of the site and A variety of taping techniques have been used to the venous pathway up the arm is critical to recog- stabilize catheters, but they’re all inadequate and nizing problems with catheterization. increase the risk of complications.23 Tape doesn’t An iv infusion should not be painful if the drug adhere well to the plastic cannula. In 74% of tape is diluted and slowly injected through a catheter that specimens tested in one hospital, pathogenic bacte- has been properly selected, inserted, and secured. ria contaminated the tape.25 Complex taping tech- Pain on injection is an immediate indication to stop. niques require nursing time that would be better Most severe complications occur because the infu- spent in other ways. In addition, tape may obscure sion continues while staff consider other explana- the iv site, preventing early detection of complica- tions for the pain. tions. The catheter dressing should be a transparent It’s the nurse’s responsibility to know the adverse membrane dressing, without excessive tape obscur- effects associated with each iv drug. Severe burning ing the insertion site and venous pathway. such as Ms. Henderson reported with each infusion Administration techniques. The patency of the of promethazine is a classic sign that the drug is catheter and vein should be assessed frequently so escaping into the subcutaneous tissue. The nurse that infiltration or extravasation can be prevented. should assess the neurovascular condition of the Before administering each dose of medication, the extremity as often as dictated by hospital policy, by nurse should visually inspect and palpate the site, checking for sensation, range of motion, capillary checking for vein cording, edema, skin tempera- refill, and pain. A rating scale, such as the one pub- ture, and tenderness or discomfort. During drug lished in the INS standards of practice,1 should be administration, the nurse should check the gravity used to document the severity of the problem. drip; slowing indicates possible infiltration. Extravasation is the most severe level of the scale. Each drug should be diluted in a separate syringe. When comparing the appearance and circumfer- When dilution is done either in a syringe or by slow ence of the two extremities, conduct the tourniquet injection through an infusing, compatible iv fluid, test if there is edema or any other reason to sus- according to recommendations from the drug man- pect possible infiltration. Place a tourniquet several ufacturer, the injection can be stopped if the patient inches proximal to the iv site and observe for complains of any problems. changes in the gravity flow rate. Compression of Check for a positive blood return using gentle the vein by the tourniquet will slow or stop the aspiration from the vein into the syringe. Slow or infusion when infiltration is not present. An unal- inadequate blood return could indicate a problem tered flow rate upon compression by the tourni- with the location of the catheter, although a small quet indicates that fluid is leaking into the vein with a large catheter may not produce ade- subcutaneous tissue.14 quate blood return—that is, brisk, free-flowing When infiltration or extravasation occurs, it’s return of blood rather than pink-tinged fluid. important to estimate the volume of infiltrated fluid. AJN M August 2007 M Vol. 107, No. 8 69
  7. 7. Table 2. Steps in the Management of Infiltration and Extravasation 1. Know your facility’s policy and procedure for infiltration lotoxins such as etoposide (VePesid). and extravasation. If your facility doesn’t have a • Use cold for hypertonic fluids and medications. detailed policy and procedure, work to establish one. • Choose either heat or cold, based on patient comfort, 2. Teach the patient and family the signs and symptoms of for isotonic or hypotonic fluids and medications. infiltration and extravasation. • Reapply compresses for 15 to 30 minutes every four to six hours for 24 to 48 hours. 3. Pay close attention to all patient complaints, and be prepared to act. 15. Estimate the volume of fluid or medication that escaped into the subcutaneous tissue according to the flow rate, 4. Know the location of all supplies or assembled kits the condition of the site in comparison with the previous needed to treat an infiltration or extravasation. observation, and the length of time between observations. 5. Use a transparent membrane dressing to ensure visibility 16. Notify the physician. Provide background information of insertion sites and venous pathways. such as additional risk factors, as well as your assess- 6. Assess the condition of a site, the patient’s reports of ment of the problem and recommendations for care. problems related to the catheter, and catheter dwell time 17. If indicated by the patient’s condition and the estimated before administering each dose of a vesicant medica- volume of escaped fluid, obtain physician orders for a tion. surgical consultation. 7. Aspirate until there is a brisk blood return before, dur- 18. If indicated by your facility’s policy, obtain physician ing, and after administration of each vesicant medica- orders for the appropriate antidote. Administer the anti- tion. dote, if indicated. 8. At the very first sign or symptom of infiltration or 19. Advise the patient to rest and elevate the extremity if it extravasation, immediately stop the infusion or injection. increases comfort. 9. Disconnect the administration set from the catheter hub 20. Provide the patient and family with written instructions and attach an empty 3- or 5-mL syringe. Attempt to aspi- on symptoms to report to the clinician, caring for the rate fluid from the catheter lumen. site, managing pain, and the plan for follow-up care. 10. Photograph the site to document the condition if that is 21. Document all of the following: in accordance with your facility’s policies and proce- • all fluids and medications involved dures. • estimated volume of fluids and medications that 11. For a problem involving a short peripheral catheter: escaped from the vein • Remove the dressing and withdraw the catheter. • the types of infusion methods used, such as manual • Use a dry gauze pad to control bleeding. Apply a injection from a syringe, gravity infusion, or an infu- dry dressing to the puncture site, but avoid applying sion pump excessive pressure on the area. • the type, size, and length of the catheter involved • Do not insert a new peripheral IV catheter distal to a • a complete description of the site, including anatomic site of infiltration or extravasation. location, size, color, and texture of the surrounding 12. For a problem involving a central venous catheter: area; the Infusion Nursing Standards of Practice rec- • Do not remove the catheter. Clamp and cap the ommend using a grading scale catheter hub. • the methods used to assess the site before administer- • Follow your facility’s procedure for flushing the ing vesicant medications (for example, the presence catheter when infiltration or extravasation is suspected. of blood return, the tourniquet test when using a grav- • When there is an implanted port, remove the port ity drip) access needle after aspiration and apply a dressing. • all signs and symptoms • Consult the physician about the need for a radi- • initial interventions (such as aspiration, catheter ographic study of the catheter to determine the cause removal, application of heat or cold) of the infiltration or extravasation. Assess the need for • notification of the physician and other consultations continuing IV therapy and plans for another central • use of antidotes, their dosages, and how they were venous catheter. administered • patient education regarding the event and follow-up 13. Assess motion, sensation, and capillary refill distal to care the injury. Measure the circumference of the extremity 22. Complete an unusual occurrence, incident, or sentinel and compare it with the opposite extremity. event report, as required by your facility’s policy and 14. Apply warm or cold compresses as appropriate for the procedure. fluid or medication that has escaped into the subcuta- neous tissue: Polovich M, et al., editors. Chemotherapy and biotherapy guidelines and rec- • Use heat for vinca alkaloids such as vinblastine ommendations for practice. 2nd ed. Pittsburgh, PA: Oncology Nursing Society; (Velban) or vincristine (Oncovin) and for epipodophyl- 2005; J Infus Nurs 2006;29(1 Suppl):S1-S92. 70 AJN M August 2007 M Vol. 107, No. 8
  8. 8. Base the estimate on the hourly flow rate and the that vasoconstriction localizes the drug to a limited length of time the patient has had the problem. area.3, 29, 32 Heat application is indicated for extravasa- Treatment. Immediate removal of the catheter is tion of two types of cancer chemotherapy: vinca essential when infiltration occurs. Often the nurse is alkaloids such as vinblastine (Velban) and vincristine hesitant to remove a questionable catheter, fearing (Oncovin) and epipodophyllotoxins such as etopo- that removal will take away venous access. This side (VePesid). Cold application is indicated for rationale is not appropriate, because a questionable infiltration or extravasation of hyperosmolar fluids. catheter site makes that vein unusable anyway. The use of heat in the management of infiltration Catheters allowed to remain in the vein could acci- has been the subject of several studies. After infil- dentally be used for infusion of another drug by tration of small amounts of 0.45% sodium chloride another nurse, increasing the risk to the patient. (hypoosmolar) and 3% sodium chloride (hyperos- Antidotes. The use of antidotes is controversial. molar) in healthy volunteers, the subcutaneous tissue The evidence is limited to case reports and animal was examined using magnetic resonance imaging at studies, and there are no reports at all for many 30-minute intervals.34 When applied to an infiltration drugs. When it’s a hospital’s policy and procedure to of hyperosmolar fluid, heat increased the area of administer an antidote, the questionable catheter induration and slowed reabsorption of the subcu- usually has been the preferred route to inject it, on taneous fluid. Heat had no impact on induration the theory that the antidote will follow the path and reabsorption of the hypoosmolar infiltration.33 of the extravasated fluid.3, 26 The most recent guide- A similar test evaluated the effect of elevating the lines of the Oncology Nursing Society in general do extremity by 4 in. Although hypoosmolar fluid not recommend antidotes for extravasation.2 A pres- infiltrates decreased in size and hyperosmolar sure dressing on the site should be avoided, because fluid infiltrates increased in size, elevation caused it could spread the fluid, causing contact with more no change in the rate of fluid reabsorption or symp- tissue.27 toms such as pain and volume of fluid in the subcu- Sodium bicarbonate has been used as an anti- taneous tissue. dote, but unsuccessfully; it actually destroys tissue. In Ms. Henderson’s case, applying heat to her Steroids have also been tried without success, prob- arm where hyperosmolar fluid had extravasated, a ably because there is no inflammatory response in treatment that was continued under a physician’s the subcutaneous tissue. Rather, tissue compression order, made the problem worse. is related to the volume of infiltrated fluid. Some cancer chemotherapy agents cause direct cellular POLICY AND PROCEDURE IMPROVEMENTS destruction, and several vasopressors cause vaso- All health care facilities should establish policies constriction, not inflammation.3, 28, 29 and procedures for preventing and managing infil- Phentolamine (Regitine) is indicated for extrava- tration and extravasation. There is no time to learn sation of vasopressors, because it reduces local vaso- the best methods once the complication occurs. The constriction and ischemia. A dose of 5 to 10 mg is INS standards of practice recommend developing diluted in 10 mL of normal saline and injected sub- an extravasation prevention plan that defines the cutaneously around the area after catheter removal. skills of nurses giving vesicant medications.1 It’s best when this is done immediately, but it should Following the INS national standards of practice be done at least within 12 hours after extravasation. would have created a better outcome for Ms. One problem is the limited availability of the drug Henderson. Complete documentation—including from the manufacturer. It is available only on an the exact location of each successful and unsuccess- allocation basis, and a hospital is allowed to keep ful venipuncture site, the method of stabilization, two boxes on hand.30 and the methods used to assess the site before each Hyaluronidase (Vitrase and others) has been drug administration—provides evidence that appro- used for the treatment of infiltration and extrava- priate measures are taken. Without this documenta- sation of many drugs. This protein enzyme breaks tion, many questions about safe practices are left down the cellular cement in the subcutaneous tis- unanswered, and the nurse’s liability increases. sue.3, 29, 31, 32 Several brands are available, including Most readily available drug references do not one recombinant product (Hylenex), which has contain complete information about iv administra- not been studied for use with infiltrations. tion. Drug handbooks specific to iv administration Heat and cold. The application of heat is based must be available and used to ensure that all the on the theory that vasodilation increases drug distri- correct steps are taken. bution and decreases drug accumulation in the local Nurses must stay current on recommendations tissue. The application of cold is based on the theory from advisory organizations such as the Institute for AJN M August 2007 M Vol. 107, No. 8 71
  9. 9. Safe Medication Practices (ISMP). For example, the 12. Kagel EM, Rayan GM. Intravenous catheter complications August 2006 issue of the ISMP Medical Safety Alert in the hand and forearm. J Trauma 2004;56(1):123-7. focused on actions needed to prevent serious injury 13. Hadaway L. Anatomy and physiology related to intravenous therapy. In: Hankins J, et al., editors. Infusion therapy in clin- from iv promethazine.11 Recommendations included ical practice. 2nd ed. St. Louis: W. B. Saunders; 2001. the use of alternative antiemetic medications such 14. Perdue M. Intravenous complications. In: Hankins J, et al., as ondansetron (Zofran), the removal of pro- editors. Infusion therapy in clinical practice. 2nd ed. St. Louis: W. B. Saunders; 2001. methazine from hospital formularies, and collabo- 15. Tagalakis V, et al. The epidemiology of peripheral vein infu- ration between the Food and Drug Administration sion thrombophlebitis: a critical review. 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