Chronology of the Restoration Updated July 2013


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Fall 2013 Logan Institute of Religion Church History Class and LDS World Travel Mormon and LDS Church History Tour July 2013

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Chronology of the Restoration Updated July 2013

  1. 1. 1 Church History Chronology and Stories Complied and Adapted by Doug Maughan Ed.D. For Religion 341-Spring 2013 Introduction [BYU Studies – Joseph Smith Chronology] Joseph Smith lived a remarkable life. His experiences were expansive, as evidenced in this chronology that introduces readers to the energetic pace and broad scope of concerns that characterized his daily activities. His endeavors ranged from the normal and mundane to the unpredictable and sublime. This chronology sheds light on the Prophet in the following areas: Personal Life, Visions and Revelations, Writings, Ecclesiastical Duties, Legal Events, Travels, and Political Events. Seeing his life as a single sequence helps readers to place the events of his life in context and to uncover various connections and patterns. This chronology lists events that can be tied to specific days or weeks. Of course, other events could be added, including many that cannot be tied down to specific dates. Each entry contains a brief summary along with references for further information. These sources are historical documents, most of which have been published, though a few reside only in archives. A close examination of this chronology yields interesting insights. For example, on December 25, 1832, Joseph Smith received a revelation (D&C 87) containing prophecies about wars, most notably the forthcoming American Civil War. Only three days later, the revelation known as the “Olive Leaf” (portions of D&C 88) was received, containing “the Lord’s message of peace to us.” On June 29, 1840, William W. Phelps wrote a letter to the Prophet, admitting the wrongs he had committed against him and asking for his forgiveness. Less than two weeks later, on July 11, Joseph Smith gave instructions to the high council
  2. 2. 2 about how to conduct disciplinary councils. Even if a cause-and-effect relationship cannot always be established between such events, these juxtapositions and continuities are revealing. The color-coding in this chronology helps categorize the Prophet’s activities and shows trends during these years. For example, in 1834, travel dominated Joseph’s life, as he was involved with Zion’s Camp; in 1835, entries related to Ecclesiastical Duties and writing activities occupied his life. In other years, such as 1842, his life was filled with a balance of activities from his many responsibilities. To see these trends in the color-coded categories presents a picture that mere words cannot convey. The outside margins of this chronology contain information to help place the Prophet in his era [entries are coded in black]. Some of these entries list his contemporaries, including several prominent politicians (Thomas Jefferson, Andrew Jackson), notable writers (Victor Hugo, Edgar Allan Poe), composers (Ludwig van Beethoven, Johann Strauss), artists (Carl Heinrich Bloch, George Catlin), scientists (Charles Darwin, James Joule), and philosophers (Georg Hegel, William James). Other entries highlight inventions from the early nineteenth century (the lawnmower was patented in 1830 and the ice cream freezer in 1843). These innovations had their beginnings in Joseph Smith’s time. Still other entries note nineteenth-century historical events, such as the deciphering of Egyptian hieroglyphs using the Rosetta Stone in 1822, the incorporation of the city of Chicago in 1837 (three years before the incorporation of Nauvoo), or the forced relocation of the Cherokees on the Trail of Tears beginning in May 1838 (just months before Missouri Governor Lilburn W. Boggs issued the Extermination Order to remove the Mormons from Missouri). Though much of this supplemental information can be found in history books and on the Internet, Chad M. Orton and William W. Slaughter have published a readily accessible and highly recommended study of Joseph Smith’s era that discusses many topics such as these.1 As extensive as this chronology already is, it is still a work in progress. A few dates and locations differ from what has been published in traditional histories because we have relied on primary sources for such information. Moreover, dozens of scholars are busily researching the Prophet’s life in connection with the Joseph Smith Papers Project. The series seeks to compile, annotate, and publish all known documents the Prophet wrote, dictated, or signed his name to. This research has located new documents and has added to our understanding of Church history. As further work is done, perhaps scholars will be able to pinpoint the dates of many other events in Joseph’s life for which reliable information is lacking today. 1 Chad M. Orton and William W. Slaughter, Joseph Smith’s America: His Life and Times (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 2005).
  3. 3. 3 And earlier version of this Joseph Smith chronology was published at in connection with the celebration of his bicentennial in 2005. On that website, still available, readers can search entries by day, month, and year. Also visitors may elect to receive daily emails showing Joseph Smith’s activities for that day. This issue of BYU Studies contains an updated and enhanced version of the online chronology. For example, a sampling of the Prophet’s many legal encounters has been added, stemming from the recent research by the editors of the forthcoming legal volumes in the Joseph Smith Papers—Gordon A. Madsen, Jeffrey N. Walker, John W. Welch, Morris A. Thurston, and Joseph I. Bentley. We express appreciation also to the Joseph Smith Papers Project, Dean C. Jessee, Larry C. Porter, Scott H. Faulring, Kelsey Draper Lambert, Alex Smith, Joseph Darowski, Kay Darowski, and many staff members at BYU Studies for their work on this chronology. “The fingerprints of God on the parchment of history, reveal a love story, fraught with enough faith, sacrifice and divine intervention, to ignite an everlasting flame of gratitude, and patriotism in the hearts of all who seek to understand the invisible hand of divine providence.” (Douglas Maughan , CES Utah North Area Inservice June 26, 2002) “I have always thought it helpful to the student to have an overview of the entire course to begin with. If he has an overview of the course or the subject, then the teacher can go back and fill in the details and a lot more will be taught. ♦ Teach Ye Diligently, Boyd K. Packer, 119 Ca. 1000 B.C. First Old Testament writings 300 B.C. Septuagint (Translation of the Old Testament into Greek) 130 B.C.
  4. 4. 4 The Hebrew language stops being used by the masses. Only the highly educated can read the Old Testament in Hebrew. The first major Bible translation is done. The Old Testament is translated into the language of the day, Greek. This translation is called, “The Septuagint.” This is the Bible most in the first century probably read, including Jesus. 50 B.C. Old Testament Canon Established 0-33AD The Life and Ministry of Jesus Christ He organized a church with a “foundation of the apostles and prophets” ♦ Ephesians 2:20, Articles of Faith 6; JST Eph. 2:18-19; Eph. 4:11-14 33 AD Martyrdom of the Apostles ♦ The Great Apostasy, James Talmage; Foxe’s Book of Christian Martyrs Judas committed suicide (Matt. 27:3-5) 54 AD Philip was scourged thrown into prison and afterwards crucified at Heliopolis in Phyrgia 60 AD Matthew was slain with a Halberd (battle axe) at Nadabah Ehtiopia
  5. 5. 5 ? James the Less was beaten and stoned by the Jews and had his brains dashed out with a fullers club ? Matthias (chosen to replace Judas) was stoned at Jerusalem, then beheaded ? Andrew (brother of Peter) was crucified at Edessa After 65 AD Mark was dragged to pieces in the streets of Alexandria 64-65 AD Peter crucified upside down in Rome Spring 65 AD Paul was beheaded at Rome by order of Nero 72 AD Thaddeus Crucified (Brother of James) at Edessa ?
  6. 6. 6 Matthew was beaten and crucified by impatient idolaters of India ? Thomas (called Didimus) preached in Parthia and India where exciting the rage of pagan priests, he was thrust through with a spear. ? Luke is supposed to have been hanged on an olive tree by the idolatrous priests of Greece. 74 AD Simon Zelotes was Crucified in Britain 73 AD Barnabas (we have no details) 90’s A.D. The last book of the New Testament, Revelation, is completed by John on the island of Patmos. The Old and New Testament are now complete. 100-382 A.D. The Gospel spreads like wild fire throughout the known world. These people all need the Bible. Hand-written copies of the New Testament in Greek are produced all over the world to try to keep up with all the new followers of Christ. Over 20,000 of these copies exist to this day.
  7. 7. 7 Still Alive John (see D&C 7) - History tells us that the venerable Apostle John who wrote the Book of Revelation, was sentenced by the Emperor Domitian of the Roman Empire, to be scalded to death in a cauldron of boiling oil; that this cruel sentence was carried out as fully as it was in the power of men to execute it. The cauldron of oil was heated to boiling heat, and the great apostle was submerged in the scalding fluid, but through Divine interposition he was delivered like Daniel from the “lion’s den,” and Shadrach, Meshack and Abednego from the “fiery furnace,” by the power of that God, whom he served and obeyed; so that he suffered no harm and simply looked like he had been anointed. The cruel Emperor was so enraged at this wonderful deliverance, that he instantly sentenced the doomed Apostle to banishment on the Isle of Patmos. ♦ Elder C.W.Stayner, Journal of Discourses, Vol. 20, 205; 100-1820 AD Evidences of the Great Apostasy Rejection and Removal of Priesthood Keys The Bible Ends and Manuscripts Corrupted Absence of Spiritual Gifts Primitive Church Organization lost Evils of the Great and Abominable Church Unenlightened kingdoms of the earth Retrogression of Civilization and Science 100-200 AD The Bible Ends and Manuscripts Corrupted During this long period of confusion Christianity could only be taught from handwritten manuscripts, which had been translated and laboriously copied from other languages than
  8. 8. 8 those with which the translator was familiar. It is unreasonable to suppose that at a much later period these manuscripts could be collected together, again translated and written by hand into our own language without error, or deviation from the original. ♦ Anthony W. Ivins, Relationship of "Mormonism" and Freemasonry, 64 How we Lost the Plain and Precious Truths: 24 And the angel of the Lord said unto me: Thou hast beheld that the book proceeded forth from the mouth of a Jew; and when it proceeded forth from the mouth of a Jew it contained the fulness of the gospel of the Lord, of whom the twelve apostles bear record; and they bear record according to the truth which is in the Lamb of God. 25 Wherefore, these things go forth from the Jews in purity unto the Gentiles, according to the truth which is in God. 26 And after they go forth by the hand of the twelve apostles of the Lamb, from the Jews unto the Gentiles, thou seest the formation of that great and abominable church, which is most abominable above all other churches; for behold, they have taken away from the gospel of the Lamb many parts which are plain and most precious; and also many covenants of the Lord have they taken away. 27 And all this have they done that they might pervert the right ways of the Lord, that they might blind the eyes and harden the hearts of the children of men. 28 Wherefore, thou seest that after the book hath gone forth through the hands of the great and abominable church, that there are many plain and precious things taken away from the book, which is the book of the Lamb of God.1 Nephi 13:24-27 (Ehartman Misquoting Jesus, Margret Barker- We have seen this pattern of uninspired purge before in the time of Josiah…) Promise of the Lord- 56 Thou shalt ask, and my scriptures shall be given as I have appointed, and they shall be preserved in safety; (D&C 42:56) Emma also carried with her the manuscripts of Joseph's translation of the Bible carried in two cotton bags and tied under her long skirt which she received from Ann Scott. Ann had received the manuscripts from the Prophet's secretary James Mulholland (James giving the manuscripts to Ann in hopes the mobs wouldn't search her).
  9. 9. 9 Understanding of Heavenly Fathers Plan was lost Baptism for the Dead (Moses 1:39) Whatever its source, the ancient church received it gladly, as it did another Jewish text attributed to Jeremiah and quoted by Justin and (no less than five times) by Irenaeus: "The Lord God hath remembered his dead among those of Israel who have been laid in the place of burial, and has gone down to announce to them the tidings of his salvation." ♦ Justin, Dialogue with Trypho 4, 6; in PG 6:645; Irenaeus, Against Heresies III, 20, 4; in PG 7:945; IV, 22; in PG 7:1046; IV, 33, 1; in PG 7:1208; it is also cited by Jerome, Commentarius in Evangelium Mattheum (Commentary on Matthew) 4, 27; in PL 26: 213. The Christians angrily accused the Jews of having expunged this passage from their scripture in order to damage the Christian cause, from which it would appear that the doctrine of salvation for the dead was a major issue in those early times, and a most precious possession of the church. ♦ Justin, Dialogue with Trypho 4, 6; in PC 6:645; cf. Jerome, Commentary on Matthew 4, 27; in PL 26:213. 150 AD Ptolemy: The earth is the center of the universe, and the sun and moon revolve around it. Such was the authoritative pronouncement of Ptolemy about 150 AD. His declaration was universally accepted. But there was one major problem: he was wrong absolutely wrong. Nonetheless, this theory of an earth centered universe flourished for fourteen hundred years as “gospel truth”. ♦ Tad Callister, The Inevitable Apostasy and Promised Restoration, 1, note p. 404-05. Pope Paul V declared, “That the earth moves daily is absurd, philosophically false and theologically at least erroneous in faith. J. Rueben Clark added, “this decree of Paul V was confirmed by Pope Urban VIII (1623-1644)” [On the Way to Immortality and Eternal Life, 337]. Even Martin Luther a opposed Copernicus and supported the Catholic viewpoint: “People give ear to an upstart astrologer who strove to show the earth revolves , not the heavens of firmament, the sun and the moon… This fool wishes to reverse the entire scheme of
  10. 10. 10 astrology; but sacred scripture tells us that Joshua commanded the sun to stand still not the earth.” ♦ Manchester, A World Lit Only By Fire, 117 “Darkness shall cover the earth and gross darkness the people” (Isa. 60:2). For centuries, disease was rampant and poverty reigned. The Black Death killed some 50 million people during the 14th century. Was not this a season of terrible peril? I wonder how humanity survived. But somehow, in that long season of darkness, a candle was lighted. The age of Renaissance brought with it a flowering of learning, art, and science. There came a movement of bold and courageous men and women who looked heavenward in acknowledgment of God and His divine Son. We speak of it as the Reformation.” ♦ President Gordon B. Hinckley, “The Dawning of a Brighter Day,” Ensign (CR), May 2004, 81 June 325 Council of Nicea - Emperor Constantine called the Nicea Council, held way back in 325 A.D. when 318 bishops spent four weeks in discussion and debate over the divinity and personality of Jesus Christ and God. Think of that! Their minds were confused and corrupted or else they would have followed the simple teachings of the scriptures and there would have been no need of their spending four weeks in debate to decide that question. The Creed of Nicea, the "incomprehensible mystery" of which its originators seemed so proud precisely because it could not be understood, substituted for the personal God of love and for Jesus of the New Testament an immaterial abstraction. 350 AD New Testament Canon Established 382-1500 AD The known world eventually stops using the Greek language in favor of Latin. In 405 A.D. Jerome translates the entire Bible into Latin in Bethlehem, it is known as the Vulgate. The Vulgate is the all-time most used Bible translation in human history. Used more than the original Greek and the King James Version.
  11. 11. 11 400-800 AD It is a well known historical fact that from about 400 to 800 A. D., a period known as the Dark Ages…there was a retrocession in the civilization of the Old World. Schools became almost extinct, war was continuous, literature was forgotten, priceless records were willfully destroyed, a chaotic condition pervaded the civilized world. Both the church and state were drunken with debauchery, licentiousness and unbridled ambition. During these centuries of confusion many different religious organizations, each professing to be the Church of Christ, had their origin. This confused condition continued until the period of the Renaissance, or Rebirth of Europe, under Henry I of Saxony, first of the Saxon kings. Anthony W. Ivins, Relationship of "Mormonism" and Freemasonry, 64 Retrogression of Civilization European sewage and sanitation regressed back to primitivism during this era. Human waste products were often thrown out the window and into the street or simply dumped in local rivers. (By contrast, ancient Rome had been significantly more advanced: “major cities of the Empire installed drainage systems to which latrines were connected”—and the “wealthy enjoyed such luxuries as indoor plumbing . . . even the indigent had access to public baths.”) With the streets strewn with garbage and running with urine and feces—and with the same horrifying conditions permeating the rivers and streams from which drinking water was drawn—vermin and germs multiplied, and disease of every kind, untreatable by the primitive medical knowledge of the day, proliferated. A Florentine writer of the era referred to it simply as “the exterminating of humanity.” Finally, the early Middle Ages witnessed a stupefying decline in levels of education and literacy from the Roman period. In the endemic warfare of the period, human beings lost the skill of writing and, largely, of reading. “In the time of Augustine’s youth [4th century AD] . . . even a Christian got a reasonably good classical education. A few generations later, literacy was a rarity even among the ruling classes.” For example, during the 8th century, Charlemagne maintained that even the clergy knew insufficient Latin to understand the Bible or to properly conduct Church services. ♦ Andrew Bernstein, The Tragedy of Theology: How Religion Caused and Extended the Dark Ages A Critique of Rodney Stark’s The Victory of Reason
  12. 12. 12 "Beyond the city walls, lawlessness reigned absolute. . . Highwaymen plied their trade . . . with near impunity. Soldiers, when not engaged in Crusades, dynastic feuds, or papal ambitions, periodically swelled the ranks of highwaymen. Only walls provided a town with effective protection against its lawless environs. Since walls were expensive, town life crammed itself into as little space as possible. The streets, nothing more than narrow, open sewers, teemed with townspeople and disease; the first demographers documented death rates from infectious diseases that were twice as high inside the walls as they were outside. "Most people lived in tiny villages and worked small adjacent fields. Not until 1500 did farmers clear the wolf-infested forests. Everyone, from toddlers to the aged, performed backbreaking field work, usually unaided by the plow. Until A.D. 900, it was the rare peasant who could afford to harness horses and oxen with collars for fieldwork. "The squalor of medieval dwellings was unimaginable. According to the greatest of all Renaissance humanists, Erasmus of Rotterdam, 'Almost all the floors are of clay and rushes from the marshes, so carelessly renewed that the foundation sometimes remains for twenty years, harboring, there below, spittle and vomit and wine of dogs and men, beer . . . remnants of fishes, and other filth unnamable. Hence, with the change of weather, a vapor exhales which in my judgment is far from wholesome.' "Families slept together in one foul bed, and chimneys were almost unknown. Soot covered the walls of all but the newest huts. Lack of proper exhaust resulted in house fires that brought roaring death to large numbers of villagers, particularly women, who, clad in highly flammable dresses, tended wood-fired pits and stoves. "The past few paragraphs describe the circumstances of peasants who were relatively well-off. The less fortunate had little or no shelter at all. In the subsistence-level pre-modern society, famine and pestilence knocked constantly at the door. During times of extreme famine, cannibalism was not unknown; travelers were occasionally killed for their flesh, and there were even reports of gallows being attacked for sustenance. "Pestilence regularly engulfed the continent. The most famous episode occurred in 1347 . . . Within a few decades it [bubonic plague] had killed nearly one in three Europeans.” ♦ William Berenstien, Birth of Plenty 597 AD St. Augustine of Canterbury lands at Kent
  13. 13. 13 700 AD The Psalms and some of the Gospels are the first to be translated in a new language called English. 735 AD On the day he died a man named Venerable Bede finishes the first complete translation of a New Testament book into English (the book of John). 1066 AD Norman Invasion 1213 AD King John of England Surrenders to the Pope
  14. 14. 14 The Reformation and Age of Discovery A Candle lit in Darkness (No Modern light)… Prelude to the Restoration—Eph. 1:9-10; D&C 5:10; Dan. 2:44; Moses 7:58-62; 1 Ne. 13:10, 13, 15-16, 17, 18-20; 1 Ne. 13:35-40; 1 Ne.14:25-26; D&C 107:56; Ether 3:25-26; Joel 2:28-29; Isa. 2:1-2; Isa. 29; Isa. 49:1; Dan 7; Ezekiel 37:15-17; Gen. 49:26 1225-1274 Thomas Aquinas , the supreme theologian of Catholicism, was born near Naples in 1225 to a noble family, he was enrolled in the Benedictine monastery of Monte Cassino at the tender age of five, and at seventeen became a Dominican novice. Soon after this he was kid- napped and detained for nearly two years by his own brothers. At the instigation of his mother, they tried to turn him away from his vocation, and even tempted him with a woman. He drove her from his room with a brand snatched from the fire. After more than a year and a half of captivity, it became apparent that he would not relent, and he was released back to the Dominicans. After studies in Naples and Paris he was appointed as a master at the University of Paris in 1257. His period of writing was a brief sixteen years, but extraordinarily productive. On December 6 1273, while celebrating mass in the chapel of St Nicholas in Naples, he had a heavenly revelation: “I can do no more. Such things have been revealed to me that all that I have written seems to me as so much straw.” From that day he wrote no more. He died shortly afterwards, on March 7, 1274, at the age of 49. (Consider also Galileo, see Eph. 1:9-10; D&C 5:9-10) 1269 The Age of Discovery: The Polos stayed in Kubilai's court for a year- answering his questions about the rulers of Europe and the Christian religion. Kubilai Khan became sufficiently intrigued by Christianity to dispatch them back to Europe with a request to the Pope for 100 doctors of divinity to teach him and his people about this strange religion. In addition the Khan, who was a great collector of religious relics of all kinds, asked them to bring back a sample of holy oil from
  15. 15. 15 Jerusalem. When the Polos arrived back in Europe they found that Pope Gregory had died and the religious situation was in a disarray. Finally after numerous arrangements for acquiring religious instructors fell through, the brothers concluded they had no choice but to return to Cathay and explain their failure to the Khan. However, according to researcher Richard Humble, they were able to obtain the holy oil he had requested, a feat which much impressed the Khan and deepened his trust in them (Marco Polo 111). 1305 “Babylonian Captivity” of the Papacy begins 1316-1334 The Sale of Indulgences Under John XXII "Bishops and cardinals amassed fabulous fortunes from the sale of tithes and indulgences. . . . John XXII, who wore the papal tiara from 1316 to 1334, exhibited a legendary appetite for gold cloth and fur. [that's right - cloth made of gold!] Noble families purchased appointments to the priesthood for small children, and twenty-year-old archbishops were not unknown. Of 624 papal dispensations of legitimacy granted in 1342-43, 484 went to the offspring of clergy. In parts of sixteenth-century England, the clergy were indicted for almost a quarter of all sex crimes, more than ten times their proportion of the population. From Birth of Plenty, 33-34 1327 Accession of Edward the III 1328
  16. 16. 16 Birth of John Wycliffe born in the village of Hipswell in the North Riding of Yorkshire, England. 1329-84 John Wycliffe—English reformer who opposed the Catholic Church and the doctrine of transubstantiation. He felt that priests were not needed to mediate with God for people and initiated the translation of the Latin Vulgate Bible into English. (The Wycliffe Bible) Vernacular Bible Some paid whatever they could for the scriptures in English, “to taste the sweetness of God’s Holy Word…Some paid more, some paid less: some gave a load of hay for few chapters of St. Paul or St. James. Thousands (perhaps tens of Thousands) read of went into secret readings of them. . . . (Benson Bobrick, Wide as the Waters, The Story of the English Bible and the Revolution it Inspired, 73) 1338 Hundred years war begins 1347-1350 The Bubonic Plague—Between 1347 and 1350, for example, the bubonic plague—the infamous “Black Death”—spread by the fleas that infest rats, ravaged Western Europe, obliterating roughly 20 million people, fully one-third of the human population. Norman Cantor, the leading contemporary historian of the Middle Ages, states: “The Black Death of 1348–49 was the greatest biomedical disaster in European and possibly in world history.” 1374-1415
  17. 17. 17 Jan Hus—Was a Martyr for the cause of reformation and Czech Nationalism. Stressed the role of scripture as authoritative for doctrine; defended the clergy but taught that only God can forgive sin. He condemned the corruptness of the clergy and the sale of indulgences. He embraced the teachings of Wycliffe and taught the gospel as he understood it from the scriptures. He was burned at the stake because of his religious beliefs, proclaiming "What I taught with my lips I now seal with my blood."2 . (Elder M. Russell Ballard, The Tapestry of God’s Hand Joseph Smith Memorial Fireside, Logan Institute of Religion – February 13, 2011) 1378 Great Schism begins 1381 Peasants’ revolt 1382-84 John Wycliffe, a theology professor at Oxford, is fired for believing the Bible rather than the Pope is our ultimate authority. Because of this conviction Wycliffe and his followers produced the first complete Bible in English. Wycliffe died of a stroke the same year his Bible was completed. The Wycliffe Bible is a translation from the Latin Vulgate. Associates of Wycliffe, after his death, finish his translation. The Church at the time said only the priests can rightly interpret the Bible so it was illegal to have the Bible in a language other than Latin. Many of Wycliffe’s associates were burned at the stake with their English translations tied around their necks. 1395 Wycliffe Bible Second Edition 2 see Martyrs, 140-143
  18. 18. 18 1401 Act De Haeretico Comburendo; (2 Hen.4 c.15) was a law passed by Parliament under King Henry IV of England in 1401, punishing heretics with burning at the stake. This law was one of the strictest religious censorship statutes ever enacted in England. The statute declared there were "...divers false and perverse people of a certain new sect...they make and write books, they do wickedly instruct and inform people...and commit subversion of the said catholic faith". The sect alluded to is the Lollards, followers of John Wycliffe. De heretico comburendo urged "...that this wicked sect, preachings, doctrines, and opinions, should from henceforth cease and be utterly destroyed...", and declared "...that all and singular having such books or any writings of such wicked doctrine and opinions, shall really with effect deliver or cause to be delivered all such books and writings to the diocesan of the same place within forty days from the time of the proclamation of this ordinance and statute." "And if any person...such books in the form aforesaid do not deliver, then the diocesan of the same place in his diocese such person or persons in this behalf defamed or evidently suspected and every of them may by the authority of the said ordinance and statute cause to be arrested...". If they failed to abjure their "heretical" beliefs, or relapsed after an initial abjuration, they would " burnt, that such punishment may strike fear into the minds of others..."( Text of the Statutes of the Realm, 2:12S-28: 2 Henry IV). 1408 A law is passed in England banning the translation of the Bible into English. 1412 Joan of Arc—It was around 1424, when she was 12, that Joan said she began to have visions. ♦ James E. Faust, “Personal Epiphanies,” Fireside address was given at Brigham Young University on 7 January 1996.
  19. 19. 19 1415 Council of Constance condemns Wycliffe as a heretic –They gave orders for his bones to be dug up and burned; Jan Hus is burned at the stake. The Council of Constance declared Wycliffe (on 4 May 1415) a stiff-necked heretic and under the ban of the Church. It was decreed that his books be burned and his remains be exhumed. The exhumation was carried out in 1428 when, at the command of Pope Martin V, his remains were dug up, burned, and the ashes cast into the River Swift, which flows through Lutterworth. 1428 – 1444 Years after Wycliffe died his bones were exhumed and burned for having translated the Bible into English (they were really mad). “To Lutterworth they come, Sumner, Commissarie, Official, Chancellour, Proctors, Doctors, and the Servants … take, what was left, out of the grave, and burnt them to ashes, and cast them into Swift a Neighbouring Brook running hard by. Thus this Brook hath conveyed his ashes into Avon; Avon into Severn; Severn into the narrow Seas; they, into the main Ocean. And thus the Ashes of Wickliff are the Emblem of his Doctrine, which now, is dispersed all the World over.” To make sure the skull and bones were burned to ashes, the executioner broke them up with a mattock. At last the ashes were carefully swept into a barrow and taken to the little bridge and cast into the Swift, a tributary of the Avon.The vexation was deep. And old The Catholic Church understood exactly what Wycliffe’s presence meant, that there was something insidious and unstoppable about this trouble making little man. (David Teems, Majestie: The King behind the King James Bible, P.220-222) 1440-1455 Johannes Gutenberg invents the Printing Press with moveable type. It is no longer necessary to make hand-written copies of the Bible.
  20. 20. 20 1453 Fall of Constantinople to the Turks 1455 First printing of the Latin Bible with moveable type. 1456 Gutenberg Bible—A Latin Bible produced at Mainz, Germany. First book produced in moveable metal type. First bible that could be mass produced. Within just fifty years of his first press, over twelve million books had been printed in more than one thousand print shops. Five years after his invention , he was forced into bankruptcy. He died in relative obscurity about ten years later. ♦ Keith Wilson, From Gutenburg to Grandin, Prelude to the Restoration, 269-285 1483-1546 Martin Luther—Great German Reformer. In 1517 the spirit of Christ moved upon a Catholic priest living in Germany. Martin Luther was among the growing number of thoughtful clergymen who were disturbed by how far the church had strayed from the gospel as taught by Christ. Luther created a good deal of controversy when he publicly called for reformation by posting on his church door in Wittenberg a list of issues that he felt needed to be debated. He organized a church that abolished confession, and he translated the New Testament into German while in exile. Spoke against Holy Relics and worshipping saints. When Luther was ordered to give up his work, he boldly declared: “Unless I be refuted by Scriptural testimonies, or by clear arguments—for I believe neither the Pope nor the councils alone, since it is clear that they have often erred and contradicted one another—I am convinced by the passages of Scripture, which I have cited, and my conscience is bound in the word of God. I cannot and will not recant anything; since it is insecure and dangerous to act against conscience.” He died from an illness following exposure to icy weather. Martyrs, 159-166
  21. 21. 21 Dieter F. Uchtdorph In fact, my son recently discovered that one of our family lines connects back to Martin Luther himself. 1481-1808 Martyrdom of Rank and file Christians 4 And it came to pass that I saw among the nations of the Gentiles the formation of a great church. 5 And the angel said unto me: Behold the formation of a church which is most abominable above all other churches, which slayeth the saints of God, yea, and tortureth them and bindeth them down, and yoketh them with a yoke of iron, and bringeth them down into captivity. 6 And it came to pass that I beheld this great and abominable church; and I saw the devil that he was the founder of it. 7 And I also saw gold, and silver, and silks, and scarlets, and fine-twined linen, and all manner of precious clothing; and I saw many harlots. 340,0000 tortured; 32,000 burned at the stake; nations captive to false doctrine and priest- crafts . . .♦ E. Ward, The Hand of Providence, 121 1484-1531 Huldreich Zwingli—Swiss reformer. Died in battle against the Catholics, he rejected much of Catholicism and Lutheranism, he believed that Christ was spiritually present at the Eucharist and that the secular ruler had a right to act in church matters. 1492-1536 William Tyndale— Educated at Oxford and Cambridge, he felt the only way to bring his countrymen to an understanding of the word of God was "if the Scripture were turned into the vulgar speech, that the poor people might read and see the simple, plain Word of God." He was denounced as a heretic and fled to Germany to complete the English translation of
  22. 22. 22 the Bible and have it printed. (Elder M. Russell Ballard, The Tapestry of God’s Hand Joseph Smith Memorial Fireside, Logan Institute of Religion – February 13, 2011) Sailing from Antwerp to Hamburg off the Coast of Holland, Tyndale lost the first five books of his Old Testament translation when he was shipwrecked. He had to start over. (Wilcox, Fire in the Bones; p.126) He was arrested near Brussels, Belgium, in 1535 and condemned by Sir Thomas Moore and the Church of England. He was imprisoned for 18 months before being strangled by the hangman and his body burned.3 William Tyndale, who gave us the first printed English Bible, was brought before the church after having been betrayed by a supposed friend, strangled, and then burned at the stake. Such has been the fate of many martyrs who have dared declare the truth to a bigoted and unbelieving world. Hugh Latimer & Bishop Ridley Perhaps you have heard of the valiant protestor by the name of Hugh Latimer. He was an English reformer who was educated at the University of Cambridge. He was tried and condemned. There was another protestor or reformer by the name of Bishop Ridley who was also tried and condemned. He and Bishop Latimer were brought together and asked to recant their cries for people to be able to read the Bible in their common language. They refused. While tied at the stake, their last recorded words were these as Bishop Latimer turned to his companion Bishop Ridley and said: "Be of good comfort, Master Ridley, and play the man. We shall this day light such a candle, by God's grace, in England, as I trust shall never be put out." At that point, the wood was torched, and the two men gave their lives.4 He became very active in the promulgation of his ideas and the sale of his publications. The Church forbade the publication of the scriptures, declaring both the writings and doctrines taught by Tyndale to be heretic. His reply was: "I defy the Pope and all his laws," and 3 see Martyrs, 176-184 4 see Martyrs, 233-237
  23. 23. 23 declared that if God would spare his life he would make the plow-boy to know more of the scriptures than the Pope himself knew. Reformers did not restore the gospel “Such were the teachings and lives of the great reformers. Their deeds were heroic, their contributions many, their sacrifices great—but they did not restore the gospel of Jesus Christ.” —President Thomas S. Monson, First Counselor in the First Presidency, “They Showed the Way,” Ensign, May 1997, 51. 1492 Christopher Columbus… “The spirit of God came down and wrought upon the man ♦ 1 Nephi 13 “The Lord was well disposed to my desire, and he bestowed upon me courage and understanding. Knowledge of . . . the Lord unlocked my mind, sent me upon the sea, and gave me fire for the deed. Those who heard of my enterprise called it foolish, mocked me and laughed. But who can doubt but that the Holy Ghost inspired me? ♦ Boston: Little, Brown, and Co., 1930, pp.19-20; 1 Ne.13 “God will cause thy name to be wonderfully resounded throughout the earth; and will give thee the keys to the ocean which are held with strong chains.” ♦ J. H. Ward, The Hand of Providence, 1883, 80 1517 October 31, 1517 A young Roman Catholic monk named Martin Luther challenges the church hierarchy of his day, like Wycliffe, by nailing his 95 theses to the church doors in Wittenberg, Germany. This act sparks the Protestant Reformation. Part of the reformation passion is allowing every person to read the Bible in their own language. Martin Luther translates the Bible into German for his country.
  24. 24. 24 1488 Birth of Miles Coverdale Ca. 1495 Birth of William Tyndale 1509 Ascension of Henry the VIII 1509-64 John Calvin—Genevan reformer. He devoted much of his energy to settling differences with Protestantism; claimed that even before the Creation God chose some of his creations for salvation and others for destruction. 1505-72 John Knox—He helped awaken Scotland to Lutheranism; studied under Calvin; attacked the Papacy, the Mass and the Catholic Idolatry; consolidated the Scot’s reformation with his writings. 1516 Erasmus’ edition of the New Testament 1517 Publication of Luther’s thesis on indulgences
  25. 25. 25 1522 Commentary—Pope Adrian VI to the Diet of Nuremburg “At every level of church life…there were signs of grave disorganization and decay.”…every thing could be obtained for money…however hurtful it might be to the general welfare of the Church”. ♦ Benson Bobrick, Wide as the Waters, The Story of the English Bible and the Revolution it Inspired, 31 8 And the angel spake unto me, saying: Behold the gold, and the silver, and the silks, and the scarlets, and the fine-twined linen, and the precious clothing, and the harlots, are the desires of this great and abominable church. 9 And also for the praise of the world do they destroy the saints of God, and bring them down into captivity. 1 Nephi 13:4 – 9 Francesco Petrarch (a devout Catholic) described the Papal court as, “a receptacle of all that is most wicked and abominable. What I tell you is not from hearsay, but from my own knowledge and experience. In this city there is no piety, no reverence or fear of God, no faith, no charity, nothing that is holy, just, equitable, or humane.” ♦ Benson Bobrick, Wide as the Waters, The Story of the English Bible and the Revolution it Inspired, 34 1524-25 Peasants’ war in Germany 1525 William Tyndale, educated at Oxford and Cambridge and fluent in at least 6 languages including ancient Hebrew and Greek, completes a translation of the New Testament into English. He flees England to complete his translation in the friendlier protestant land of Germany. This is the first English translation of the New Testament produced from the original Greek.
  26. 26. 26 1529 Sir Thomas Moore becomes Chancellor of England 1530 Tyndale’s Pentateuch 1533 Henry the VIII marries Anne Boleyn; Thomas Cranmer becomes archbishop of Canterbury 1534 Act of Supremacy; The first Act of Supremacy was a piece of legislation that granted King Henry VIII of England Royal Supremacy, which means that he was declared the supreme head of the Church of England. It is still the legal authority of the Sovereign of the United Kingdom. Royal Supremacy is specifically used to describe the legal sovereignty of the civil laws over the laws of the Church in England. 1535 Thomas Cromwell becomes Chancellor; Coverdale’s Bible 1536 Tyndale famously says he wishes a plowboy to know as much about God as the Pope. Tyndale is burned at the stake for translating the Bible into English. His dying words are, “Lord, open the King of England’s eyes!” Tyndale’s translation was so good 90% of it would reappear in the King James Version (the King of England’s Version). 1537 Matthew’s Bible
  27. 27. 27 1539 An English translation called The Great Bible appears to try to give churches at least one English Bible in their possession. It is named “Great” because of its very large size. Act of Six Articles. 1540 Execution of Thomas Cromwell 1543 Nicolaus Copernicus (German: Nikolaus Kopernikus; in his youth, Niclas Koppernigk; Polish: Mikołaj Kopernik; Italian: Nicolò Copernico; 19 February 1473 – 24 May 1543) was a Renaissance astronomer and the first to formulate a comprehensive heliocentric cosmology, which displaced the Earth from the center of the universe. 1546 Ann Askew There were women protestors who were heroic. You may have heard the name of Ann Askew. Ann Askew was the daughter of Sir William Askew, the Knight of Lincolnshire. Listen to what she said: "I had rather to read five lines in the Bible, than to hear five masses in the temple. . . because the one did greatly edify me, and the other nothing at all." The King sent one of his representatives with a pardon for her if she would recant her beliefs. She answered that she had not come to deny her Lord and Master. Ann Askew was burned at the stake in 1546. Martyrs, 228 1547 Accession of Edward the VI
  28. 28. 28 1552 Book of Common Prayer 1553 Accession of Mary Tudor 1556 Cranmer Burned at the Stake 1559 Accession of Elizabeth I Acts of Supremacy and Uniformity 1560 The Geneva Bible becomes the first English Bible where the entire Bible (not just the New Testament) is translated from the original Greek AND Hebrew. It is also the first translation done by a committee of people. At the end of the 1500’s England was torn between two Bible translations. Most people used the Geneva Bible but the clergy felt it was below them to use the commoners Geneva Bible. A solution was needed. 1563 Thirty-nine Articles; John Foxe’s Book of Martyrs 1568 Bishops’ Bible
  29. 29. 29 1582 Rheims (Douai) New Testament 1587 Execution of Mary Queen of Scott’s 1603 Queen Elizabeth dies and King James VI, who had ruled Scotland for 37 years, becomes King James I of England. 1604 Hampton Court Conference; King James summons the religious leaders of England together to settle on a common English translation that can be used by both clergy and the masses. 47 men stationed at Oxford, Cambridge and Westminster Abbey worked on the translation from original Greek and Hebrew manuscripts. The translators, additionally, relied heavily on the Tyndale and Geneva Bibles. Nearly 90% of Tyndale’s New Testament translation was used in the King James Version. 1605 Gunpowder plot; Gunpowder Treason Plot, or the Jesuit Treason, was a failed assassination attempt against King James I of England and VI of Scotland by a group of provincial English Catholics led by Robert Catesby. 1607 Founding of Jamestown (The Light and the Glory) 1609-10
  30. 30. 30 Douai Old Testament 1611 The King James Version, known in England as the Authorized Version, is published for the first time. The purpose of the translators was not to make an entirely new translation of the Bible but, “to make a good one better, or out of many good ones, one principal good one.” 1620 Pilgrims land at Plymouth Rock ; The Lord was writing the story of the restoration and the birth of this nation long before the ink was dry on the parchment of the Mayflower compact. Hidden among those signatures were men and women whose foreordained descendant’s would fulfill the prophecies of the ancients, revolutionize religious and political thought, and change the course of history forever. God had his eyes upon these families from before the foundations of the earth. One of Gordon B. Hinckley’s ancestors, Stephen Hopkins, sailed on the Mayflower in 1620; he was the fourth signature on the Mayflower compact. (Note: Thomas Hinckley, progenitor of President Hinckley, became governor of Plymouth colony.) Seven of Joseph Smith’s progenitors sailed with the Pilgrims on the Mayflower; three of the seven signed the Mayflower Compact which contained the words “in the Name of God”. This would prove the beginning of American Religious Democracy. The Saints had arrived at the Peninsula of Living Waters. The first Hinckley to arrive in America was Samuel Hinckley, in 1635, fifteen years after the Mayflower’s landing at Plymouth bay. Samuel’s son, Thomas, would become the Governor of the Plymouth Colony from 1681-1692. He was considered “a man of more than ordinary ability and influence.” ♦ Governors of New Plymouth, 202 During their Atlantic voyage, John, fifth great grandfather of the Prophet Joseph, narrowly escaped drowning at sea. During a violent storm, the Mayflower was pitching and rolling with the waves. Young John was walking above the gratings on deck, and his youthful body was hurled into the briny sea. “But it pleased God,” wrote the ‘Pilgrim Chronicler’ “that he caught hold of the top sail Hilliard’s which hung overboard.” Holding with a vice like grip to the rope, he was plunged into the water. In the fury of the storm he hung on until some of his friends managed to rescue him by pulling him back into the boat. For days he suffered
  31. 31. 31 after this harrowing experience. The ship finally arrived in Cape Cod on a Saturday. However they did not disembark until Monday so they could worship God on Sunday, “Him whom they had come to trust and serve.” As a youth John Howland was a servant of John Carver, first governor of Plymouth colony. John Howland died at Plymouth in February 1673. In his words he described why he had come to America: “to keep a good conscience and to walk in such a way as God has prescribed in His words is the thing to which I prefer to life itself.” ♦ Walter C. Erdman, Sources of Power in Famous Lives, (Nashville Cokesbury Press, 1937) 1630 Founding of Boston 1631 The Wicked Bible, sometimes called The Adulterous Bible or The Sinners' Bible, is a term referring to the Bible published in 1631 by Robert Barker and Martin Lucas, the royal printers in London, which was meant to be a reprint of the King James Bible. The name is derived from the compositors' mistake: the word not in the sentence "Thou shalt not commit adultery" was omitted, thus changing the sentence into "Thou shalt commit adultery". 1632 John Lathrup arrested, fettered and confined to the Newgate prison in Egerton England. Reverend Lathrup was a minister in the town of Egerton in the early 17th century. When he could no longer assent to what was taught by the Church of England, he became the leader to a large group of “Seekers,” so called because they were seeking for the a religion which taught the faith of the ancients with apostles, prophets, the Holy Ghost and a fulness of the truths found in the scriptures. The seekers who followed Lathrup were called Independents. For eight years they met in London until the persecution got so bad they could no longer meet publicly. The hiding place of the Independents was discovered by the Bishop of London. During the beginning of the evening service of Rev. Lathrup, the officers of the state church of London rushed in and arrested Rev. Lathrup and 42 members of the Independent faith. They were fettered and taken to the old Clink Prison in Newgate. Two
  32. 32. 32 years later all were released except Rev. Lathrup. While he languished in the filthy old prison his wife succumbed to a terminal sickness. He was allowed to see her before her death and provide tender comfort as she passed away. After his wife’s internment he returned to the loathsome confinement of the Clink Prison. His children were now left without a father or mother, orphaned, wretched and starving, and uncared for by the community, perhaps because of the threat of state reprisal. When their destitute circumstances were made known to the Bishop of London, he had sympathy on John and released him. Rev. Lathrup fled with his children to America where he could worship God according to the dictates of his own conscience. In New England he became widely known as the “Beloved Pastor.” ♦ Archibald F. Bennett, Lathrup Genealogy, The Utah Genealogical and Historical Magazine, Salt Lake City, Utah: The Utah genealogical Society, April 1929, 49-51 1638 Robert Smith. Joseph Smith’s first paternal ancestor to leave England for America, arrived in Massachusetts ♦ Joseph Smith and the Restoration, 15 1660’s The King James Bible is not immediately a success. It takes 50 years for the King James to surpass the Geneva Bible as the English Bible used by most people. The King James Version has endured the test of time. It has been referred to as, “the single greatest monument to the English language.” What makes the King James so good? In one word, elegance. It is not the most accurate, but it is the most beautiful. Since 1611 the KJV has been “fixed” about 100,000 times to give us the translation of the KJV we have today. Almost all of these “fixes” are minor spelling and punctuation changes. It is impossible to gauge how many King James Bibles have been sold; estimates are simply in the hundreds of millions. The King James will be the leading English Bible translation for more than 300 years until being surpassed in the late 1900’s by the New International Version (NIV) 1669
  33. 33. 33 John Mack, Joseph Smith’s first maternal ancestor to leave England for America, arrived in Massachusetts 1681-1692 Governor of Plymouth Colony is Thomas Hinckley, ancestor of Gordon B. Hinckley, who married Ruth Merrick, great grand-daughter of Stephen Hopkins who sailed on the Mayflower in 1620 at age 35. He was the fourteenth signer of the Mayflower compact. 1686 King James II revokes the Massachusetts Bay Colony’s Charter and installs Sir Edmunds Andros as Governor. 1689 Bostonians force Governor Andros to resign 1734 First Awakening 1756-1763 Seven Years War (French and Indian War) drains the British Treasury 1761 James Otis argues against the writs of assistance in a court trial at the Old State House.
  34. 34. 34 1763 Faneuil Hall is dedicated to the “Cause of Liberty” by Otis 1765 Stamp Act passed. The Stamp Act of 1765 (short title Duties in American Colonies Act 1765; 5 George III, c. 12) was the fourth Stamp Act to be passed by the Parliament of Great Britain and required all legal documents, permits, commercial contracts, newspapers wills, pamphlets, and playing cards in the American colonies to carry a tax stamp. The Act was enacted in order to defray the cost of maintaining the military presence protecting the colonies. Britain also needed money to repay the suppliers from the War, which had been very costly, even though Great Britain had been victorious in 1763 (see Treaty of Paris (1763). Riots occur in Boston and other cities. An effigy of the stamp agent, Andrew Oliver, was hanged and then burned; his home was broken into, and his office, along with the stamps, was burned. The mob even went on to vandalize the home of Lieutenant Governor Thomas Hutchinson, destroying records and forcing him and his family to seek refuge at Fort William. (The elm tree used to hang Oliver's effigy later became known as the "Liberty Tree" (Wikipedia). The Stamp Act was Parliament's first serious attempt to assert governmental authority over the colonies. Great Britain was faced with a massive national debt following the Seven Years War. That debt had grown from £72,289,673 in 1755 to £129,586,789 in 1764* 1766 Stamp Act Repealed; great celebrations 1767 Townsend Acts Passed; Taxes on glass, paint, oil, lead, paper, and tea were applied with the design of raising £40,000 a year for the administration of the colonies. The result was the resurrection of colonial hostilities created by the Stamp Act. Reaction assumed revolutionary proportions in Boston, in the summer of 1768, when customs officials
  35. 35. 35 impounded a sloop owned by John Hancock, for violations of the trade regulations. Crowds mobbed the customs office, forcing the officials to retire to a British warship in the Harbor. Troops from England and Nova Scotia marched in to occupy Boston on October 1, 1768. Bostonians offered no resistance. Rather they changed their tactics. They established non- importation agreements that quickly spread throughout the colonies. British trade soon dried up and the powerful merchants of Britain once again interceded on behalf of the colonies; non importation boycott begins. 1768 June 10 John Hancock’s ship Liberty is seized in a disagreement over payment of customs duties; Violent protests against unpopular British taxes. October 1 The British arrive in Boston to maintain order. 1770 Boston Massacre occurred when royal troops fired on a belligerent crowd. 1772 Committees of Correspondence formed to oppose “despotism” of Gov. Hutchinson in a dispute over his salary. 1773 Tea Act December 16 Boston Tea Party
  36. 36. 36 1774 “Intolerable Acts” passed to punish Boston for the destroyed tea closed the town’s port and abolished all elected popular government. Gen. Thomas Gage was appointed Governor by King George III ; patriots practice military art and organize the Minute Men. September The First Continental Congress Meets in Philadelphia The American Revolution 1775 April 19, 1775 Lexington and Concord British troops march to Concord to seize rebel supplies. Alarm by Paul Revere and William Dawes (Robert Newman). The minute men stand on Lexington Green. After the Boston Tea Party, the confrontation on Lexington Green. On the morning after Paul Revere’s famous midnight ride, the “shot heard round the world” unleashed in Lexington and Concord later that day sparked the American Revolution. Siege of Boston begins ♦ Richard Neitzel Holzapfel , Old Palmyra, 32 June 17, 1775 The Battle of Bunker Hill. Americans fortify Charlestown overlooking Boston from the North. The British suffer over 1000 casualties as they take the American’s fort. July 2, 1775 Gen. George Washington arrives at Cambridge to take command of the Continental Army. 1776 January 1776
  37. 37. 37 Common Sense was first published anonymously by Thomas Paine. It is regarded as the most influential piece of literature leading to the American Revolution. Paine wrote that “We have it in our power to begin the world over again.” March 4-5, 1776 Americans fortify Dorchester Heights, overlooking Boston from the south. March 17, 1776 Evacuation Day the British troops and government officials and loyalists sail out of Boston. Harbor, never to return. July 4, 1776 Declaration of Independence signed and adopted in Philadelphia. July 8, 1776 Personal Life—Birth of Lucy Mack 1781 Battle of Yorktown 1776-83 American Revolution 1783 May 18, 1783 Martin Harris is born 1787
  38. 38. 38 The Constitution of the United States 1791 The Bill of Rights 1796 January 24, 1796 Personal Life—Joseph Smith Sr. married Lucy Mack 1797 Second Awakening: 1800 - 7% of American’s belong to an organized religion. ♦ Porter and Black, The Prophet Joseph, 23 1805-1829 1805 Birth of Joseph Smith in Sharon Township Windsor County Vermont. The Smith family lived in seven locations between Joseph’s birth and the first vision: Sharon, Tunbridge and South Royalton, Vermont; West Lebanon, New Hampshire; Norwich, Vermont; the village of Palmyra and Palmyra Township, New York. July 10, 1804
  39. 39. 39 Personal Life—Emma Hale, wife of Joseph Smith and the first Relief Society president, was born. December 23, 1805 (Monday) Sharon, Vermont Personal Life—Joseph Smith Jr. was born to Lucy Mack Smith and Joseph Smith Sr. ♦ History of the Church, 1:2 1810 March 4, 1810 Personal life—Joseph’s brother, Ephraim, dies at the age of 11 days old ♦ (History of Joseph Smith, 350 1811 Personal Life—The Smith family moves to Lebanon New Hampshire. Joseph Smith Sr. has a series of 7 inspired dreams. ♦ Church History in the Fulness of Times, 22 1812 The War of 1812—Washington is burned, including the White House; Martin Harris fights in two battles. 1813 West Lebanon, New Hampshire Personal Life—After suffering from complications of typhoid, seven-year-old Joseph Smith’s leg was operated on by Dr. Nathan Smith of Dartmouth Medical School. In convalescence Joseph traveled with his uncle Jesse Smith to Salem, Massachusetts, to recover. He remained on crutches for three years ♦ Lucy Smith, History of Joseph Smith, ch. 16; Wirthlin, BYU Studies 21:2: 131-54; Church History in the Fulness of Times, 23; History of Joseph Smith, 54 Late 1816 Palmyra, New York
  40. 40. 40 Personal Life—Joseph Smith moved with his mother and siblings to Palmyra, New York, from Norwich, Vermont. Joseph Sr. had gone to Palmyra earlier in the year to investigate the move. ♦ Lucy Smith, History of Joseph Smith, ch. 16; Porter, Origins of the Church, 10 1816 Personal Life—Smith’s moved from Norwich, Vermont to Palmyra, New York; Joseph walked 40 miles a day in the snow with his bad leg. Caleb Howard made him walk “in my weak state through the snow 40 miles per day for several days, during which time I suffered the most excruciating weariness & pain.” ♦ Manuscript History of the Church, cited in Dean C. Jessee, The Personal Writings of Joseph Smith , 666 1817 Personal Life—Joseph’s grandma, Lydia Mack, dies at age 83 1818 Illinois became the twenty-first state in the U.S. 1819 Revivals intensified in Palmyra vicinity 1819 Personal life—Joseph Smith Sr. has his last visit from the messenger of his dreams and tells him he has one thing in his life that is still needful for Salvation ♦ Church History in the Fulness of Times, 26
  41. 41. 41 February 6, 1819 Palmyra, New York Legal Events—Joseph Smith Jr. appeared as a credible witness in the case of Joseph Smith Sr. v. Jeremiah Hurlbut. The jury awarded the Smiths $40.78. ♦ LDS Church Archives, Joseph Smith Legal Papers series February 22, 1819 Spain ceded Florida to the U.S. 1820 Thomas Jefferson wrote a letter to a friend about the need for restoration…. “I hope that the genuine and simple religion of Jesus Christ may be restored, for it hath become so muffled up in mysteries that it is concealed from the vulgar eyes. ♦ Ivan J. Barrett, Joseph Smith and the Restoration , 5 Commentary-- William J. Berenstein: Beginning around 1820, the pace of economic advance picked up noticeably, making the world a better place to live in. What happened? an explosion in technological innovation the likes of which had never before been seen. The lot of the average individual, measured as real per capita GDP, did not change at all during the first millennium after the birth of Christ. Over the next 500 years, between A.D. 1000 and 1500, things did not get much better. Before 1820, there had been only minuscule progress from decade to decade and century to century. After 1820, the world steadily became a more prosperous place…[The] growth of the global economy took off, bringing prosperity despite the repeated devastation of war, civil strife, and revolution. ♦ William J. Berenstein, The Birth of Plenty, pp 15, 18-19) We live in a period of history to which that misunderstood and much overused word, “awesome,” truly applies. This is the season of fulness and fulfillment. The world has been linked together as never before. Scientific understanding has reached ever greater heights and most of the technical inventions of mankind have occurred since 1820. Most of the per capita wealth of mankind has been generated since 1820, as have 85% of all the people that have ever lived. It is hard for a Latter-day Saint to think that this onrush of knowledge, invention, wealth, population, and political-economic integration since 1820 is but
  42. 42. 42 coincidental. What an exciting time to live, an age in which prophets and seers of ancient time wished to have lived! ♦ Isa. 29:13-14; note from the Hebrew-Joseph… Spring 1820 Farmington, New York (it was not until April 16, 1822, that Manchester Township was divided off from Farmington) Visions and Revelations –God the Father and Jesus Christ appeared to the fourteen-year old Joseph Smith in answer to his prayer about which church he should join. ♦ History of the Church, 1:3-8; JS-H 1:5-26; Opening the Heavens, 1-7 The First Visitation –JSH Spring 1830 Joseph’s Theophony with the Father and the Son Manchester Township, Ontario County, New York John Alger Account [February 2, 1893] Brother John Alger said while speaking of the Prophet Joseph Smith, that when he, John, was a small boy he heard the Prophet Joseph relate his vision of seeing the Father and the Son, [and] that God touched his eyes with his finger and said "Joseph, this is my Beloved Son, hear Him." As soon as the Lord had touched his eyes with his finger he immediately saw the Savior. After meeting, a few of us questioned him about the matter and he told us at the bottom of the meeting house steps that he was in the house of Father Smith in Kirtland when Joseph made this declaration, and that Joseph while speaking of it put his finger to his right eye, suiting the action with the words so as to illustrate and at the same time impress the occurrence on the minds of those unto whom he was speaking. We enjoyed the conversation very much, as it was something that we had never seen in church history or heard of before. Heard Joseph testify of the First Vision, saying God the Father appeared first and touched his eye, enabling him to see the Son. ♦ A. Karl Larson and Katharine Miles Larson, Diary of Charles Lowell Walker, 2 vols. (Logan, Utah: Utah State University Press, 1980), 2:540. 22 The Father has a body of flesh and bones as tangible as man's; the Son also… (Doctrine and Covenants | Section 130:22)
  43. 43. 43 Bruce R. McConkie Commentary: Now and then in a peaceful grove, apart from the gaze of men, heaven and earth share a moment of intimacy, and neither are ever the same. Such a moment occurred on that beautiful clear morning, in the spring of 1820 in a grove of trees near Palmyra New York. Man asked and God answered. Joseph Smith saw the Father and the Son. (Bruce R. McConkie, Ensign, November 1975, 18) 1820 August 23, 1820 Personal Life—Joseph’s grandfather, Solomon Mack dies at age 87 1821-1828 These eight years may be termed the preparatory period preceding the restoration of the Priesthood and the organization of the Church of Christ on the earth. The angel Moroni appeared to the Prophet Joseph Smith, Jr., several times and finally delivered to him the plates of the Book of Mormon. The translation of the sacred records was begun, and Joseph commenced to receive revelations. ♦ Andrew Jenson, Church Chronology 1822 Hieroglyphs were deciphered by Thomas Young and Jean-François Champollion using the Rosetta Stone. 1823 September 21-22, 1823 Palmyra, New York
  44. 44. 44 Visions and Revelations—The angel Moroni visited Joseph Smith three times in the night in the Smith family log home, telling Joseph Smith about the gold plates (the Book of Mormon) and the Lord’s divine mission for him. Some of his instruction about the coming of Elijah is recorded in D&C 2 ♦ JS-H 1:27-47; D&C 2, Rich, BYU Studies 10.3:257 September 22, 1823 (Sunday) Palmyra and Manchester, New York Visions and Revelations—The angel Moroni visited Joseph Smith again during the day and “related unto [him] all that he had related to [him] the previous night,” after which Joseph Smith went to the hill and first saw the plates. ♦ History of the Church, 1:14-16; JS-H 1:48-54 About November 19, 1823 Palmyra, New York Personal Life—Joseph Smith’s brother Alvin died at age 25. He had been ill with “bilious colic” and was given a dose of calomel, which may have killed him. ♦ History of the Church, 1:2, 16-17; Lucy Smith, History of Joseph Smith, ch. 20 December 2, 1823 The Monroe Doctrine, proclaiming that European powers should not colonize or interfere with countries in the Americas was issued. 1824 Martin Harris built a new farm house and hired the Smiths to hoe corn at .50 cents a day May 7, 1824 Ludwig van Beethoven’s Symphony No. 9 premiered in Vienna. September 22, 1824 Manchester, New York Visions and Revelations—Joseph Smith met with Moroni at Hill Cumorah one year after Moroni’s initial visits. ♦ JS-H 1:54; Baugh, Opening the Heavens, 308
  45. 45. 45 1825 Martin Harris hires Joseph Sr. and Hyrum to dig a well he learns of Joseph’s First Vision September 22, 1825 Manchester, New York Visions and Revelations—Joseph Smith met with Moroni at Hill Cumorah two years after Moroni’s initial visits. ♦ JS-H 1:54; Baugh, Opening the Heavens, 308 October Personal Life—Joseph worked for Josiah Stowell, boarded with the Issac Hale family in Harmony and met Emma Smith. Joseph is accused of using magic and being a money digger. October 26, 1825 The Erie Canal opened, allowing passage from Albany, New York, to Lake Erie. November or December 1825 Manchester, New York Personal Life—Joseph Smith’s family moved into the frame home that Joseph’s brother Alvin had begun before his death in 1823. The home was completed sometime after October 25, 1825. ♦ Porter, Origins of the Church, 27. November 17, 1825 Harmony, Pennsylvania, and near South Bainbridge, New York Personal Life—Joseph Smith’s employment for Josiah Stowell at the mining excavations in Harmony, Pennsylvania, ended. Joseph then continued to work for Stowell at his farm near South Bainbridge, New York. ♦ History of the Church, 1:17; Porter, BYU Studies, 10.3:367 December 20, 1825 Manchester, New York Legal Events—The Smiths’ home and 99.5-acre farm were sold to Lemuel Durfee, who kept the Smiths as tenants. ♦ LDS Church Archives, Joseph Smith Legal Papers series 1826 February 13, 1826
  46. 46. 46 The American Temperance Society was founded, and by 1831 it had over two thousand chapters. March 20, 1826 South Bainbridge, New York Legal Events—Joseph Smith was tried and acquitted by Justice of the Peace Albert Neely Jr. of a charge of being a disorderly person, meaning not acceptably employed and “pretending to discover where lost goods may be found.” The law defined a disorderly person as a vagrant, or a seeker of “lost goods”. The prophet had been accused of both; the first charge was false and was made simply to cause trouble; Joseph’s use of the Seer Stone to see things others could not see with the naked eye brought the second charge. Josiah Stowell, Joseph’s employer, testified that Joseph could be trusted. (It is believed that Joseph found a seer stone digging a well for Willard Chase.) ♦ Madsen, BYU Studies 30.2:106; LDS Church Archives, Joseph Smith Legal Papers series September 22, 1826 Manchester, New York Visions and Revelations—Joseph Smith met with Moroni at Hill Cumorah three years after Moroni’s initial visits. ♦ JS-H 1:54: Baugh, Opening the Heavens, 308 1827 January 18, 1827 South Bainbridge, New York Personal Life—Joseph Smith was married to Emma Hale by Esquire Zacharia Tarble, Justice of the Peace. ♦ History of the Church, 1:17; Jessee, BYU Studies 17.1:32. August 12, 1827 William Blake, English poet and artist, died. September 22, 1827 Manchester, New York Visions and Revelations—Joseph Smith received the gold plates from the angel Moroni on the hill where they were buried. ♦ History of the Church, 1:18; JS-H, 1:59; H of JS, p 102-3
  47. 47. 47 Reminiscence: Lucy Mack Smith and the Breastplate After Receiving the gold plates— He handed me the breastplate spoken of in his history. It was wrapped in a thin muslin handkerchief, so thin that I could see the glistening metal and ascertain its proportions without any difficulty. It was concave on one side and convex on the other, and extended from the neck downwards as far as the center of the stomach of a man of extraordinary size. It had four straps of the same material for the purpose of fastening it to the breast, two of which ran back to go over the shoulders, and the other two were designed to fasten to the hips. They were just the width of two of my fingers (for I measured them), and they had holes in the end of them to be convenient in fastening. The whole plate was worth at least five hundred dollars. After I had examined it, Joseph placed it in the chest with the Urim and Thummim. History of Joseph Smith by his mother, Chapter 23 December 1827 Personal Life—Joseph moves to Harmony Pennsylvania December 1827 to February 1828 Harmony, Pennsylvania Writings—Joseph Smith copied characters from the book of Lehi on the plates and translated them using the Urim and Thummim. ♦ History of the Church, 1:19 1828 February 8, 1828 Jules Verne, French author, was born. February 1828 Martin Harris visited Charles Anthon in New York City February-June 1828 116 pages translated and Lost Manuscript
  48. 48. 48 February 15, 1828 Harmony Pennsylvania Writings—Joseph Smith gave Martin Harris a transcript of characters from the book of Lehi on the gold plates and their translation, which Harris took to show scholars in Albany and New York City. ♦ History of the Church 1:20; Welch, Opening the Heavens, 86, Kimball, BYU Studies 10.3:325 April 12, 1828 Harmony, Pennyslvania Writings—Martin Harris returned to Joseph Smith’s home in Harmony, where he began to help with the translation of the 116 Book of Mormon pages from the book of Lehi that were later lost. Joseph Smith commences translation of the Book of Mormon with Martin Harris as his scribe, Harmony Susquehanna County, Pennsylvannia. (Story of Martin making it dark as Egypt) ♦ History of the Church 1:20; Welch, Opening the Heavens, 86 May 19, 1828 Congress passed the Tariff of 1828, which Southerners called the “Tariff of Abominations.” June 14, 1828 Harmony, Pennsylvania Writings—Joseph Smith completed the translation of the book of Lehi, and Martin Harris took the 116 manuscript pages to Palmyra, New York, to show selected members of his family as bound by covenant. ♦ History of the Church, 1:20-21; Welch, Opening the Heavens, 88. June 14, 1828 Martin Harris leaves Harmony with 116 pages (the Book of Lehi). Pages are stolen, altered, and it is suggested that they were burned. June 15, 1828 Harmony, Pennsylvania Personal Life—Joseph and Emma Smith’s first child, a boy later named Alvin, was born but died within hours. ♦ Porter, Origins of the Church, 146; Welch, Opening the Heavens, 87; Lucy Smith, History of Joseph Smith, ch. 24, p 125 About July 1, 1828 Manchester, New York Writings—Joseph Smith arrived at his father’s farm and learned from Martin Harris that the 116 manuscript pages of the book of Lehi had been lost. ♦ History of the Church, 1:20-21; Lucy Smith, History of Joseph Smith, ch. 24; Preface, Book of Mormon (1830)
  49. 49. 49 About July 8, 1828 Harmony, Pennsylvania Visions and Revelations—Joseph Smith received through the Urim and Thummin Doctrine and Covenants 3, a revelation calling him to repentance after entrusting Martin Harris with 116 pages of translation from the book of Lehi, which were lost. ♦ History of the Church, 1:21- 23; D&C 3 July Writings—D&C - 3 - Lost 116- Joseph’s First recorded Revelation Summer 1828 Writings— D&C 10 - Wicked Designs - Foreknowledge of God (see Words of Mormon 1:7); Joseph learns that the manuscripts are lost—loses power to translate. ♦ History of Joseph Smith, 129) About July 9, 1828 Harmony, Pennsylvania Visions and Revelations—Joseph Smith received Doctrine and Covenants 10, a revelation about the designs of wicked men who had made alterations to the 116 lost manuscript pages. ♦ History of the Church, 1:23-28; D&C 10 July Interpreters and plates are taken from the prophet by the angel Moroni September 9, 1828 Leo Tolstoy, Russian writer, was born. September 1828 Joseph regained the gift to translate and the Urim and Thummim received from Moroni ; Emma served as scribe ♦ History of Joseph Smith, 135 1829 1829 British Parliament gave Catholics full political rights in Great Britain.
  50. 50. 50 1829 Ireland’s government restored religious freedom. 1829 The accordion was patented by Cyrill Demian in Vienna. 1829 During this year the translation of the Book of Mormon was completed by Joseph Smith, Jun., who was assisted by Oliver Cowdery as scribe; the plates were shown to the Three Witnesses and the Eight Witnesses; the Aaronic Priesthood was restored to the earth by John the Baptist, and, later, the Melchizedek Priesthood by Peter, James and John; Joseph Smith, Jun., and Oliver Cowdery also commenced to preach and baptize About February 1, 1829 Harmony, Pennsylvania Visions and Revelations—Joseph Smith received Doctrine and Covenants 4, a revelation for his father, Joseph Smith Sr., containing qualifications for missionary service. ♦ History of the Church, 1:28; D&C 4 February 26, 1829 Levi Strauss, clothing designer, was born. March 2, 1829 Harmony, Pennsylvania Visions and Revelations—At the urging of Martin Harris, who sought assurance that Joseph Smith had the gold plates, Joseph received the revelation found in Doctrine and Covenants 5. Three witnesses to the Book of Mormon are promised. ♦ History of the Church, 1:28-31; D&C 5 March 4, 1829 Andrew Jackson succeeded John Quincy Adams as U.S. President. April 5, 1829 (Sunday) Harmony, Pennsylvania Personal Life—Joseph Smith met Oliver Cowdery for the first time ♦ History of the Church, 1:32; Welch, Opening the Heavens, 163
  51. 51. 51 April 6, 1829 Harmony, Pennsylvania Legal Events—Joseph Smith incurred a debt in purchasing a small home and land from his father-in-law, Isaac Hale. ♦ LDS Church Archives, Joseph Smith Legal Papers series About April 7, 1829 (Tuesday) Harmony, Pennsylvania Writings—Joseph Smith, Jr., resumed the translation of the Book of Mormon, assisted by Oliver Cowdery as scribe, at Harmony. Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery received through the Urim and Thummim Doctrine and Covenants 7, a revelation answering their inquiry as to whether John the Beloved had tarried in the flesh or had died. ♦ History of the Church, 1:35- 36; D&C 7 April 10, 1829 William Booth, founder of the Salvation Army, was born. About April 10, 1829 Harmony, Pennsylvania Visions and Revelations—Joseph Smith received Doctrine and Covenants 8, a revelation for Oliver Cowdery granting to him the gift of translation. ♦ History of the Church, 1:36-37, D&C 8 April 14, 1829 Harmony, Pennsylvania Writings—Joseph Smith commenced the second week of dictating the translation of the Book of Mormon to Oliver Cowdery. ♦ History of the Church, 1:35-36 About April 16, 1829 Harmony, Pennsylvania Visions and Revelations—Joseph Smith received Doctrine and Covenants 9, a revelation directing Oliver Cowdery to be content to write rather than attempt to translate. ♦ History of the Church, 1:37-38, D&C 9 April 21 to about May 10, 1829 Harmony, Pennyslvania Writings—Joseph Smith continued dictating the translation of the Book of Mormon to Oliver Cowdery. ♦ History of the Church, 1:35-36, 39 May 1829 Writings—D&C 11 to Hyrum; D&C 12 to Joseph Knight
  52. 52. 52 About May 10, 1829 Harmony, Pennsylvania Writings—Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery ran out of supplies during the translation of the Book of Mormon and went to Colesville, New York, to obtain provisions from Joseph Knight Sr. ♦ Jessee, BYU Studies 17.1:36; Welch, Opening the Heavens, 93 About May 14, 1829 Harmony, Pennsylvania Writings—Joseph Smith translated the account of the appearance of the resurrected Savior in 3 Nephi 11 in the Book of Mormon. ♦ Welch, Opening the Heavens, 93 May 15, 1829 (Friday) Susquehanna River, Pennsylvania Visions and Revelations—Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery received the Aaronic Priesthood from John the Baptist. Joseph proceeded to baptize Oliver, after which Oliver baptized Joseph. Joseph was then instructed to ordain Oliver to the Aaronic Priesthood, after which Oliver ordained Joseph. ♦ History of the Church, 1:39-44; D&C 13; Cannon, Opening the Heavens, 216-18 May 17, 1829 John Jay, first U.S. Supreme Court Chief Justice, died. About May 24, 1829 Susquehanna River, Pennsylvania Visions and Revelations—After Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery received the Aaronic Priesthood, the Melchizedek Priesthood was also conferred upon them by the ancient Apostles, Peter, James and John along the banks of the Susquehanna River between Colesville, New York, and Harmony, Pennsylvania. It should be noted that some historians place the Melchizedek Priesthood restoration at a later date. ♦ History of the Church, 1:39-46; Cannon, Opening the Heavens, 218-25, History of the Church, Vol 1:41 May 25, 1829 Harmony, Pennsylvania Ecclesiastical Duties—Joseph Smith baptized his brother Samuel H. Smith just ten days after Joseph and Oliver Cowdery had received the Aaronic Priesthood and were baptized. ♦ History of the Church, 1:44
  53. 53. 53 About May 28, 1829 Harmony, Pennsylvania Visions and Revelations—Joseph Smith received Doctrine and Covenants 12, a revelation to Joseph Knight Sr. about laborers wishing to assist in the vineyard. ♦ History of the Church, 1:47-48; D&C 12 May or June 1829 Lyons, New York Legal Events—Martin Harris’s wife, Lucy, filed a complaint against Joseph Smith, attempting to prove that he never had gold plates. ♦ Lucy Smith, History of Joseph Smith, ch. 28 June-July 1829 Travels—Joseph returned home to be with Emma. About June 1, 1829 Harmony, Pennsylvania Personal Life—David Whitmer arrived, met Joseph Smith for the first time, and satisfied himself of the Prophet’s divine inspiration. ♦ Welch, Opening the Heavens, 94 About June 1, 1829 Fayette, New York Writings—Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery moved into the home of Peter Whitmer Sr., where Joseph resumed translation of the Book of Mormon. ♦ History of the Church, 1:49-51 June 1, 1829 Travels—Joseph, Oliver and Emma move to Fayette to complete the translation. Miracle of the sowing of Plaster at the Whitmers; Moroni appeared along the way and later to sister Whitmer. ♦ History of Joseph Smith, 151 About June 2, 1829 Fayette, New York Visions and Revelations—Joseph Smith received Doctrine and Covenants 14, 15, and 16, revelations for David, John, and Peter Whitmer Jr., respectively, concerning their calls to missionary labor. The three are to choose the Twelve; the first Apostles in 1800 years. ♦ History of the Church, 1:49-51; D&C 14, 15, 16 About June 10, 1829 Fayette, New York Visions and Revelations—Joseph Smith received Doctrine and Covenants 17, a revelation to Oliver Cowdery, David Whitmer and Martin Harris that prepared them to become witnesses of the gold plates and other sacred objects. ♦ History of the Church, 1:52-53; D&C 17
  54. 54. 54 June 11, 1829 Utica, New York Legal Events—Richard R. Lansing, clerk of the Northern District Court, entered Joseph Smith’s copyright application for the Book of Mormon. ♦ History of the Church, 1:58-59; Wadsworth, BYU Studies 45.3:77-99 June 16, 1829 Geronimo, Apache leader, was born. About June 20, 1829 Fayette, New York Visions and Revelations—Joseph Smith was present as the Three Witnesses were shown the plates by the angel Moroni. About this same time, Joseph Smith received Doctrine and Covenants 18, a revelation to himself, Oliver Cowdery, and David Whitmer. The mission and calling of the Twelve Apostles were revealed, and Oliver and David were directed to “search out” the Twelve. ♦ History of the Church, 1:56, 62-64; D&C 18 June 1829 Three witnesses view the plates, see the angel Moroni, hear the Voice of God in the Chamber of Old father Whitmer ♦ DC 128:19-21; Testimony of the three Witnesses; History of Joseph Smith, 151-3 June The eight witnesses view the plates (Testimony of the Eight Witnesses) About June 24, 1829 Palmyra, New York Visions and Revelations—Joseph Smith showed the Eight Witnesses the gold plates near the Joseph Smith Sr. log home. ♦ History of the Church, 1:57; Testimony of the Eight Witnesses, Book of Mormon June 26, 1829 Palmyra, New York Writings—Egbert B. Grandin published the title page of the Book of Mormon as a “curiosity” in the Wayne Sentinel. History of the Church, 1:71; Wayne Sentinel (Palmyra, New York), June 26, 1829 June 27, 1829
  55. 55. 55 British mineralogist James Smithson died, leaving money to the U.S. that was used later to fund the Smithsonian Institution. About July 1, 1829 Fayette, New York Writings—On or before this date, Joseph Smith completed the translation of the Book of Mormon. ♦ Welch, Opening the Heavens, 148 August 25, 1829 Fayette, New York Legal Events—Martin Harris mortgaged his farm in order to assure payment to Egbert B. Grandin of $3,000 to print 5,000 copies of the Book of Mormon. ♦ Welch, Opening the Heavens, 98 October 22, 1829 Harmony, Pennsylvania Writings—Joseph Smith wrote a letter to Oliver Cowdery about his safe arrival in Harmony on October 4 and progress made toward the publication of the Book of Mormon. ♦ Personal Writings of Joseph Smith¸ 251-52 November 6, 1829 Manchester, New York Writings—In a letter to Joseph Smith at Harmony, Pennsylvania, Oliver Cowdery wrote, “The printing goes rather Slow yet as the type founder has been sick but we expect that the type will be in and Mr. Granden still think he will finish printing by the first of February.” ♦ Welch, Opening the Heavens, 98 November 28, 1829 Anton Rubinstein, Russian pianist and composer, was born. 1830 In the beginning of this year the Book of Mormon was printed and published in the English language. This first edition of the book, consisting of 5,000 copies, was printed by Egbert Grandin, at Palmyra, New York. Soon afterwards the Church was organized—the first conferences were held, the first missionaries sent out to preach the fulness of the gospel, and several revelations given for the government of the Church; a large branch was
  56. 56. 56 established at Kirtland, Ohio, etc. ♦ Andrew Jenson, Church Chronology: A Record of Important Events Pertaining to the History of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints [Salt Lake City: Deseret News, 1914] Early 1830 The Reflector (Palmyra) prints extracts from the unpublished Book of Mormon in January. The prophet travels to Palmyra from Harmony to stop the unauthorized publishing. Squire Cole. January 1830 Palmyra, New York Legal Events—Joseph Smith v. Abner Cole. Joseph won an arbitration against Cole, who had copied passages from the Book of Mormon he had found at Grandin’s print shop and included them in his newspaper, The Reflector. ♦ LDS Church Archives, Joseph Smith Legal Papers series About March 14, 1830 Palmyra, New York Writings—Joseph Smith wrote what became the preface to the first edition of the Book of Mormon. ♦ Personal Writings of Joseph Smith, 253–54 1830 Temperance activist Sylvester Graham advocated a diet based on vegetables and whole wheat. About March 21, 1830 Palmyra, New York Visions and Revelations—Joseph Smith received Doctrine and Covenants 19, a revelation to Martin Harris concerning repentance and the Atonement of Jesus Christ. Martin was commanded to pay the debt that he had contracted with the printer for the publication of the Book of Mormon. ♦ History of the Church, 1:72–74; D&C 19 1830 Camorra, a secret Italian criminal association in Naples, came to light. March 26, 1830 Palmyra, New York Writings—The Book of Mormon was advertised for sale at Egbert B. Grandin’s bookstore. ♦ History of the Church, 1:75–76; Wayne Sentinel, March 26, 1830 April 6, 1830 (Tuesday) Fayette, New York
  57. 57. 57 Ecclesiastical Duties—Joseph officially organized the Church of Christ in Peter Whitmer Sr.’s home and recorded Doctrine and Covenants 20 concerning Church organization and government. Joseph also received Doctrine and Covenants 21. ♦ History of the Church, 1:62– 80; D&C 20, 21; Peterson, BYU Studies 35.4: 222; Carmack, Ensign (Feb. 1989): 14–19 1830 Bohemian peasants developed the polka. April 11, 1830 Fayette, New York Ecclesiastical Duties—Joseph Smith attended the first public sermon given after the organization of the Church, preached by Oliver Cowdery in the Peter Whitmer Sr. home. ♦ History of the Church, 1:81 April 13, 1830 Palmyra, New York Visions and Revelations—Joseph Smith received Doctrine and Covenants 22, a revelation directing converts who had been previously baptized in other churches to be rebaptized as members of the Church. ♦ History of the Church, 1:79–80; D&C 22 April 14, 1830 Palmyra, New York Visions and Revelations—Joseph Smith received Doctrine and Covenants 23, a revelation to Oliver Cowdery, Hyrum Smith, Samuel H. Smith, Joseph Smith Sr., and Joseph Knight Sr., calling them to preach the gospel and strengthen the Church. ♦ History of the Church, 1:80; D&C 23 April, June 1830 Manchester area Samuel Smith labored as a missionary April 18, 1830 (Sunday) Colesville, New York Ecclesiastical Duties—First miracle –Joseph Smith casts a devil out of Newel Knight ♦ Church History in the Fulness of Times, 69-70 May 28, 1830 President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act, forcibly removing tens of thousands of Native Americans to the West. June 1830 Colesville, New York
  58. 58. 58 Visions and Revelations—Joseph Smith received by revelation what is now the first chapter of the book of Moses in the Pearl of Great Price. The translation of the Bible (JST) is an ongoing project. ♦ History of the Church, 1:98–101; Matthews, “A Plainer Translation,” 26–27; RofP, 4 June 9, 1830 Fayette, New York Ecclesiastical Duties—Joseph Smith conducted the first conference of the Church since its organization, with about thirty members assembled. Newell Knight saw the Savior seated on the right hand of the Father. ♦ Church History in the Fulness of Times, 70-71; History of the Church, 1:84–86 June 26-28, 1830 Colesville, New York Baptisms and persecution ♦ Church History in the Fulness of Times, 71 June 28, 1830 Colesville, New York Personal Life—Joseph Smith’s wife, Emma, and twelve others were baptized by Oliver Cowdery at the Joseph Knight farm. ♦ History of the Church, 1:87–88 1830 The cancan became popular in Paris. Between June 28 and July 2, 1830 Colesville and South Bainbridge, New York Legal Events—Joseph Smith was arrested in Colesville on a charge of being a “disorderly person.” This arrest took place in the evening of June 28 before those who had been baptized that day could be confirmed, and he was taken to South Bainbridge, Chenango County, for trial. Joseph was acquitted by Justice of the Peace Joseph Chamberlain, but as soon as he was acquitted, he was arrested on a second warrant and was taken to Colesville, where he was tried and again acquitted. ♦ History of the Church, 1:85–96; Walters, Westminster Theological Journal 36.2: 124–25; LDS Church Archives, Joseph Smith Legal Papers series June 30, 1830 Fayette, New York Travels—Joseph Smith’s Brother Samuel departed on one of the first missions for the Church, traveling into Ontario, Monroe, and Livingston counties in New York. ♦ Lucy Smith, History of Joseph Smith, ch. 33
  59. 59. 59 30 June-1830-Mar. 1831 Writings--Moses 2-8 ♦ Church History in the Fulness of Times, 72 July 1830 Manchester area Joseph Smith, Sr., and Don Carlos Smith left to do missionary work. ♦ Church History in the Fulness of Times, 67, 75 About July 4, 1830 Harmony, Pennsylvania Visions and Revelations—Joseph Smith received Doctrine and Covenants 24, a revelation relating to his and Oliver Cowdery’s callings. ♦ History of the Church, 1:101–3; D&C 24 About July 5, 1830 Harmony, Pennsylvania Visions and Revelations—Joseph Smith received Doctrine and Covenants 25, a revelation directing Emma, the “elect lady,” to assemble the first hymnbook for the Church. ♦ History of the Church, 1:103–4; D&C 25; Poulter, BYU Studies 37.2 About July 6, 1830 Harmony, Pennsylvania Visions and Revelations—Joseph Smith received Doctrine and Covenants 26, a revelation regarding scripture study and common consent. ♦ History of the Church, 1:104; D&C 26 July 20, 1830 Jews received citizenship in Greece. About August 5, 1830 Harmony, Pennsylvania Visions and Revelations—Joseph Smith received Doctrine and Covenants 27, a revelation concerning the sacrament. ♦ History of the Church, 1:106–8; D&C 27 Aug. 9, 1830 Louis-Philippe, the “Citizen King,” accepted the crown in France in the wake of the July Revolution. August 25, 1830 Montrose, Pennsylvania Legal Events—George H. Noble v. Joseph Smith. Joseph Smith executed a promissory note payable to George H. Noble for $190.95 to enable Joseph to purchase from his father-in-law, Isaac Hale, thirteen acres and the home where Joseph and Emma had been living and where he had translated much of the Book of Mormon. See entry for April 6, 1829. ♦ Porter, Origins of the Church, 134, citing Deed Book 8, 59–60, Susquehanna County Courthouse, Pennsylvania; LDS Church Archives, Joseph Smith Legal Papers series August 26, 1830 Harmony, Pennsylvania
  60. 60. 60 Legal Events—George H. Noble v. Joseph Smith. An amicable judgment was entered in favor of George H. Noble to secure his creditor rights for the $190.95 owed to him by Joseph Smith. Jesse Lane was judge as well as notary on the deed, filed with Court of Common Pleas in Montrose, Pennsylvania. Satisfied in full June 3, 1831. ♦ Porter, Origins of the Church, 134, citing Deed Book 8, 59–60, Susquehanna County Courthouse, Pennsylvania; LDS Church Archives, Joseph Smith Legal Papers series August 29, 1830 Between Colesville, New York, and Harmony, Pennsylvania Travels—While traveling to Colesville, New York, from Harmony, Pennsylvania, Joseph Smith and his company were miraculously delivered from their enemies, who were blinded and unable to identify them. ♦ History of the Church, 1:108–9; Newel Knight, Autobiography, 63 August 31, 1830 The lawnmower was patented by Edwin Beard Budding. Late August, 1830 Harmony, Pennsylvania Travels—With Emma, Joseph Smith left Harmony for Fayette for the last time September 1, 1830 Manchester area Parley P. Pratt Conversion and baptized ♦ Church History in the Fulness of Times, 67, 75 About September 20, 1830 Fayette, New York Visions and Revelations—Joseph Smith received Doctrine and Covenants 28, a revelation to Oliver Cowdery, in response to Hiram Page’s professed revelations, directing that no one was to receive revelation for the Church save the Prophet. ♦ History of the Church, 1:109–11; D&C 28 About September 21, 1830 Fayette, New York Visions and Revelations—In the presence of six elders, Joseph Smith received Doctrine and Covenants 29, a revelation concerning the Millennium. ♦ History of the Church, 1:111–15; D&C 29 About September 24, 1830 Fayette, New York Visions and Revelations—Joseph Smith received Doctrine and Covenants 30, a revelation for David Whitmer, Peter Whitmer Jr., and John Whitmer concerning their callings and duties in the Church. ♦ History of the Church, 1:115–16; D&C 30 September 26, 1830 Fayette, New York
  61. 61. 61 Ecclesiastical Duties—Joseph Smith conducted the second conference of the Church at the Peter Whitmer Sr. home. ♦ History of the Church, 1:110, 115 1830 Alexander Duff, Scottish missionary to India, opened a mission college in Calcutta. About September 27, 1830 Fayette, New York Visions and Revelations—Joseph Smith received Doctrine and Covenants 31, a revelation calling Thomas B. Marsh to “declare glad tidings of great joy unto this generation.” ♦ History of the Church, 1:116–17; D&C 31 October 1830 Manchester area Oliver Cowdery and others leave on Mission to the Indians October 4, 1830 The Provisional Government in Brussels declared the independent state of Belgium, in revolt against the Netherlands. About October 8, 1830 Fayette, New York Visions and Revelations—Joseph Smith received Doctrine and Covenants 32, a revelation regarding the mission of Parley P. Pratt and Ziba Peterson to teach the Lamanites. ♦ History of the Church, 1:118–20; D&C 32 October 21, 1830 Fayette, New York Visions and Revelations—Joseph Smith received Doctrine and Covenants 33, a revelation calling Ezra Thayre and Northrop Sweet to serve proselyting missions. ♦ History of the Church, 1:126–27; D&C 33 October 31, 1830 Manchester area Personal Life—Joseph’s grandpa, Asael Smith, dies at the age of 86. ♦ History of Joseph Smith, 348 November 4, 1830 Fayette, New York Visions and Revelations—Joseph Smith received Doctrine and Covenants 34, a revelation calling Orson Pratt to the ministry. ♦ History of the Church, 1:128; D&C 34 November 30, 1830 Fayette, New York
  62. 62. 62 Visions and Revelations—The Lord revealed to Joseph Smith what is now Moses 5:62–6:18 in his inspired translation of the Bible. ♦ Faulring, Jackson, Matthews, eds., Joseph Smith’s New Translation of the Bible, 57; Moses 5–6 December 1, 1830 Harmony, Pennsylvania Visions and Revelations—The Lord revealed to Joseph Smith what is now Moses 6:19–52 in his inspired translation of the Bible. ♦ Faulring, Jackson, Matthews, eds., Joseph Smith’s New Translation of the Bible, 57; Moses 6 About December 8, 1830 Fayette, New York Visions and Revelations—While working on his inspired translation of the Bible, Joseph Smith received by revelation the latter portion of chapter 6 in the Book of Moses. ♦ Faulring, Jackson,Matthews, eds., Joseph Smith’s New Translation of the Bible, 57; Moses 6 Dec. 10, 1830 Emily Dickinson, American poet, was born. About December 10, 1830 Fayette, New York Personal Life—Joseph Smith welcomed Sidney Rigdon and Edward Partridge from Mentor and Painesville, Ohio, respectively. ♦ History of the Church, 1:12 December 11, 1830 Seneca River, Seneca County, New York Ecclesiastical Duties—Joseph Smith baptized Edward Partridge, who later became the first bishop of the Church. ♦ History of the Church, 1:129 About December 12, 1830 Fayette, New York Visions and Revelations—Joseph Smith received by revelation extracts from the prophecy of Enoch, which later became Moses 7 in the Pearl of Great Price. ♦ History of the Church, 1:133– 39; Faulring, Jackson, Matthews, eds., Joseph Smith’s New Translation of the Bible, 57; Moses 7 About December 15, 1830 Fayette, New York Visions and Revelations—Joseph Smith received Doctrine and Covenants 35, a revelation calling Sidney Rigdon to be the Prophet’s scribe for the translation of the Bible. ♦ History of the Church, 1:129–31; D&C 35 1830 Frédéric Chopin composed his Piano Concerto in E Minor. About December 19, 1830 Fayette, New York
  63. 63. 63 Visions and Revelations—Joseph Smith received Doctrine and Covenants 36, a revelation containing a blessing and calling for Edward Partridge. ♦ History of the Church, 1:131; D&C 36 About December 21, 1830 Fayette, New York Visions and Revelations—Joseph Smith and Sidney Rigdon received Doctrine and Covenants 37, a revelation calling the Saints to gather in Ohio. ♦ History of the Church, 1:139; D&C 37 1831 The first Elders arrived in Jackson County, Missouri, and the Saints from the State of New York and other places commenced to build up Kirtland, Ohio, where the Prophet Joseph also located with his family. Jackson County, Missouri, was named by the Lord a land of Zion where the New Jerusalem should be built, and where the Saints were to gather. The land was dedicated for that purpose, a Temple site selected and dedicated, and the building of a settlement commenced. The Elders also began to preach the gospel with great zeal. January 1, 1831 William Lloyd Garrison published the first issue of The Liberator, an abolitionist newspaper January 2, 1831 Fayette, New York Visions and Revelations—During the third conference of the Church, which was held at the Peter Whitmer Sr. home, Joseph Smith received Doctrine and Covenants 38 (after Moses 8), a revelation calling the Saints to gather in Ohio; the Lord promises his Law and His endowment ♦ History of the Church, 1:40-43; D&C 38 January 5, 1831 Fayette, New York Visions and Revelations—Joseph Smith received Doctrine and Covenants 39, a revelation calling James Covill to be baptized and labor in Zion. ♦ History of the Church, 1:143-44; D&C 39 About January 6, 1831 Fayette, New York Visions and Revelations—Joseph Smith received Doctrine and Covenants 40, an additional revelation concerning James Covill, who had broken his covenant with the Lord. ♦ History of the Church, 1:145; D&C 40 About January 15 1831 Fayette, New York
  64. 64. 64 Visions and Revelations—Joseph Smith reportedly saw in vision the face of Newel K. Whitney, who would later receive Joseph and his wife, Emma, In Kirtland, Ohio. ♦ Baugh, Opening the Heavens, 311; History of the Church, 1:146 n. 1831 The electromagnetic current generator was developed by Michael Faraday. Early February, 1831 Kirtland, Ohio Travels—Joseph Smith arrived in Ohio by sleigh with Emma. “Thou art the Man.” ♦ Church History and the Fulness of Times, 90 About February 1, 1831 Kirtland, Ohio Personal Life—Joseph Smith and his wife, Emma, arrived in Kirtland, Ohio (from New York) and were kindly received into the house of Newel K. Whitney. ♦ History of the Church, 1:145- 46; Staker, BYU Studies 42.1: 100 February 4, 1831 Kirtland, Ohio Visions and Revelations—Joseph Smith received Doctrine and Covenants 21, a revelation calling Edward Partridge to be the first bishop of the Church. ♦ History of the Church, 1:146- 47; D&C 41 1831 The reaper was invented by Cyrus McCormick. February 9, 1831 Kirtland, Ohio Visions and Revelations—Joseph Smith received Doctrine and Covenants 42, a revelation containing the law of the Lord to his Church, including the law of consecration and stewardship of property. ♦ History of the Church, 1:148-54; D&C 42 About February 14, 1831 Kirtland, Ohio Visions and Revelations—In response to a visit by a woman who claimed to receive commandments, laws, and other curious matters, Joseph Smith received Doctrine and Covenants 43, a revelation about the Lord’s pattern of revelation. Conference set for June ♦ History of the Church, 1:154; D&C 43, D&C Institute Manual, 87