Challenges and
Opportunities in the
Renewable Energy
Sector




Dr Maurizio COLLU

June 29th, 2010

Research Fellow
Renewa...
Challenge
      (1980-2006 data, source www.eia.doe.gov )
                                                        REGION  ...
1st macro-challenge: ever increasing
demand
                                REGION              World                   Eu...
2nd macro-challenge



  The book “sustainable energy – without the
   hot        air”       is       dedicated:
   “to th...
2nd macro challenge: mono-source
past, multi-source future
                                                               ...
3rd macro-challenge: building essential
skills for the sector
                                          REGION            ...
How can we transform these
challenges into opportunities?
Opportunity: macro-level




      Develop                             Create
                       Promote
    cleaner, ...
Opportunities for Cranfield University


             as a…               can…                    through…
               ...
Opportunities for Cranfield University




      Cranfield University has the
      potential to become the location
     ...
How I plan to contribute as a lecturer (1/2)
                                                                             ...
How I plan to contribute as a lecturer (2/2)
                                                                             ...
To conclude : a civilization view

  “The generation now alive is perhaps the most important generation of humans
    ever...
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2010 06 29 m collu challenges and opportunities in the renewable energy sector

  1. 1. Challenges and Opportunities in the Renewable Energy Sector Dr Maurizio COLLU June 29th, 2010 Research Fellow Renewable Energy Group Offshore Process & Energy Department Cranfield University
  2. 2. Challenge (1980-2006 data, source www.eia.doe.gov ) REGION World Europe UK ENERGY RELATED PARAMETER Unit of value annual rise value annual rise value annual rise measure (average) (average) (average) Annual Primary energy production [1] TWh 138000 1.9% 14000 0.68% 2307 -0.1% (Mtoe) (11850) Annual Primary energy consumption TWh 138000 2.0% 25000 0.72% 2873 0.4% (Mtoe) (11850) Electricity power installed capacity GW 4000 810 78 …of which Conventional 69% 56% 79% thermal [2] Hydroelectric [3] 19% 20% 2% Nuclear 9% 17% 15% Renewable [4] 3% 6% 4% Electricity energy generation TWh 18000 3.2% 3550 2% 372 1.3% …of which Conventional % 66.3% 2.98% 53% 1% 75% 0.8% thermal [2] Hydroelectric [3] % 16.6% 2.17% 15% 0.7% 1.2% 2.2% Nuclear % 14.4% (5.22%) 25% 5.5% 13% 2% Renewable [4] % 2.3% 11.07% 5.5% 11% 4% 22% Electricity energy consumption TWh 16400 3.2% 3300 2% 350 1.4% [1] The form of energy before any transformation occurs to secondary or tertiary forms (e.g. coal can be converted to synthetic gas, which can be converted to electricity; in this example, coal is primary energy, synthetic gas is secondary energy, and electricity is tertiary energy) [2] Coal, Petroleum, Gas fired power plant [3] Hydroelectricity is actually a renewable energy source. [4] Geothermal, Solar, Wind, Wood, and Waste
  3. 3. 1st macro-challenge: ever increasing demand REGION World Europe UK ENERGY RELATED PARAMETER Unit of value annual rise value annual rise value annual rise measure (average) (average) (average) Primary energy production [1] TWh 138000 1.9% 14000 0.68% 2307 -0.1% (Mtoe) (11850) Primary energy consumption TWh 138000 2.0% 25000 0.72% 2873 0.4% (Mtoe) (11850) • Primary energy consumption increasing each year 2% at world level, 0.7% EU, 0.4% UK: huge demand (world average 58 kWh/person/day, UK 130 kWh/person/day) • Consumption increasing more than production (for UK production stable/slightly dropping) • EU and UK strong “primary energy” importer (EU 44%, UK 20%) • How can we produce more energy, in a clean, safe, affordable way?
  4. 4. 2nd macro-challenge The book “sustainable energy – without the hot air” is dedicated: “to those who will not have the benefit of two billion years’ accumulated energy reserves” Prof D. JC MacKay, FRS, University of Cambridge
  5. 5. 2nd macro challenge: mono-source past, multi-source future REGION World Europe UK ENERGY RELATED PARAMETER Unit of value annual rise value annual rise value annual rise measure (average) (average) (average) Electricity energy generation TWh 18000 3.2% 3550 2% 372 1.3% …of which Conventional % 66.3% 2.98% 53% 1% 75% 0.8% thermal [2] Hydroelectric [3] % 16.6% 2.17% 15% 0.7% 1.2% 2.2% Nuclear % 14.4% (5.22%) 25% (5.5%) 13% (2%) Renewable [4] % 2.3% 11% 5.5% 11% 4% 22% Electricity energy consumption TWh 16400 3.2% 3300 2% 350 1.4% • World, EU, UK used to be an energy mono-source economy: fossil fuels • BUT the future economy has to be multi-source based because: • fossil fuels are a finite resource, • it is economically and politically advantageous to diversify the energy portfolio, • anthropogenic greenhouse gases are changing the climate • How can we re-structure the system into a low-carbon, multi-source economy? [2] Coal, Petroleum, Gas fired power plant [3] Hydroelectricity is actually a renewable energy source. [4] Geothermal, Solar, Wind, Wood, and Waste
  6. 6. 3rd macro-challenge: building essential skills for the sector REGION World Europe UK ENERGY RELATED PARAMETER Unit of value annual rise value annual rise value annual rise measure (average) (average) (average) Electricity energy generation TWh 18000 3.2% 3550 2% 372 1.3% …of which Conventional % 66.3% 2.98% 53% 1% 75% 0.8% thermal [2] Hydroelectric [3] % 16.6% 2.17% 15% 0.7% 1.2% 2.2% Nuclear % 14.4% (5.22%) 25% (5.5%) 13% (2%) Renewable [4] % 2.3% 11.07% 5.5% 11% 4% 22% Electricity energy consumption TWh 16400 3.2% 3300 2% 350 1.4% • Renewable Energy (excluding hydroelectric) has still a low share of the energy produced • BUT his annual rise is 1 order of magnitude higher than all the other sources • How can we bridge the gap between the currently available workforce skills and the near future essential skills needed by the Renewable Energy Sector?
  7. 7. How can we transform these challenges into opportunities?
  8. 8. Opportunity: macro-level Develop Create Promote cleaner, low- economic and energy carbon employment security economy opportunities Opportunity to strengthen EU-wide (short-medium term) and World-wide (long term) collaborations
  9. 9. Opportunities for Cranfield University as a… can… through… Re-skill present High level technical & business workforce adm. short courses Academic Institution Forge new qualified and specialized Master and doctorate courses workforce Cranfield Emerging technology feasibility University studies Offer specialized consultancy Preliminary Design studies services Renewable Energy Experimental validation and industry player development campaigns Help developing Collaborations with technology standards government and and policies standardization organizations
  10. 10. Opportunities for Cranfield University Cranfield University has the potential to become the location of choice for inward Renewable Energy investment and a world class centre of energy expertise
  11. 11. How I plan to contribute as a lecturer (1/2) 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 TIMESCALE 2nd q. 3rd q. 1st q. 2nd q. 3rd q. 1st q. 2nd q. 3rd q. 1st q. 2nd q. 3rd q. 1st q. 2nd q. 3rd q. 1st q. 2nd q. 3rd q. FUNDING Amount EPSRC First Grant Scheme (2 years) Capped at 125 k£ Challenging Engineering Calls Exploration funding Doctoral Training Grants 3 PhD studentships FP7 FP7-Energy (NCP contacted) Project based MoD Funds for microalgae-derived biofuel Around 20-30 k£ x 1 PhD studentship Aviation Industry (engines) Funds for microalgae-derived biofuel Around 20-30 k£ BAE Studentships 1 PhD studentship Grants for Project Around 10-15 k£ TEACHING MSc students fees 4-6 k£ EU, 8 k£ UK, 16 k£ Overseas Short Courses NET per course around 10-13 k£ ADWEA 7.5 k£ each course (3 days) RESEARCH Dynamics of offshore Renewable Energy Devices Offshore Wind Turbine Dynamics MSc Group/Final Project Internships PhD 1 PhD 1 PhD 5 PhD 5 Research Staff 1 Research Staff 1 Wave energy devices dynamics MSc Group/Final Project Internships PhD 3 PhD 3 Research Staff 1 Research Staff 1 Microalgae-derived biofuel Mathematical Modeling, Energy Balance MSc Group/Final Project Internships PhD 4 PhD 4 Research Staff 2 Research Staff 2 Algae Production Pod Dynamics MSc Group/Final Project Internships Research Staff 2 Research Staff 2 Aerodynamic Alleviated Dynamics Model Numerical Marine Vehicles Implementation Experimental Validation of the model MSc Group/Final Project Internships PhD 2 PhD 2 Research Staff 3 Research Staff 3
  12. 12. How I plan to contribute as a lecturer (2/2) 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 TIMESCALE 2nd q. 3rd q. 1st q. 2nd q. 3rd q. 1st q. 2nd q. 3rd q. 1st q. 2nd q. 3rd q. 1st q. 2nd q. 3rd q. 1st q. 2nd q. 3rd q. TEACHING MScAdvanced Mechanical Engineering MSc: Course Director NEW course about Renewable Energy Systems, dynamics module Short CoursesDesign Tools for Marine Renewable Energy Systems NEW short course: Dynamics of Marine Renewable Energy Systems Technological Challenge of Renewable Sources of Energy ADWEA Production NETWORKING BWEAOffshore Wind Strategy Group, Skills and Education sub-group SUTMarine Renewable Energies Committee ISSCInternational Ship and Offshore Structures PROFESSIONAL QUALIFICATIONS CEng with RINAMember of RINA Building portfolio with a tutor from RINA Apply for assessment PGCTLAHECourse Lectures Portfolio write-up and submission Fellow of the HIgher Education AcademyApply
  13. 13. To conclude : a civilization view “The generation now alive is perhaps the most important generation of humans ever to walk the Earth. Unlike previous generations, we hold in our hands the future destiny of our species, whether we soar into fulfilling our promise as a type I* civilization or fall into the abyss of chaos, pollution, and war. <…> The choice is ours. This is the legacy of the generation now alive. This is our destiny.” Michio Kaku, “Parallel Worlds” *type I civilization: classification introduced by Nicolai Kardashev to rank civilizations in outer space by their energy generation. A type I civilization can harness the power of an entire planet. Current Earth civilization corresponds to a type 0.765 (10 based logarithmic scale, total Earth primary power 1.74*1017 W, in 2006 around 15.8*1012)

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