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Road to civil war


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Road to civil war

  1. 1. Section 1<br />Slavery and the West<br />
  2. 2. New Western Lands<br />Competition over Land <br />Northerners want to restrict slavery<br />South saw this as interference<br />Led to sectionalism – an exaggerated loyalty to a particular region of the country<br />
  3. 3. Problem with Missouri<br />1819 – 11 slave states, 11 free states<br />Admission of Slave State would upset balance<br />
  4. 4. Missouri Compromise<br />Admit Missouri as slave and Maine as free<br />Prohibit Slavery in new lands north of 36° 30’ N Latitude<br />Organized by Henry Clay<br />
  5. 5. New Lands create more problems – expansion of slavery at the heart of the problem<br />Leads to a new compromise<br />Henry Clay rises to occasion again<br />
  6. 6. Compromise of 1850<br />Admit California as free<br />New Mexico Territory would have no restrictions on slavery<br />NM – TX border settled in favor of NM<br />Slave trade abolished in Washington D.C.<br />Stronger fugitive (runaway) slave law<br />
  7. 7. Fugitive Slave Act<br />Required all citizens to help catch runaways<br />Anyone who aided a fugitive could be penalized or imprisoned<br />
  8. 8. Fugitive Slave Act<br />Increased Resentment between North and South<br />South wants North to respect rights<br />Northern captures are seen as invasion<br />
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  10. 10. Anthony Burns<br />Escaped slave captured in Boston<br />Becomes “poster child” for fugitive slave dispute<br />Pres. Pierce wanted to make an example of him<br />Effect - Abolition movement grows in the North<br />
  11. 11. Kansas and Nebraska<br />South opposed - Likely to be free states because of location<br />Stephen Douglas proposed abandoning Missouri Compromise and replacing it with popular sovereignty (letting the settlers in each territory vote on whether to allow slavery)<br />North fears this will allow slavery to grow<br />
  12. 12. Kansas/Nebraska Act<br />Allowed state to determine issue of slavery<br />Created a rush of settlers <br />Pro-Slavery and Anti-Slavery groups rush supporters into territory<br />Both sides create rival governments <br />
  13. 13. Bleeding Kansas<br />Both groups arm themselves<br />Lawrence (Anti-Slavery capital) is attacked by Slavery supporters<br />Retaliation leads to more violence <br />
  14. 14. John Brown<br />Abolitionist<br />Angered by attack of Lawrence<br />Wants to “strike fear in hearts of proslavery people”<br />Led 4 of his sons and 2 other men to Kansas - kill 5 supporters of slavery<br />
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  19. 19. Violence spills into Congress<br />Charles Sumner criticized pro-slavery forces in Kansas<br />Preston Brooks nearly beat him to death on the Senate floor with a cane <br />
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  21. 21. Birth of the Republicans<br />Kansas/Nebraska Problem created divisions<br />Anti-Slavery Democrats and Whigs broke to join Free-Soilers<br />Formed the Republican Party - determined to ban slavery in new territory<br />
  22. 22. New Problem-Dred Scott<br />Slave from Missouri - Owner moved him to Illinois and Wisconsin (where slavery was banned) - then moved back to Missouri where owner died<br />Scott sued for freedom<br />
  23. 23. Dred Scott Decision<br />Supreme Court decided Scott was still a slave<br />Went further - said slaves aren’t citizens but are property<br />Therefore - No One can prohibit slavery (Constitution Protects It)<br />Ends Missouri Compromise<br />Ends Popular Sovereignty<br />Republicans main issue ruled unconstitutional<br />
  24. 24. Lincoln-Douglas Debates<br />Stephen Douglas:<br />Lawyer<br />Democratic Senator<br />Disliked Slavery, but didn’t want controversy to interfere with growth<br />Believed in Popular Sovereignty<br />
  25. 25. Lincoln-Douglas Debates<br />Abraham Lincoln:<br />Lawyer<br />Former Whig, Joined Republicans<br />Thought slavery was wrong, but didn’t think it could be eliminated<br />Did not want slavery to spread<br />
  26. 26. Lincoln-Douglas Debates<br />Debated 8 Times<br />Mainly debated about slavery<br />Lincoln got Douglas to admit there would be ways for people to exclude slavery (lost him support in the South)<br />Douglas won election - Lincoln gained a national reputation<br />
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  28. 28. Raid on Harper’s Ferry<br />John Brown leads 18 black and white men to raid an arsenal<br />Hoped to arm slaves and start rebellions in the South<br />Winds up surrounded in Arsenal, arrested and sentenced to death<br />
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  32. 32. Dividing the Nation<br />South discovers Harper’s Ferry raid was funded by Northern abolitionists - ignites fears<br />Many northerners saw him as a martyr (someone who dies for a cause)<br />
  33. 33. Election of 1860<br />4 Candidates<br />Stephen Douglas (Dem.) - supported in North<br />John C. Breckenridge (Dem.) - supported in South<br />John Bell (Union) - supported by moderates in Border states<br />Abraham Lincoln (Rep.) - supported by those that wanted to stop spread of slavery<br />
  34. 34. Election of 1860 - Results<br />Democrats divided<br />2 Races: Lincoln v. Douglas in North, Douglas v. Breckenridge in South<br />Lincoln won majority of electoral votes (180) - <br />More populous North outvoted the South<br />
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  37. 37. Secession<br />South Carolina decides to withdraw from country 1st - justify with state’s rights (voluntarily chose to enter country, therefore they can choose to leave)<br />Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida and Georgia join<br />Later, Arkansas, Tennessee, North Carolina and Virgina join<br />
  38. 38. Why didn’t Lincoln let them leave?<br />Believed in the idea of “Union”<br />Thought our country was the “last best hope on Earth”<br />If you let South go: democracy is a worldwide failure<br />Democracy had just failed in Europe - 1848 revolutions<br />
  39. 39. Ft. Sumter<br />Confederates trying to retake forts owned by U.S.<br />Lincoln wants to hold onto Ft. Sumter (in South Carolina)<br />Fort runs low on supplies - Lincoln sends supplies<br />Jefferson Davis orders attack<br />70 hours of bombs - surrender (1 dead)<br />Start of the Civil War<br />
  40. 40. Ft. Sumter<br /> Anderson Beauregard<br />